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On the Essence of Ritual Impurity

On the Essence of Ritual Impurity


One of the most widely misunderstood concepts in the Torah is contained in the words tum’ah and taharah. Translated as “unclean” and “clean,” or “impure” and “pure,” tum’ah and taharah—and, by extension, the laws of niddah and Family Purity—often evoke a negative response. Why, it is asked, must a woman be stigmatized as tamei, “impure”? Why should she be made to feel inferior about the natural processes of her body?

It might be said that, at bottom, these objections arise from a fundamental misunderstanding. Tum’ah and taharah are, above all, spiritual and not physical concepts.

The laws of tum’ah, niddah and mikvah belong to the category of commandments in the Torah known as chukkim—Divine “decrees” for which no reason is given. They are not logically comprehensible, like the laws against robbery or murder, or those In essence, tum’ah, “spiritual impurity,” is definable as the “absence of holiness” commandments that serve as memorials to events in our national past such as Passover and Sukkot. The laws of tum’ah and taharah are supra-rational, “above” reason. And it is precisely because they are of such high spiritual level, beyond what intellect can comprehend, that they affect an elevated part of the soul, a part of the soul that transcends reason entirely.1

But even if the human mind can’t understand these Divine decrees logically, we can nevertheless try to understand them spiritually and search for their inner meaning and significance. In this endeavor, the teachings of chassidic philosophy are of invaluable aid, for the study of Chassidut reveals the inner aspect of Torah, its “soul,” and can guide us through realms where unaided human intellect cannot reach. Chassidism strives for the direct perception of G‑dliness underlying everything, and illuminates the spiritual sources of all physical phenomena.

Tumah As the Absence of Holiness

Chassidic teaching explains that in essence, tum’ah, “spiritual impurity,” is definable as the “absence of holiness.” Holiness is called “life,” “vitality”; it is that which is united with and emanates from the source of all life, the Creator. Chassidic philosophy further elucidates that true union with G‑d, true holiness, means that one’s own independent existence is in a state of bittul, “nullification” to G‑d.2 On the other hand, that which is distant or separated from its source is called “death” and “impurity.” According to Torah law, death is the principal cause of all tum’ah; the highest magnitude of tum’ah comes from contact with a dead body.

The forces of evil are, in kabbalistic and chassidic terminology, the sitra achara, the “other side.” They are what is “outside,” what is far from G‑d’s presence and holiness. They flourish in the realm where He is most concealed and least felt, where there is least holiness. In a place where G‑d is least felt, there is naturally more room for “opposition” to Him. Spiritually speaking, what is most evil and most impure in a person is, above all, the assertion of self: one pushes G‑d’s presence away and creates a void, a vacuum where His presence should be.

That is the deeper meaning, according to chassidic teaching, of the phrase “to cause a chilul Hashem,” to desecrate G‑d’s name: it means to make a chalal (void), a place empty of His presence. Holiness is synonymous with bittul: it has no sense of any true existence independent of G‑d. That is why, our sages tell us, arrogance is equivalent to idolatry—for idolatry, in essence, means that something is regarded as independent of the Creator and asserts itself in place of Him.

Hence, if we strip the words “pure” and “impure” of their physical connotations, and perceive their true spiritual meaning, we see that what they really signify is the presence or absence of holiness.

An Important Distinction Between Two Types of Tum’ah

At this point we must ask: why must tum’ah exist at all? What purpose can it have in G‑d’s creation?

“The Almighty has created one thing opposite the other,” the Book of Ecclesiastes tells us, and as chassidic teaching interprets this verse, everything in the realm of holiness has its counterpart in the realm of unholiness.

Only through its struggles here can the soul rise higher

On the one hand, these opposing realms are created so that we may have “free choice” in our behavior. On a deeper level, as Chassidism explains, when we reject the evil and choose the good and, moreover, when we further transform the evil itself into good, we effect an elevation not only in ourselves but in the entire world, bringing it closer to its ultimate perfection.

Hence, the ultimate purpose of tum’ah, the “other side,” is for us to achieve higher levels. As the well-known chassidic saying has it, “Every descent is for the purpose of a greater ascent,” and all concealments of G‑d make way for a greater revelation. When the soul comes down to this world, for example, to be vested in a material body, it undergoes an incomparable descent from its previous purely spiritual existence. The purpose of this descent, though, is that the soul may rise even higher in its apprehension of G‑d and attain a more elevated rank than it had before it descended to this world. It can attain this elevation only through the vehicle of the body, through serving G‑d in this lower physical world.

