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The Basics

The Basics

The taharah, funeral and burial

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I. Preparing the Body and Making the Funeral Arrangements:

  1. The Jewish Way--Interment in the Earth. Jewish law is unequivocal in its insistence that the body, in its entirety, be returned to the earth, in a way that allows for the natural process of its decomposition and re-integration with its primordial source--the soil of which it was formed. It also insists that in the interim between death and interment, the integrity and dignity of the body be respected and preserved. Thus Torah law forbids embalming the body (which involves disposing much of the body's innards and "re-making" its hollowed-out shell), displaying it (a vulgar affront to its dignity and privacy) or cremating it (which prematurely and violently destroys it). Autopsies, which violate the body's integrity and almost always result in parts of it not achieving proper burial, are likewise forbidden, except in extreme circumstances (a qualified rabbi should be consulted in such cases).

  2. The Chevra Kadisha. Every Jewish community has a Chevra Kadishah--lit., "Holy Society"--of dedicated men and women who are committed to ensuring that every Jew who passes on is accorded a proper Jewish burial. The preparation and interment of the body should be entrusted to the local Chevra Kadishah. They will conduct the Taharah (cleansing of the body), dress the deceased in the tachrichim, and otherwise ensure that the burial is conducted in accordance with Jewish tradition.

  3. Jewish Burial. A Jew should be buried only among fellow Jews, in a Jewish cemetery. Jewish tradition regards it as a matter of great importance that only fellow Jews should handle the body of a deceased Jew, carry (or wheel) the casket, place the casket in the earth and fill in the grave. Every possible effort should be made that this indeed be the case.

II. Basic Components of the Funeral Service:

  1. Rending of the Garments ("Keriah"). First-degree relatives (i.e., the children, siblings, spouse and parents of the deceased) are obligated to express their pain and sorrow by tearing their clothes over their hearts. This is usually done at the beginning of the funeral service. (Alternatively, some communities have the custom to perform the keriah immediately following the death, or upon the interment in the grave.)

  2. The Eulogy ("Hesped") involves: a) speaking of the good that the deceased was and did, so we should feel the extent of our loss; and b) "let the living take to heart" (Ecclesiastes 7:2)--the lessons we should learn from the deceased and emulate in our lives. These words may be spoken by the officiating rabbi and/or anyone who knew the person.

  3. Escorting the Deceased ("Lavayah"). Traditionally the coffin or bier was carried on the shoulders all the way to the cemetery. The family and community would follow in a procession to accord honor and comfort to the deceased. Nowadays, the long distance to burial places usually precludes this, but it is still important to walk behind the coffin some distance--either before the hearse leaves for the cemetery, or at the cemetery when the coffin is carried from the hearse to the gravesite--thereby fulfilling the important mitzvah of halvayat ha-met, "escorting the deceased."

  4. The Burial ("Kevurah"). We return the body to the earth that is its source. This is our final act of caring, and it is considered a great mitzvah to physically participate in the burial. Ideally, the whole grave should be filled in, by hand, by fellow Jews. Where this is not possible, at least the coffin should be completely covered with earth. At this point, Tzidduk Hadin is recited--a series of verses acknowledging G‑d's just ways even as we confront tragedy. We then recite the Kaddish and the El Malei Rachamim memorial prayer. (Click here for the texts of Tzidduk Hadin, the Kaddish and El Malei Rachamim)

  5. Comforting the Mourners. We begin the mourning process and the extending of comfort to the mourners immediately after the burial, while still in the cemetery. Those attending the burial form two parallel lines, and the mourners, who by now have removed their leather shoes, pass through this embracing community. Those standing in the lines speak the traditional words of comfort: Hamakom yenacheim etchem betoch shaar avelei tziyon v'yerushalayim--"May the Almighty comfort you among all the other mourners of Zion and Jerusalem." The mourning then moves to the locale that is chosen for the seven day Shivah mourning period. (The further stages of mourning are discussed in the following section, Shivah and Mourning)

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Simcha Bart for Chabad.org June 1, 2016

There is no Halacha about this, only different customs. Many of these customs are meant to reflect the belief in the Resurrection of the Dead (Techiyat Hameitim) which will take place when Moshiach comes. Thus, some who are buried in Israel have their feet face Jerusalem and the Temple Mount and those outside of Israel - the feet would be facing the route one would take to travel to Israel. For the same reason, some have the feet facing the entrance to the cemetery - to be ready to leave. Others customs have the feet face east and some have them facing south. All of the above is provided that one does not lay the deceased in a different direction than other graves. Reply

Anonymous Naples, FL May 31, 2016

Which Direction? In looking for a "Gan Eden" we got into a discussion of in which direction one is to be buried. Is there Halacha on whether the deceased is to face east-west, north-south, or what?
Thank you. Reply

lisa PA January 28, 2014

thank you for this information i just attended my stepfather's funeral. it was led by his local chabad rabbi. my mother walked down between the row of women and men, something i had been unaware of. these explanations are extremely comforting. Reply

Yisroel Cotlar Cary NC November 26, 2012

Re: There are several reasons given for this tradition of placing pottery shards over the eyes. One is that this way the earth comes in direct contact with the deceased (even though a casket is used) Reply

Kimberlee Cherry Omaha November 21, 2012

Three broken pieces of pottery I am on the Chevra Kadisha and wondered why is it customary to put the pottery over the eyes and mouth. Reply

Yehuda Shurpin for Chabad.org June 19, 2011

According to Jewish law, a person is only held accountable for actions when they are done willingly, and with full cognizance of their implications. Therefore, those who were burned in the ovens during the Holocaust have not transgressed any prohibition. For more on this see Why does Jewish law forbid cremation? Reply

Cathy Odessa, Fl June 19, 2011

Cremation I have relatives who were gased and then burned in the ovens in the holocaust. What becomes of their soul and the now their permenantly destroyed body at the ressurection of the dead? Reply

Shoshannah Garner, NC February 18, 2011

Re: Women at Burials I happened across this comment one week after I attended a Jewish funeral/burial. I added soil to cover the coffin, and helped two of the Chassidic rabbis of our community fill the grave after other mourners left. So the answer is yes, definitely women may participate! Reply

Anonymous Leatherhead, UK April 28, 2010

Women at burials What is the role of women at burial services?
Do they attend? May they add soil to cover the coffin? Reply

Eliezer Zalmanov for Chabad.org for Chabad.org August 23, 2009

Re: Music at a Jewish Funeral In Jewish tradition music represents joy and celebration, and is therefore discouraged at funerals. Reply

Jerome Schwell Easton, PA August 21, 2009

Music at a Jewish Funeral What is the custom/Halachic precept regarding the playing of a piece of "somber, appropriate in tone & content" music at a Jewish funeral? Reply

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