1

All produce that grows from the earth1 in the Sabbatical year:2 whether it grew from seeds that fell into the earth before the Sabbatical year, it grew from roots whose plants were harvested previously, but nevertheless grew again - in both instances [such produce] is referred to with the term safiach3 - or grasses and vegetables that grew on their own accord [in the Sabbatical year], is permitted to be eaten according to Scriptural Law,4 as [Leviticus 25:6] states: "And [the produce that grows] while the land is resting shall be yours to eat." Even when a field was plowed thoroughly5 in the Sabbatical year, and produce grew in it, that produce is permitted to be eaten. The statement [ibid.:] "Do not reap the aftergrowth of your harvest" means that one should not reap it in the same manner as one does every year.6 If one reaps it according to the ordinary manner, he is worthy of lashes. For example, he harvested the entire field, set up a grain heap, and threshed it with cattle or harvested it for the sake of tilling the land as we explained.7 Instead, he should reap it little by little, beat it,8 and partake of it.

א

כָּל שֶׁתּוֹצִיא הָאָרֶץ בְּשָׁנָה שְׁבִיעִית. בֵּין מִן הַזֶּרַע שֶׁנָּפַל בָּהּ מִקֹּדֶם שְׁבִיעִית. בֵּין מִן הָעִקָּרִים שֶׁנִּקְצְרוּ מִקֹּדֶם וְחָזְרוּ וְעָשׂוּ וּשְׁנֵיהֶם נִקְרְאוּ סָפִיחַ. בֵּין מִן הָעֲשָׂבִים וְהַיְרָקוֹת שֶׁעָלוּ מֵאֲלֵיהֶן וְאֵין לָהֶן זֶרַע. הַכּל מֻתָּר לְאָכְלוֹ מִן הַתּוֹרָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא כה ו) "וְהָיְתָה שַׁבַּת הָאָרֶץ לָכֶם לְאָכְלָה". וַאֲפִלּוּ שָׂדֶה שֶׁנִּטַּיְבָּה בַּשְּׁבִיעִית וְצָמְחָה פֵּרוֹתֶיהָ מֻתָּרִין בַּאֲכִילָה. וְזֶה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא כה ה) "אֵת סְפִיחַ קְצִירְךָ לֹא תִקְצוֹר" שֶׁלֹּא יִקְצֹר כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁקּוֹצֵר בְּכָל שָׁנָה. וְאִם קָצַר כְּדֶרֶךְ הַקּוֹצְרִין לוֹקֶה. כְּגוֹן שֶׁקָּצַר כָּל הַשָּׂדֶה וְהֶעֱמִיד כְּרִי וְדָשׁ בַּבָּקָר. אוֹ שֶׁקָּצַר לַעֲבוֹדַת הָאָרֶץ כְּמוֹ שֶּׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. אֶלָּא קוֹצֵר מְעַט מְעַט וְחוֹבֵט וְאוֹכֵל:

2

According to Rabbinic decree, all the sifichim are forbidden to be eaten. Why was a decree established concerning them? Because of the transgressors, so that they could not go and sow grain, beans, and garden vegetables in one's field discretely and when they grow, partake of them, saying that they are sifichim. Therefore the Sages prohibited all the sifichim that grow in the Sabbatical year.

ב

וּמִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים שֶׁיִּהְיוּ כָּל הַסְּפִיחִים אֲסוּרִין בַּאֲכִילָה. וְלָמָּה גָּזְרוּ עֲלֵיהֶם מִפְּנֵי עוֹבְרֵי עֲבֵרָה. שֶׁלֹּא יֵלֵךְ וְיִזְרַע תְּבוּאָה וְקִטְנִיּוֹת וְזֵרְעוֹנֵי גִּנָּה בְּתוֹךְ שָׂדֵהוּ בַּסֵּתֶר. וּכְשֶׁיִּצְמַח יֹאכַל מֵהֶם וְיֹאמַר סְפִיחִים הֵן. לְפִיכָךְ אָסְרוּ כָּל הַסְּפִיחִים הַצּוֹמְחִים בַּשְּׁבִיעִית:

3

Thus we have learned that the only produce of the Sabbatical year of which one may partake are fruit from trees9 and herbs that are not sown by most people,10e.g., rue, amaranth,11 and the like. With regard to vegetables that most people sow in their gardens and species of grains and beans, by contrast, anything that grows from these species is forbidden according to Rabbinic decree. One who gathers them12 is liable for stripes for rebellious conduct.