On the one hand, there is concealment and impurity in this lowly material world; on the other hand, only through its struggles here can the soul rise higher.

We must distinguish, then, between two types of tum’ah, two types of “descent.” There is the tum’ah that we ourselves create when we intentionally push G‑d’s presence away and create a void; and there is the tum’ah that G‑d creates as part of nature.

This distinction is crucial to our understanding of niddah (laws pertaining to menstruation). The tum’ah, the impurity that attaches to a sin, is a void we create and by which we degrade ourselves. The tum’ah of niddah, however, is a built-in part of a woman’s natural monthly cycle. Her “descent” from a peak level of potential holiness (i.e., where the creation of a new life is possible) does not mean that she is, G‑d forbid, “sinful” or “degraded,” “inferior” or “stigmatized.” On the contrary, precisely because there is such holiness involved in a woman’s possession of the G‑dly power to create, as if ex nihilo, a new life within her body, there is the possibility for greater tum’ah—but also a great elevation.

Let us try to understand further the idea that the more holiness, the more opportunity there is for the forces of impurity to enter. This is no contradiction to what was stated earlier—that the forces of the “other side” can flourish in the absence of holiness. The forces of evil are also called kelipot, “husks” or “shells,” not only because they cover over and conceal the inner sparks of holiness that gives life to all things, but also because—like the husks or peels of a fruit—they can derive whatever life they have only from this inner spark, the truly living part. When separated from the inner part, they have no more sustenance and “die.”

The birth of a female involves a longer period of niddah, because a female contains within her the G‑dly power to create yet another new life from “nothing”

An excess of holiness can provide “room” for the extraneous forces to derive sustenance, just as, for example, if a barrel is filled to the top, some water will spill over and water weeds as well.

In this light we can further understand the explanation of the Kotzker Rebbe3 that tum’ah can set in only where holiness has been and gone. We can connect this with our understanding of the kind of tum’ah that is part of niddah.

The Torah says that when a woman gives birth, she is in a state of niddah for a variable amount of time: if the child is male, she will be tamei for seven days, and if female, fourteen days.

Why should there be tum’ah at childbirth? The Kotzker Rebbe explains that tum’ah can set in only when holiness departs. As the Talmud tells us, G‑d is directly involved with every childbirth and does not delegate any powers to His “messengers.” Thus, there is a very great level of holiness at birth: the birth of a child involves one of the most sublime powers of G‑d, the ability to create ex nihilo—something from nothing. After birth, this intense holiness, this powerful force of G‑d, “departs” and there is greater potential for tum’ah.

One might conjecture further that the reason the birth of a female involves a longer period of niddah is that a female contains within her the G‑dly power to create yet another new life from “nothing.” Because of this higher potential for holiness, there can be more tum’ah.

The same is true of a woman’s monthly cycle. Every month, this great potential for holiness, a woman’s potential to engage in the sublime power of creation, reaches a peak in her body (an “ascent”). When the potential is not fulfilled and the holiness departs, the now-lifeless remnants leave the body. And this “descent” is susceptible to tum’ah. It is precisely because of the high level of G‑dliness involved in the procreative process that tum’ah can occur at all.

But here again, this “descent” into niddah is for the purpose of a higher ascent, through purification in the mikvah and a new cycle of building up to a higher level of holiness the next month. The mikvah—as will be presently explained—enables one to ascend even higher than the previous month.

In this sense the mikvah and the monthly cycle of a woman may be compared to Shabbat and the weekly cycle of every Jew. The alternation of the holy day of Shabbat with the mundane days of the week is the same cycle of ascent and descent, reenacted every seven days. The six mundane days lead up to Shabbat, during which the world becomes elevated, purified, ascends to its source. Every Jew then receives an “extra soul,” which he loses as the Shabbat departs and he must “go down” again into the struggles of the coming week. It is the very struggle to purify ourselves and the world we confront during the six days that becomes elevated on the Shabbat, and enables us to ascend higher and higher every week, in constant progression.