ג

הָא לָמַדְתָּ שֶׁאֵין אוֹכְלִין מִפֵּרוֹת שְׁבִיעִית אֶלָּא פֵּרוֹת הָאִילָנוֹת וְהָעֲשָׂבִים שֶׁאֵין זוֹרְעִין אוֹתָם רֹב הָאָדָם כְּגוֹן הַפֵּיגַם וְהַיַּרְבּוּזִין הַשּׁוֹטִים וְכָל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן. אֲבָל הַיְרָקוֹת שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ רֹב הָאָדָם לְזָרְעָם בַּגִּנּוֹת וּמִינֵי תְּבוּאָה וְקִטְנִיּוֹת כָּל הַצּוֹמֵחַ מֵהֶן אָסוּר מִדִּבְרֵיהֶם. וְהַמְלַקְּטָן מַכִּין אוֹתוֹ מַכַּת מַרְדּוּת:

4

When sifichim grow in an underdeveloped field,13 a field that was plowed, a vineyard, and a field where crops had been sown,14 they are permitted to be eaten.

Why was the above decree not applied to these places? Because a person will not sow these fields. [He will not sow] an underdeveloped field, because no one pays attention to it. When a field has been plowed, [the owner] desires that it remain lying fallow. With regard to a vineyard, no person will cause his vineyard to become forbidden.15 And when a field has been sown, the aftergrowth will spoil it. Similarly, straw that grows in the Sabbatical year is permitted in all places; no decree was issued against its use.16

ד

סְפִיחִים הָעוֹלִים בִּשְׂדֵה בּוּר וּבִשְׂדֵה נִיר וּבִשְׂדֵה כֶּרֶם וּבִשְׂדֵה זֶרַע מֻתָּרִין בַּאֲכִילָה. וּמִפְּנֵי מָה לֹא גָּזְרוּ עֲלֵיהֶם לְפִי שֶׁאֵין אָדָם זוֹרֵעַ מְקוֹמוֹת אֵלּוּ. שְׂדֵה בּוּר אֵין אָדָם נִפְנֶה לְשָׁם. וּשְׂדֵה נִיר רוֹצֶה הוּא בְּתִקּוּנָהּ. וּשְׂדֵה כֶּרֶם אֵינוֹ אוֹסֵר כַּרְמוֹ. וּשְׂדֵה זֶרַע הַסְּפִיחִין מַפְסִידִין אוֹתָהּ. וְכֵן הַתֶּבֶן שֶׁל שְׁבִיעִית מֻתָּר בְּכָל מָקוֹם וְלֹא גָּזְרוּ עָלָיו:

5

When sifichin from the Sabbatical year17 enter the following year, they are forbidden to be eaten.18 We may not uproot them by hand. Instead, one should plow [the land] in its ordinary fashion or [let] an animal pasture in its ordinary fashion.19

ה

סְפִיחִין שֶׁל שְׁבִיעִית שֶׁיָּצְאוּ לְמוֹצָאֵי שְׁבִיעִית אֲסוּרִין בַּאֲכִילָה וְאֵין תּוֹלְשִׁין אוֹתָן בַּיָּד אֶלָּא חוֹרֵשׁ כְּדַרְכּוֹ. וּבְהֵמָה רוֹעָה כְּדַרְכָּהּ:

6

Until when are the sifichin of the Sabbatical year forbidden in the eighth year? From Rosh HaShanah until Chanukah. From Chanukah and onward, they are permitted.20 When a person sows the sifichin of the Sabbatical year after the Sabbatical year, the produce that grows from this is permitted.21

ו

וְעַד מָתַי אֲסוּרִין סְפִיחֵי שְׁבִיעִית בְּמוֹצָאֵי שְׁבִיעִית מֵרֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה וְעַד חֲנֻכָּה וּמֵחֲנֻכָּה וְאֵילָךְ הֵן מֻתָּרִין. וְהַזּוֹרֵעַ סְפִיחֵי שְׁבִיעִית אַחַר שְׁבִיעִית הַגִּדּוּלִין מֻתָּרִין:

7

When onions of the Sabbatical year enter the eighth year, they are permitted when there is enough time for produce of that size to have grown [in the eighth year].22 If not, they are forbidden.23

Similar concepts apply with regard to other produce. They should not be purchased in the eighth year24 until produce of that size could have grown in the eighth year. When, in the eighth year, the produce which grows rapidly reaches [the size of the produce which grew in the Sabbatical year], the prohibition is lifted from the produce that remains.25 It is permitted to purchase garden vegetables in the eighth year immediately.26

ז

בְּצָלִים שֶׁיָּצְאוּ מִשְּׁבִיעִית לְמוֹצָאֵי שְׁבִיעִית אִם עָשׂוּ כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן מֻתָּרִין וְאִם לָאו אֲסוּרִין. וְכֵן שְׁאָר הַפֵּרוֹת אֵין לוֹקְחִים אוֹתָם בְּמוֹצָאֵי שְׁבִיעִית אֶלָּא מִשֶּׁיֵּעָשׂוּ כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן מִפֵּרוֹת מוֹצָאֵי שְׁבִיעִית. עָשָׂה הַבַּכִּיר הֻתָּר הָאֲפִיל וּמֻתָּר לִקַּח יָרָק בְּמוֹצָאֵי שְׁבִיעִית מִיָּד:

8

When is a person permitted to purchase wild onions in the eighth year? When the new produce exceeds [the old].27

ח

מֵאֵימָתַי מוֹתָר אָדָם לִיקַח לוּף בְּמוֹצָאֵי שְׁבִיעִית מְשֶׁיִּרְבֶּה הֶחָדָשׁ:

9

The first of Tishrei is Rosh HaShanah with regard to the Sabbatical and Jubilee years.28 [The following rules apply with regard to] produce of the sixth year that enters the Sabbatical year. Grain, legumes, or fruit29 that reached the stage when tithes are required to be separated30 before Rosh HaShanah [of the Sabbatical year] are permitted [to be reaped]. Even though they are gathered in the Sabbatical year, they are considered like produce of the sixth year in all regards.31 If they did not reach the stage when tithes are required to be separated until after Rosh HaShanah, they are considered as produce of the Sabbatical year.32

ט

בְּאֶחָד בְּתִשְׁרֵי רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה לִשְׁמִטִּין וּלְיוֹבְלוֹת. פֵּרוֹת שִׁשִּׁית שֶׁנִּכְנְסוּ לַשְּׁבִיעִית אִם הָיוּ תְּבוּאָה אוֹ קִטְנִיּוֹת אוֹ פֵּרוֹת הָאִילָן וְהִגִּיעוּ לְעוֹנַת הַמַּעַשְׂרוֹת קֹדֶם רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מֻתָּרִין. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאוֹסֵף אוֹתָם בַּשְּׁבִיעִית הֲרֵי הֵן כְּפֵרוֹת שִׁשִּׁית לְכָל דָּבָר. וְאִם לֹא בָּאוּ לְעוֹנַת הַמַּעַשְׂרוֹת אֶלָּא אַחַר רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה הֲרֵי הֵן כְּפֵרוֹת שְׁבִיעִית:

10

Grain and legumes are forbidden to be eaten33 as sifichin and the fruit of trees must be eaten with consideration for the holiness of the Sabbatical year.34

י

הַתְּבוּאָה וְהַקִּטְנִיּוֹת אֲסוּרִין בַּאֲכִילָה מִשּׁוּם סְפִיחִים. וּפֵרוֹת הָאִילָן אוֹכְלִין אוֹתָן בִּקְדֻשַּׁת שְׁבִיעִית:

11

When rice, millet, poppy seeds, sesame seeds, and Egyptian beans are sown to produce seed,35 [the ruling depends on] when the produce completes its growth.36 If its growth is completed before Rosh HaShanah, these [seeds] are permitted [to be harvested] in the Sabbatical year like the produce of the sixth year. If their growth is completed after Rosh HaShanah, even though [the plants] took root before Rosh HaShanah, they are forbidden as sifichin.