The same way that a woman is renewed monthly, so will the Jewish people be renewed at the time of their redemption, which will culminate in their higher union with G‑d

Or, let us take another cycle: the daily alternation of sleeping and waking. According to Torah law, every person upon awakening must wash his hands, to remove the “impure spirit” that adheres to them during sleep. In sleep, there is a “departure of holiness” from the body—the soul, it is said, “ascends to its source” above. Again, this “natural law” allows for impurity to set in. Our hands are tamei upon awakening, to be sure, but they are not “evil.” The same is true of tum’ah during a woman’s monthly “natural low.” It is the result of a departure of holiness, but not a state of degradation, inferiority or shame.

Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson, the Lubavitcher Rebbe, offers an even more profound understanding of the inner nature of these “lows,” these descents. Since, he says, the descent is in fact a necessary preparation for the ascent, and its ultimate purpose is the ascent, the descent is nothing other than a part of the ascent itself. The Rebbe explains4 why the Torah, in speaking of all the journeys of the Jews in the desert, also describes the places where they rested as “journeys.” Since the resting was a preparation for the journey that followed, the resting places are in fact part of the journey onward. Or as in our previous example: sleep gives strength to elevate oneself even more the following day, and is thus part of that ascent itself—though it appears to be a lower state for the body.

And on a broader level, the same is true, the Rebbe explains,5 of the exile of the Jewish people among the nations. If the exile were only for the purpose of punishing us for our sins, it should have lessened with time. Instead, it grows worse from day to day. (The concealment and darkness, however, are a preparation for—and their ultimate purpose is—a great revelation, the great light that will come in the era of Moshiach; and so the closer we approach that great light, the thicker the darkness becomes.) The inner purpose of the exile is that, through refining ourselves and the world, we will ultimately attain a higher level of holiness and unity with G‑d than existed even during the times of the First Temple.

A Comparison with the Moon

In essence, these “natural lows”—absences of holiness that G‑d has created within the monthly cycle of a woman, the weekly cycle of Shabbat, the nightly cycle of sleep, or the entire lifecycle of the Jewish people as a whole—are, in their innermost sense, all parts of the process of spiritual ascent.

Nor is the connection between these different cycles artificial. The Talmud compares the Jewish people to the moon, for just as the moon waxes and wanes every month, so too do the Jews undergo phases of concealment and renewal in exile and redemption. The appearance of the new moon, Rosh Chodesh, is a minor holiday, marking the beginning of a new month. And this day is also a special holiday for women, given to them as a reward for not participating in the making and worship of the Golden Calf. A woman’s body, of course, also follows a monthly cycle, and chassidic teaching illumines a deeper correspondence between the cycle of niddah and the new moon.

The third Lubavitcher Rebbe (the “Tzemach Tzedek”) explains6 that on Rosh Chodesh the moon is renewed, “purified,” and again “unites” with the sun; it again receives its reflection. This union of the sun and the moon on Rosh Chodesh corresponds to the union of man and woman after the days of niddah are over. And in the same way that a woman is renewed monthly, so will the Jewish people be renewed at the time of their redemption, which will culminate in their higher union with G‑d.

Despite one’s high spiritual state, one is not purified until “going out”—until affecting the “outside”

As the Talmud states, when the Jews were exiled, the Shechinah, the “indwelling presence” of G‑d, went into exile with them. And as the Tzemach Tzedek points out, the Hebrew letters of the word niddah also mean nod Hei, “G‑d wanders.” He is in exile with the people of Israel.

Hence the reunion of the sun and the moon on Rosh Chodesh reflects the union of man and woman, and of G‑d and the Jewish people whose relationship is compared to that of husband and wife.

Understanding Mikvah

We have seen that these natural descents are aspects of ascent. Why, however, must this process be accompanied by immersion in a mikvah, and what has water to do with changing one’s status from tamei, “impure,” to tahor, “pure”?

The chassidic masters explain7 that in progressing from one level to another, there has to be a period of “nothingness in between.” For example, when a seed is planted in the ground, it must first disintegrate, lose its first existence, in order to be able to flower. To reach a higher state, one must first lose or nullify his previous state.

This is the inner purpose of the mikvah: to enable one to attain this state of bittul, “nullification,” the “nothingness in between” the two progressive levels. As chassidic teaching points out,8 the letters of the Hebrew word for bittul, when rearranged, spell tevilah—“immersion”—a further indication of their spiritual interconnection.