יא

הָאֹרֶז וְהַדֹּחַן וְהַפְּרָגִים וְהַשֻּׁמְשְׁמִין וּפוֹל הַמִּצְרִי שֶׁזְּרָעוֹ לְזֶרַע הוֹלְכִין בָּהֶן אַחַר גְּמַר פְּרִי. אִם נִגְמַר פִּרְיָם קֹדֶם רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מֻתָּרִין בַּשְּׁבִיעִית כְּפֵרוֹת שִׁשִּׁית. וְאִם נִגְמְרוּ אַחַר רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִשְׁרִישׁוּ קֹדֶם רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ אֲסוּרִים מִשּׁוּם סְפִיחִים:

12

[The ruling regarding] vegetables [depends] on the time they were harvested.37

With regard to an esrog, even if it was the size of a bean before Rosh HaShanah [of the Sabbatical year] and grow to the size of a loaf of bread in the Sabbatical year, it is obligated to be tithed like the produce of the sixth year.38 [Conversely,] even if it had reached the size of a loaf of bread in the sixth year, since it was reaped in the Sabbatical year, it is considered as the produce of the Sabbatical year.39 As a stringency, the tithes are separated like the produce of the sixth year.

יב

הַיָּרָק בִּשְׁעַת לְקִיטָתוֹ. וְהָאֶתְרוֹג אֲפִלּוּ הָיָה כְּפוֹל קֹדֶם רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה וְנַעֲשָׂה כְּכִכָּר בַּשְּׁבִיעִית חַיָּב בְּמַעַשְׂרוֹת כְּפֵרוֹת שִׁשִּׁית. וַאֲפִלּוּ הָיָה כְּכִכָּר בַּשִּׁשִּׁית הוֹאִיל וְנִלְקַט בַּשְּׁבִיעִית הֲרֵי הוּא כְּפֵרוֹת שְׁבִיעִית. וּמִתְעַשֵּׂר כְּפֵרוֹת שִׁשִּׁית לְהַחֲמִיר:

13

Similarly, when the produce of the Sabbatical year is reaped in the eighth year: With regard to grain, legumes, and the fruit of the trees, [the ruling depends on when the produce reached] the stage when tithes are required to be separated.40 When rice, millet, poppy seeds, sesame seeds, and Egyptian beans are sown to produce seed, [the ruling depends on] when the produce completes its growth.41 [The ruling regarding] vegetables [depends] on the time they were harvested.42

יג

וְכֵן פֵּרוֹת שְׁבִיעִית שֶׁיָּצְאוּ לְמוֹצָאֵי שְׁבִיעִית בִּתְבוּאָה וְקִטְנִיּוֹת וְאִילָנוֹת הוֹלְכִין אַחַר עוֹנַת הַמַּעַשְׂרוֹת. והַפְּרָגִין וְהַשֻּׁמְשְׁמִין וְהָאֹרֶז וְהַדֹּחַן וּפוֹל הַמִּצְרִי שֶׁזְּרָעוֹ לְזֶרַע אַחַר גְּמַר הַפְּרִי. וְהַיָּרָק אַחַר לְקִיטָתוֹ:

14

When one sowed Egyptian beans for seed in the sixth year and the produce was completed before Rosh HaShanah of the Sabbatical year, both its vegetables and its seed are permitted in the Sabbatical year.43 If one sowed it to use as a vegetable44and it entered the Sabbatical year, both its vegetables and its seed are forbidden like the sifichin of the Sabbatical year. Similarly, if he sowed it both for its seed and to use as a vegetable, it is forbidden.45

יד

פּוֹל הַמִּצְרִי שֶׁזְּרָעוֹ לְזֶרַע בַּשִּׁשִּׁית וְנִגְמַר פִּרְיוֹ קֹדֶם רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה שֶׁל שְׁבִיעִית. בֵּין יָרָק שֶׁלּוֹ בֵּין זֶרַע שֶׁלּוֹ מֻתָּר בַּשְּׁבִיעִית. וְאִם זָרַע לְיָרָק וְנִכְנְסָה עָלָיו שְׁבִיעִית בֵּין יְרָקוֹ בֵּין זַרְעוֹ אָסוּר כִּסְפִיחֵי שְׁבִיעִית. וְכֵן אִם זְרָעוֹ לְזֶרַע וּלְיָרָק אָסוּר:

15

[The following rules apply if] one transgressed and sowed [such beans] in the Sabbatical year, [their growth was completed in the Sabbatical year,] but they remained [in the ground] until eighth year: If they were sown for seed,46 both the seed and the vegetables are forbidden in the eighth year like other sifichin. If one sowed it to use as a vegetable, since it was harvested in the eighth year, both its vegetables and its seed are permitted.47 If he sowed it both for its seed and to use as a vegetable, its seed is forbidden as sifichin and its vegetables are permitted.