To fulfill the mitzvah of mikvah, one must immerse completely, be entirely enveloped by the waters. This total immersion of self means losing one’s independent existence, going out from oneself, elevating oneself by becoming a vessel for holiness. Maimonides writes in his code of Jewish Law, the Mishneh Torah, that this immersion requires the intent of the heart, the intent to purify oneself spiritually from all wrongful thoughts and bad traits, to bring one’s soul into “the waters of pure understanding.”

Chassidut makes a further illuminating connection between this concept of mikvah and the nature of the great flood that occurred in the days of Noah.9 Why, the question is asked, was water the chosen instrument for removing the wicked from the world, and why did the flood have to last for such a long time, forty days and forty nights? Surely if G‑d simply wanted to punish the sinners, He could have done so immediately.

The answer, chassidic teaching explains, is that the flood was not just a punishment, but also a purification for the world. It completely enveloped the earth, and its forty days and forty nights correspond to the measure of forty se’ah of water required to make a ritually fit mikvah. The waters of the flood cleansed the world by immersion in the same way one is purified by immersion in the waters of the mikvah. The separation and removal of all extraneous and undesirable elements has the ultimate purpose of bringing the world (and a person) to a higher level.

And this brings us back to the beginning: the ultimate cause of tum’ah is separation from G‑d; and to be united means to be “nullified” to Him, to lose the sense of one’s independent existence and be attached to one's source.

According to Torah law, however,10 one is purified only upon leaving the mikvah, not while inside it. As the Lubavitcher Rebbe explains,11 this means that the ultimate purpose of our elevated spiritual states, our “ascents,” is not to be removed from the world; the purpose of creation is “to make a dwelling-place for G‑d in the lower worlds.” That is, we must affect the “outside”—bring holiness into the very lowest levels. Despite one’s high spiritual state, one is not purified until “going out”—until affecting the “outside.”

In practical terms, this means that “the essential thing is the deed”—action in the world, in the refinement of one’s inner self, and also one’s particular share of the world, to make a “dwelling-place for G‑d.” Just as the elevated state of Shabbat is called the “source of blessing” for the entire week, and Rosh Chodesh is the same for the entire month, so too the purification of oneself in the mikvah should permeate all one’s thoughts, words and actions when one leaves the mikvah.

Chassidut further explains12 that the performance of mitzvot provides “garments” for the soul. The moment of conception is particularly crucial, for the frame of mind and purity of the parents determines, to a great extent, what manner of “garments” that soul will have. In sum, not only do the laws of Family Purity have a deep spiritual meaning, but as the Lubavitcher Rebbe explains,13 the fulfillment of this mitzvah has a profound, direct influence on both the spiritual and the physical health of one’s children—and by extension, on all Jewish generations to eternity.

See also: The Mikvah

By Susan Handelman. Reprinted with permission from Di Yiddishe Heim and Total Immersion: A Mikvah Anthology (Jason Aronson, 1996).

Likkutei Sichot of the Lubavitcher Rebbe, vol. 8, pp. 72, 85.
Tanya, part 1, chapter 6: “So, too, are all the utterances and thoughts which are not directed towards G‑d and His will and service. For this is the meaning of sitra achara, ‘the other side,’ i.e., not the side of holiness. For the holy side is nothing but the indwelling and extension of the holiness of the Holy One, blessed be He, and He dwells only on such a thing that abnegates itself (batel) completely to Him . . .”
Sefer HaLikkutim—Dach “Tzemach Tzedek,” vol. 6, s.v. Niddah.
Likkutei Sichot, Vol. 6, Pekudei.
Likkutei Sichot, Vol. 2, pp. 358, 360–363.
Sefer HaLikkutim—Dach “Tzemach Tzedek,” Vol. 6, s.v. Niddah, pp. 38–40.
Yom Tov Shel Rosh HaShanah 5666, Discourse 2 (beginning Zeh HaYom).
Likkutei Sichot, vol. 1, pp. 4–5; Siddur, Kavanot HaMikvah, end.
Likkutei Sichot loc. cit.; Torah Ohr, Noach, discourse beginning Mayim Rabim.
Maimonides, Mishneh Torah, Hil. Avot HaTum’ah 6:16.
Likkutei Sichot, vol. 1, pp. 14–15.
Tanya, part 1, end of ch. 2; part 4, sec. 3.
Likkutei Sichot, vol. 13, pp. 258–262; see also references there.
Dr. Susan Handelman is a professor of English at Bar-Ilan University in Israel. A native of Chicago, she is the author and editor of numerous books on Jewish thought, a translator of the Rebbe's treatise On the Essence of Chassidus and a contributor to
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jim dallas April 28, 2017

excellent....excellent! Reply

Yosiah Canada November 16, 2016

I loved your article , I was wondering if You thought Isaiah 64:7 l fit into this at all Reply