טו

עָבַר וּזְרָעוֹ בַּשְּׁבִיעִית וְיָצָא לַשְּׁמִינִית אִם זְרָעוֹ לְזֶרַע בֵּין זַרְעוֹ בֵּין יְרָקוֹ אָסוּר בְּמוֹצָאֵי שְׁבִיעִית כִּשְׁאָר הַסְּפִיחִים. וְאִם זְרָעוֹ לְיָרָק הוֹאִיל וְנִלְקַט בַּשְּׁמִינִית בֵּין יְרָקוֹ בֵּין זַרְעוֹ מֻתָּר. זְרָעוֹ לְזֶרַע וּלְיָרָק זַרְעוֹ אָסוּר מִשּׁוּם סְפִיחִים וִירָקוֹ מֻתָּר:

16

Since white figs48 take three years before their growth is completed, if they reach the stage when tithes are required to be separated before Rosh HaShanah of the eighth year,49 they should be eaten in the second year of the seven year cycle according to the restrictions50 governing fruit of the Sabbatical year.

טז

בְּנוֹת שׁוּחַ הוֹאִיל וְהֵן נִגְמָרוֹת לְאַחַר שָׁלֹשׁ שָׁנִים אִם בָּאוּ לְעוֹנַת הַמַּעַשְׂרוֹת קֹדֶם רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה שֶׁל שְׁמִינִית הֲרֵי הֵן נֶאֱכָלוֹת בְּשָׁנָה שְׁנִיָּה מִן הַשָּׁבוּעַ בְּתוֹרַת שְׁבִיעִית:

17

Onions that will not produce scallions51 and Egyptian beans from which water was withheld for 30 days before Rosh HaShanah and onions that do produce scallions52 from which water was withheld for three irrigation periods53 before Rosh HaShanah are considered as the produce of the sixth year.54 If water was withheld from them for a shorter period, they are considered as sefichin from the Sabbatical year.55

יז

הַבְּצָלִים הַסָּרִיסִים וּפוֹל הַמִּצְרִי שֶׁמָּנַע מֵהֶם מַיִם שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם קֹדֶם רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה. וְשֶׁל בַּעַל שֶׁמָּנַע מֵהֶם שָׁלֹשׁ עוֹנוֹת לִפְנֵי רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מִפֵּרוֹת שִׁשִּׁית. פָּחוֹת מִכֵּן הֲרֵי הֵם כִּסְפִיחֵי שְׁבִיעִית:

18

[The following laws apply with regard to] gourd plants which were maintained [in the ground] to produce seed. If they became hard56 before Rosh HaShanah and thus were unfit for human consumption, it is permitted to maintain them in the Sabbatical year, for they are from the produce of the sixth year.57 If not,58 they are considered as sefichin from the Sabbatical year.59

Similar [laws apply with regard to] vegetables. Any ones that become hard before Rosh HaShanah are permitted to be maintained in the Sabbatical year.60 If they were soft,61 it is forbidden to maintain them, as [is the law regarding] sefichin.62

We do not require a person to uproot wild onions. Instead, we allow him to leave them in the ground as they are.63 If they grow in the eighth year, they are permitted. Similarly, we do not require him to uproot an artichoke plant.64 All that is necessary is to cut off its leaves.65 If it grows again in the eighth year, it is permitted.

יח

הַדְּלוּעִין שֶׁקִּיְּמָן לְזֶרַע אִם הֻקְשׁוּ לִפְנֵי רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה וְנִפְסְלוּ מִלֶּאֱכל אָדָם מֻתָּר לְקַיְּמָן בַּשְּׁבִיעִית שֶׁהֵן מִפֵּרוֹת שִׁשִּׁית. וְאִם לָאו אֲסוּרִין כִּסְפִיחֵי שְׁבִיעִית. וְכֵן הַיְרָקוֹת כֻּלָּן שֶׁהֻקְשׁוּ לִפְנֵי רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה מֻתָּר לְקַיְּמָן בַּשְּׁבִיעִית וְאִם הָיוּ רַכִּים אָסוּר לְקַיְּמָן מִשּׁוּם סְפִיחִים. אֵין מְחַיְּבִין אוֹתוֹ לְשָׁרֵשׁ אֶת הַלּוּף אֶלָּא מַנִּיחוֹ בָּאָרֶץ כְּמוֹת שֶׁהוּא. אִם צָמַח לְמוֹצָאֵי שְׁבִיעִית מֻתָּר. וְאֵין מְחַיְּבִין אוֹתוֹ לְשָׁרֵשׁ אֶת הַקֻּנְדָּס אֶלָּא גּוֹזֵז בֶּעָלִין וְאִם צָמַח לְמוֹצָאֵי שְׁבִיעִית מֻתָּר:

19

Wild onions [grown]66 in the sixth year, summer onions,67 and madder68 which completed their growth before the Sabbatical year may be uprooted in the Sabbatical year with metal hatchets. This is not considered as tilling the land.69

יט

לוּף שֶׁל עֶרֶב שְׁבִיעִית וְכֵן בְּצָלִים שֶׁל עֶרֶב שְׁבִיעִית הַקִּיצוֹנִים וּפוּאָה שֶׁנִּגְמְרוּ לִפְנֵי שְׁבִיעִית מֻתָּר לְעָקְרָן בַּשְּׁבִיעִית בְּקַרְדֻּמּוֹת שֶׁל מַתֶּכֶת. וְאֵין בָּזֶה מִשּׁוּם עֲבוֹדַת הָאָרֶץ:

20

When, in the Sabbatical year, rain descended upon onions70 and they sprouted leaves, the leaves are permitted as long as they are light green.71 If they have turned dark,72 it is considered as if the plants were planted in the earth and those leaves are forbidden as sefichin. In both situations, the onions themselves remain permitted.73

כ

הַבְּצָלִים שֶׁיָּרְדוּ עֲלֵיהֶם גְּשָׁמִים בַּשְּׁבִיעִית וְצָמְחוּ כָּל זְמַן שֶׁהֶעָלִין שֶׁלָּהֶן יְרֻקִּין הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מֻתָּרִין. וְאִם הִשְׁחִירוּ הֲרֵי הֵן כִּנְטוּעִין בָּאָרֶץ וְאוֹתָן הֶעָלִין אֲסוּרִין מִשּׁוּם סְפִיחִין. וּבֵין כָּךְ וּבֵין כָּךְ הַבְּצָלִים עַצְמָן בְּהֶתֵּרָן עוֹמְדִין:

21

When an onion was uprooted in the Sabbatical year and replanted in the eighth year and its growth exceeded its original size, the additional growth elevates the original mass74 and the entire [onion] is permitted. [The rationale is that] since the prohibition of the Sabbatical year comes about via the earth,75 it can be removed via the earth.76

כא

בָּצָל שֶׁעֲקָרוֹ בַּשְּׁבִיעִית וּנְטָעוֹ בַּשְּׁמִינִית וְרַבּוּ גִּדּוּלָיו עַל עִקָּרוֹ הֶעֱלוּ גִּדּוּלָיו אֶת עִקָּרוֹ וְהֻתַּר הַכּל הוֹאִיל וּשְׁבִיעִית אֲסוּרָה עַל יְדֵי קַרְקַע כָּךְ נְטִילָתָהּ עַל יְדֵי קַרְקַע:

22

Fruits produced by a tree in the Sabbatical year should not be reaped in the same manner as they are reaped every year,77 as [Leviticus 25:5] states: "The grapes you had designated you shall not gather."78 One who reaps grapes to improve the vine or in the ordinary manner of reaping is liable for lashes.

כב

הַפֵּרוֹת שֶׁיּוֹצִיא הָאִילָן בַּשְּׁבִיעִית לֹא יַאַסְפֵם כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁאוֹסֵף בְּכָל שָׁנָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא כה ה) "וְאֶת עִנְּבֵי נְזִירֶךָ לֹא תִבְצֹר". וְאִם בָּצַר לַעֲבוֹדַת הָאִילָן אוֹ שֶׁבָּצַר כְּדֶרֶךְ הַבּוֹצְרִים לוֹקֶה:

23

How should one conduct himself?79 Figs of the Sabbatical year should not be set out to dry in the place where they are usually set out to dry. They can, however, be left to dry in a ruin.80 We may not crush grapes81 in a vat, but they may be crushed in a kneading trough. Olives should not be crushed82 in a press, but they may be squeezed and placed in a very small press. One may grind them83 in the oil press and place them in a small press. Similarly, with regard to other matters, [the fundamental rule is]: One should deviate from the norm in whatever way possible.