Anonymous October 22, 2016

Valuable ideas . Reply

Anonymous toronto May 12, 2015

tumah The way to remove the tumah impurity and to calm the forces of nature is to immerse the Jewish priests, the sons of Aaron in a Jewish Mikvah. And the benefits to the community will be immense. But I hope the Mikvah is not restricted to Jews . Reply

Anonymous January 18, 2015

Descents regarding caused by "sin" Does this mean when a person does something wrong that violates Torah that that person will also have an opportunity to a "higher ascent?" That came to my mind and I thought of something I heard long time ago, "Oh Happy Fault!" Thank you for an answer. Kathleen (Bruriah bat Shulamit).... Reply

Anonymous San Jose, CA January 29, 2013

The Moon and Niddah I had heard that the Rosh Chodesh holiday honors women. It is interesting that a healthy woman and the moon share a 28-29 day cycle. You state that the new moon symbolizes the reunion of husband and wife after the niddah separation. If this is so than the days of impurity would be symbolically during the days of waning and darkness. This time of waning and darkness reminds me of the spiritual sense of our sin separates us from the Holy. This is not for personal shame, but perhaps as a monthly parable of Eve's experience to seek restoration after her great fall from pristine moral purity. The days of availability within the marriage would coincide with those days of the moon's waxing glory revealing the beauty of pure love and the opportunity to create life. This may relate to Eve's desire to conceive the Messiah. Reply

okwiri mombasa, kenya December 20, 2011

period of impurity during mensturation What i dont understand is the counting of impurity days to be above 7days(ie 12) despite the bible stating very clearly that she will be impure for7days (leviticus 15:19-24. 12:1-2 Reply

Anonymous Prescott, AR/US April 12, 2011

family purity This has been so interesting to read about, both the original article and the comments. In my circles it is a subject avoided, and so...thankyou thankyou for talking about it.

Human life is elevated with this concept. And even more we see how horrifying it is to see how readily people in the US and other countries are using abortion as a method of birth control etc. Grieves me. Reply

Anonymous Prescott, AR/US April 10, 2011

A question What happens when a woman has surgery to remove the uterus because of cancer or some such problem. Is she forever in this "low" state, or does a final mikvah cleanse her until death? Reply

Daniella Sonora, California April 9, 2011

To Anonymous, OH Mikvah/Salvation There are different times and reasons when we are commanded to Mikvah. One of those reasons is when we make Teshuvah, which is when we return to G-d in repentance. As you read in this article, Mikvah, in every instance has to do with the intent of the heart. Purification of the heart is a Hebrew concept. G-d repeatedly calls us to 'circumcise our hearts.' To circumcise the heart literally means to cut off our fleshly desires and pursue a meaningful relationship with The One True G-d.
The word salvation in Hebrew means to be delivered from oppression or calamily. The concept of salvation as I think you mean it to be, didn't begin to evolve until the 2nd century.
I mean no disrespect but learning the Hebrew scriptures from a gentile interpretation, unfortunately has resulted in grave misinterpretation and has created a huge chasm between 2 groups of people who believe in the same G-d.
I hope this helps. Reply

Anonymous Madison, WI April 8, 2011

Avi on nidda For me, the laws of family purity are the best proof that the oral and written Torah are G-d's words and were not created by a group of men. Can you imagine a man or a woman (or a whole committee of men or women) coming up with the laws of family purity? Being separated for 12 days each month and even longer after childbirth goes against human nature and human desire!

We've only started practicing it less than 2 years ago (because we did not grow up in observant, or in my case, even religious families), and I can say that the rewards for keeping family purity can be felt immediately! And it's a wonderful thing.
Keeping it is not easy. It is challenging. I can't say i've never got frustrated or cried. But it has done so much good for our relationship in every way! We've learnt to appreciate more the intimacy we have, and we've also learnt how to build a relationship through communication and kind gestures during the separation periods.


Odom Der Baider March 21, 2011

Salvation and Mikveh The connection of these two ideas is a purely Christian notion with no place in Judaism. The closest you get to it is the fact that a convert immerses, but it is more about cleansing and transformation than salvation. Reply

Anonymous Cleveland, OH/USA via March 7, 2011

Purity, Impurity, Rabinnic and Biblical Teachings Hello:
I happened upon this site as I wandered around on the net in search of a greater explanation of the Jewish Mikvah, in all of its many meanings, that began with Wikipedia (not sure if all of the article there is exhaustive or accurate). Please excuse any mistakes here in the writing, I am not Jewish so this is all quite new to me.
I feel I must hear is very fascinating and I am feeling a great respect for all of this information about an ancient subject and practice.
I would like to know how all of this is related to the Jewish concept or understanding of salvation of one's soul? I am sure this is a huge topic and please forgive if my question may not be stated correctly...I await your answer...Sincerely, Anonymous Reply

Anonymous dallas, tx April 23, 2009

answer to "confused" There is no contradiction. The article explains that G-d supervises childbirth and is only in niddah afterwards:

As the Talmud tells us, G-d is directly involved with every childbirth and does not delegate any powers to His "messengers." Thus, there is a very great level of holiness at birth; the birth of a child involves one of the most sublime powers of G-d, the ability to create ex nihilo--something from nothing. After birth, this intense holiness, this powerful force of G-d, "departs" and there is greater potential for tumah. Reply

Chaya Rivka CA September 3, 2008

Beautiful, thank you! Reply

Confused August 4, 2008

birth resulting in niddah At first I was happy to see, finally, a good reason why birth results in impurity - because G-d's presence, so manifest during birth, "recedes".

But then I realized; a woman, actually, usually becomes a niddah long before the birth is over! In other words, a woman is in niddah "an absence of holiness", precisely when G-d's presence is most manifest - when she is delivering the child!

I would be happy to hear an explanation for this glaring contradiciton, which completely undermines the explanation for niddah after birth given in the article. Reply

Anonymous May 22, 2008

Eliana's comment answering Avi Hi

I personally have never had relations during my menses and never will, but not for the reason offered by Eliana. I know many women who do and tell me it actually gets rid of their cramps and bloating and it speeds up the process of finishing the period. Also some who embark on this tell me it is the time they enjoy sex the most.

All this means that our embarking on such things should not be subjective. I don't do it for two reasons: the first G-d forbids it. The second, I personally feel awful at this time of the month and it disgusts me.

My problem is with not having relations during the clean week. In my opinion a day or two after the period should suffice to avoid any extra blood and allowing couples to embark on relationships not for procreation only but to enjoy the intimacy and sheer pleasure of what after all G-d himself has created in that way! Reply

Eliana Brooklyn, NY April 9, 2008

Avi's comment on niddah Avi, perhaps as a man you don't realize that having relations during menstruation can be very uncomfortable, even painful for a woman. Many woman experience bloating, nausea, headaches, mood swings, even pain during menstruation. Expecting them to be intimate at that time is unreasonable--laws of niddah or not. "Asking" a woman for relations at that time is intimidating and can make the woman feel like a slave to her husband's sexual desires. This does not make for a physicallly or spiritually healthy relationship! Reply

Shmary April 8, 2008

Misconceptions Birth confers niddah status regardless of whether or not there is any blood. Check with your rabbi. Conception is creation ex nihilo, failure to conceive creates a vacuum devoid of that divine power. Pregnancy is the development of a life, birth is the expelling of that life from the body. Miscarriages and stillbirths means a life dies, not that it never existed. The laws of niddah are not rabbinic, they are biblical. At any rate, if you suspect the rabbis of some kind of nefarious motive in making their regulations, then you have a larger issue that needs to be addressed than the laws of niddah alone. Reply

Avi Hermit Park, Australia via April 3, 2008

nidda can think of it as rabbinical control over our collective sexuality. By preventing us from being intimate with our spouses for the full period of menstruation and then following that with 7 clean days you not only insure that both members are eager for intimacy but you also make sure it happens around ovulation, thereby increasing chances of conception. Add to that the prohibition to spill seeds and you have undeniable control over the reproductive capacity of 'the flock'.

And let me tell you, sometimes it does feel like we're all sheep... Reply

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