כג

וְכֵיצַד עוֹשֶׂה. תְּאֵנִים שֶׁל שְׁבִיעִית אֵין קוֹצִין אוֹתָן בְּמֻקְצֶה אֲבָל מְיַבְּשָׁן בֶּחָרָבָה. וְלֹא יִדְרֹךְ עֲנָבִים בַּגַּת אֲבָל דּוֹרֵךְ הוּא בַּעֲרֵבָה. וְלֹא יַעֲשֶׂה זֵיתִים בְּבַיִת הַבַּד. אֲבָל כּוֹתֵשׁ הוּא וּמַכְנִיס לְתוֹךְ בַּד קָטָן בְּיוֹתֵר וְטוֹחֵן בְּבֵית הַבַּד וּבַקֹּטֶב וּמַכְנִיס לְבַד קְטַנָּה. וְכֵן בִּשְׁאָר הַדְּבָרִים כָּל שֶׁיָּכוֹל לְשַׁנּוֹת מְשַׁנֶּה:

24

It is a positive commandment84 to divest oneself from everything that the land produces in the Sabbatical year, as [Exodus 23:11] states: "In the seventh [year], you shall leave it untended and unharvested."

Anyone who locks his vineyard or fences off his field in the Sabbatical year has nullified a positive commandment.85 This also holds true if he gathered all his produce into his home. Instead, he should leave everything ownerless. Thus everyone86has equal rights in every place, as [ibid.] states: "And the poor of your people shall partake of it." One may bring a small amount into one's home, just as one brings from ownerless property,87e.g., five jugs of oil, fifteen jugs of wine.88 If he takes more than that, it is permitted.89

כד

מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה לְהַשְׁמִיט כָּל מַה שֶּׁתּוֹצִיא הָאָרֶץ בַּשְּׁבִיעִית שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כג יא) "וְהַשְּׁבִיעִת תִּשְׁמְטֶנָּה וּנְטַשְׁתָּהּ". וְכָל הַנּוֹעֵל כַּרְמוֹ אוֹ סָג שָׂדֵהוּ בַּשְּׁבִיעִית בִּטֵּל מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה. וְכֵן אִם אָסַף כָּל פֵּרוֹתָיו לְתוֹךְ בֵּיתוֹ. אֶלָּא יַפְקִיר הַכּל וְיַד הַכּל שָׁוִין בְּכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כג יא) "וְאָכְלוּ אֶבְיֹנֵי עַמֶּךָ". וְיֵשׁ לוֹ לְהָבִיא לְתוֹךְ בֵּיתוֹ מְעַט כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁמְּבִיאִין מִן הַהֶפְקֵר. חָמֵשׁ כַּדֵּי שֶׁמֶן חֲמִשָּׁה עָשָׂר כַּדֵּי יַיִן. וְאִם הֵבִיא יֶתֶר מִזֶּה מֻתָּר:

25

[The laws of] the Sabbatical year are observed only in Eretz Yisrael alone, as [Leviticus 25:2] states: "When you will come to the land...."90 It is observed while the Temple is standing and when the Temple is not standing.91

כה

אֵין שְׁבִיעִית נוֹהֶגֶת אֶלָּא בְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל בִּלְבַד שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא כה ב) "כִּי תָבֹאוּ אֶל הָאָרֶץ" וְגוֹ'. וְנוֹהֶגֶת בֵּין בִּפְנֵי הַבַּיִת בֵּין שֶׁלֹּא בִּפְנֵי הַבַּיִת:

26

In the entire area taken possession of by the Jews who ascended from Babylonia until Kziv,92 it is forbidden to work the land and the sifichin that grow there are forbidden to be eaten. In the entire area that was taken possession of only by the Jews that ascended from Egypt, i.e., from Kziv to the River [of Egypt]93 and to the Umanum Mountains,94 even though it is forbidden to till [the land] in the Sabbatical year, the sifichin that grow there are permitted to be eaten. From the River [of Egypt] and from the Umanum Mountains [onward], one may till [the land] in the Sabbatical year.95

כו

כָּל שֶׁהֶחְזִיקוּ בּוֹ עוֹלֵי בָּבֶל עַד כְּזִיב אָסוּר בַּעֲבוֹדָה וְכָל הַסְּפִיחִין שֶׁצּוֹמְחִין בּוֹ אֲסוּרִין בַּאֲכִילָה. וְכָל שֶׁלֹּא הֶחֱזִיקוּ בּוֹ אֶלָּא עוֹלֵי מִצְרַיִם בִּלְבַד שֶׁהוּא מִכְּזִיב וְעַד הַנָּהָר וְעַד אָמְנָה. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא אָסוּר בָּעֲבוֹדָה בַּשְּׁבִיעִית. הַסְּפִיחִין שֶׁצּוֹמְחִין בּוֹ מֻתָּרִים בַּאֲכִילָה. וּמֵהַנָּהָר וּמֵאֲמָנָה וָהָלְאָה מֻתָּר בָּעֲבוֹדָה בַּשְּׁבִיעִית:

27

Although the Sabbatical year is not observed in Syria96 according to Scriptural Law, [our Sages] decreed that it would be forbidden to till it in the Sabbatical year like Eretz Yisrael, so that [the Jewish people] would not abandon Eretz Yisrael and go and settle permanently there. In Ammon, Moab,97 Egypt, and Babylonia, by contrast, though the tithes must be separated according to Rabbinic Law,98 the Sabbatical year is not observed.

כז

סוּרְיָא אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין שְׁבִיעִית נוֹהֶגֶת בָּהּ מִן הַתּוֹרָה גָּזְרוּ עָלֶיהָ שֶׁתִּהְיֶה אֲסוּרָה בַּעֲבוֹדָה בַּשְּׁבִיעִית כְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל. כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יָנִיחוּ אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל וְיֵלְכוּ וְיִשְׁתַּקְּעוּ שָׁם. אֲבָל עַמּוֹן וּמוֹאָב וּמִצְרַיִם וְשִׁנְעָר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵם חַיָּבוֹת בְּמַעַשְׂרוֹת מִדִּבְרֵיהֶם אֵין שְׁבִיעִית נוֹהֶגֶת בָּהֶן:

28

The Sabbatical year is observed in Transjordan by Rabbinic decree.99 The sifichin of Syria and Transjordan are permitted to be eaten.100 [The restrictions in] these lands need not be more stringent than those in [the portions of] Eretz Yisrael that were inhabited by the people ascending from Egypt.

כח

עֵבֶר הַיַּרְדֵּן שְׁבִיעִית נוֹהֶגֶת בָּהּ מִדִּבְרֵיהֶם. וּסְפִיחֵי סוּרְיָא וְעֵבֶר הַיַּרְדֵּן מֻתָּרִין בַּאֲכִילָה. לֹא יִהְיוּ אֲרָצוֹת אֵלּוּ חֲמוּרִין מֵאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁהֶחְזִיקוּ בָּהּ עוֹלֵי מִצְרַיִם:

29

When a gentile purchases land in Eretz Yisrael and sows it in the Sabbatical year, the produce is permitted.101 For our Sages decreed that sifichin should be forbidden only as a safeguard against transgressors and the gentiles are not commanded to observe the Sabbatical year. Thus there is no need to institute a safeguard for them.

כט

עַכּוּ''ם שֶׁקָּנָה קַרְקַע בָּאָרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל וּזְרָעָהּ בַּשְּׁבִיעִית פֵּרוֹתֶיהָ מֻתָּרִין. שֶׁלֹּא גָּזְרוּ עַל הַסְּפִיחִין אֶלָּא מִפְּנֵי עוֹבְרֵי עֲבֵרָה. וְהָעַכּוּ''ם אֵינָן מְצֻוִּין עַל הַשְּׁבִיעִית כְּדֵי שֶׁנִּגְזֹר עֲלֵיהֶם:

30

In the cities of Eretz Yisrael that are close to the border, we appoint a trustworthy watchman so that the gentiles will not spread [through the land] and take the produce of the Sabbatical year.102

ל

עֲיָרוֹת אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל הַסְּמוּכוֹת לַסְּפָר מוֹשִׁיבִים עֲלֵיהֶם נֶאֱמָן כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יָפוּצוּ עַכּוּ''ם וְיָבֹזּוּ פֵּרוֹת שְׁבִיעִית: