Chapter 14

1You are children of the Lord, your God. You shall neither cut yourselves nor make any baldness between your eyes for the dead.   אבָּנִ֣ים אַתֶּ֔ם לַֽיהֹוָ֖ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶ֑ם לֹ֣א תִתְגֹּֽדְד֗וּ וְלֹֽא־תָשִׂ֧ימוּ קָרְחָ֛ה בֵּ֥ין עֵֽינֵיכֶ֖ם לָמֵֽת:
You shall neither cut yourselves: Do not make cuts and incisions in your flesh [to mourn] for the dead, in the manner that the Amorites do, because you are the children of the Omnipresent and it is appropriate for you to be handsome and not to be cut or have your hair torn out.   לא תתגודדו: לא תתנו גדידה ושרט בבשרכם על מת כדרך שהאמוריים עושין, לפי שאתם בניו של מקום ואתם ראוין להיות נאים ולא גדודים ומקורחים:
[nor make any baldness] between your eyes: [i.e.,] near the forehead. Elsewhere, however, it says: “They shall not make their head bald” (Lev. 21: 5), to make the entire head like between the eyes (בֵּין עֵינַיִם) [i.e., one must not make bald spots on any part of the head]. — [Sifrei]   בין עיניכם: אצל הפדחת. ובמקום אחר הוא אומר (ויקרא כא, ה) לא יקרחו קרחה בראשם, לעשות כל הראש כבין העינים:
2For you are a holy people to the Lord, your God, and the Lord has chosen you to be a treasured people for Him, out of all the nations that are upon the earth.   בכִּ֣י עַ֤ם קָדוֹשׁ֙ אַתָּ֔ה לַֽיהֹוָ֖ה אֱלֹהֶ֑יךָ וּבְךָ֞ בָּחַ֣ר יְהֹוָ֗ה לִֽהְי֥וֹת לוֹ֙ לְעַ֣ם סְגֻלָּ֔ה מִכֹּל֙ הָֽעַמִּ֔ים אֲשֶׁ֖ר עַל־פְּנֵ֥י הָֽאֲדָמָֽה:
For you are a holy people: Your holiness stems from your forefathers, and, moreover, “the Lord has chosen you.” - [Sifrei]   כי עם קדוש אתה: קדושת עצמך מאבותיך. ועוד, ובך בחר ה':
3You shall not eat any abomination.   גלֹ֥א תֹאכַ֖ל כָּל־תּֽוֹעֵבָֽה:
[You shall not eat] any abomination: Anything that I have declared to be an abomination for you-for instance, if he made a slit in the ear of a firstborn [animal], in order to [be permitted to] slaughter it in the country [i.e., outside the Temple walls, where blemished firstborns must be slaughtered]. This is a thing that I have declared to be an abomination for you, for “no blemish shall be in it” (Lev. 22:21) [meaning that one may not make a blemish on a firstborn or on any sacrificial animal. Our verse] comes to teach here that one may not slaughter [the firstborn] and eat it based on that [deliberately made] blemish. [Another example is] if one cooked meat in milk, which is a thing that I declared an abomination for you; and here Scripture admonishes against eating it. — [Chul. 114b]   כל תועבה: כל שתעבתי לך, שאם צרם אוזן בכור כדי לשוחטו במדינה, הרי דבר שתעבתי לך כל מום לא יהיה בו, ובא ולמד כאן שלא ישחט ויאכל על אותו המום. בשל בשר בחלב הרי דבר שתעבתי לך, והזהיר כאן על אכילתו:
4These are the animals that you may eat: ox, lamb, and kid,   דזֹ֥את הַבְּהֵמָ֖ה אֲשֶׁ֣ר תֹּאכֵ֑לוּ שׁ֕וֹר שֵׂ֥ה כְשָׂבִ֖ים וְשֵׂ֥ה עִזִּֽים:
5gazelle, deer, and antelope, ibex, chamois, bison, and giraffe.   האַיָּ֥ל וּצְבִ֖י וְיַחְמ֑וּר וְאַקּ֥וֹ וְדִישֹׁ֖ן וּתְא֥וֹ וָזָֽמֶר:
This is the animal [which you may eat…] the gazelle, and the deer, and the antelope: [Since the verse begins with “This is the animal (בְּהֵמָה) …” and then goes on to enumerate types of wild beasts (חַיָּה),] we learn that the category of wild beasts (חַיָּה) is included in the category of (בְּהֵמָה), [which usually refers only to domestic animals]. - [Sifrei ; Chul. 71a] We learn also that unclean domestic and wild animals are more numerous than clean [ones] since the less numerous are always enumerated. [Therefore, the clean animals are enumerated here.] - [Sifrei; Chul. 63a]   זאת הבהמה וגו', איל וצבי ויחמור : למדנו שהחיה בכלל בהמה ולמדנו שבהמה וחיה טמאה, מרובה מן הטהורה, שבכל מקום פורט את המועט:
and the ibex: Heb. וְאַקּוֹ. This is rendered by Targum [Onkelos] as יַעִלָא, [like the Hebrew יָעֵל in the expression] יַעִלֵי סָלַע (Job 39:1). This is known as estainboc [in Old French, mountain goat].   ואקו: מתורגם יעלא (איוב לט, א) יעלי סלע הוא אשטנבו"ק [יעל סלע]:
and the bison: Heb. וּתְאוֹ.[Onkelos renders this:] וְתוּרְבָּלָא, [which is the equivalent of] תּוֹר הַיַעַר, “the ox of the forest,” for בָּאלָא means “forest” in the Aramaic language.   ותאו: תורבלא, שור היער. באלא יער, בלשון ארמי:
6And every animal that has a split hoof and has a hoof cloven into two hoof sections, [and] chews the cud among the animals that you may eat.   ווְכָל־בְּהֵמָ֞ה מַפְרֶ֣סֶת פַּרְסָ֗ה וְשֹׁסַ֤עַת שֶׁ֨סַע֙ שְׁתֵּ֣י פְרָס֔וֹת מַֽעֲלַ֥ת גֵּרָ֖ה בַּבְּהֵמָ֑ה אֹתָ֖הּ תֹּאכֵֽלוּ:
split: Heb. מַפְרֶסֶת, split, as the Targum [Onkelos renders it].   מפרסת: סדוקה כתרגומו:
hoof: Heb. פַּרְסָה, plante [in French].   פרסה: פלנט"א [כף רגל]:
[and has a hoof] cloven [into two hoof sections]: [Hooves] cloven into two “nails,” for there are [animals with hooves] split but not entirely cloven into [two] nails; such animals are unclean.   ושסעת: חלוקה בשתי צפרנים שיש סדוקה ואינה חלוקה בצפרנים והיא טמאה:
among the animals - [that you may eat]: Heb. בַּבְּהֵמָה This [means literally “within the animal”], meaning that anything found inside the beast, you may eat. From here [our Rabbis] said that a fetus becomes permitted to be eaten through the [proper] slaughtering of its mother [without requiring its own slaughtering]. — [Chul. 69a]   בבהמה: משמע מה שנמצא בבהמה אכול, מכאן אמרו שהשליל ניתר בשחיטת אמו:
7But you shall not eat of those that chew the cud, or of those that have the split hooves: the cloven one, the camel, the hyrax, and the hare, for they chew the cud, but do not have split hooves; they are unclean for you.   זאַ֣ךְ אֶת־זֶ֞ה לֹ֤א תֹֽאכְלוּ֙ מִמַּֽעֲלֵ֣י הַגֵּרָ֔ה וּמִמַּפְרִיסֵ֥י הַפַּרְסָ֖ה הַשְּׁסוּעָ֑ה אֶת־הַ֠גָּמָ֠ל וְאֶת־הָֽאַרְנֶ֨בֶת וְאֶת־הַשָּׁפָ֜ן כִּי־מַֽעֲלֵ֧ה גֵרָ֣ה הֵ֗מָּה וּפַרְסָה֙ לֹ֣א הִפְרִ֔יסוּ טְמֵאִ֥ים הֵ֖ם לָכֶֽם:
the cloven one: This is a certain creature that has two backs and two spinal columns (Chul. 60b). Our Rabbis said: Why are [these animals and birds] repeated [here, since they are already mentioned in Lev. 11]? Because of the [animal called] שְׁסוּעָה, and in [the category of] fowl because of the רָאָה, both of which are not mentioned in Torath Kohanim [i.e., Lev.]. — [Chul. 63b]   השסועה: בריה היא שיש לה שני גבין ושתי שדראות. אמרו רבותינו למה נשנו, בבהמות מפני השסועה, ובעופות מפני הראה, שלא נאמרו בתורת כהנים:
8And the pig, because it has a split hoof, but does not chew the cud; it is unclean for you. You shall neither eat of their flesh nor touch their carcass.   חוְאֶת־הַֽ֠חֲזִ֠יר כִּֽי־מַפְרִ֨יס פַּרְסָ֥ה הוּא֙ וְלֹ֣א גֵרָ֔ה טָמֵ֥א ה֖וּא לָכֶ֑ם מִבְּשָׂרָם֙ לֹ֣א תֹאכֵ֔לוּ וּבְנִבְלָתָ֖ם לֹ֥א תִגָּֽעוּ:
nor touch their carcass: Our Rabbis explained [that this refers only to] the Festival[s], for a person is obliged to purify himself for the Festival. One might think that [all Israelites] are prohibited [from touching a carcass] during the entire year. Therefore, Scripture states [in reference to the uncleanness of a corpse], “Say to the kohanim … [none shall be defiled for the dead…]” (Lev. 21:1). Now if in the case of the uncleanness caused by a [human] corpse, which is a stringent [kind of uncleanness, only] kohanim are prohibited regarding it but [ordinary] Israelites are not prohibited, then in the case of uncleanness caused by a carcass [of an animal], which is light [i.e., a less stringent uncleanness], how much more so [is the case that ordinary Israelites are permitted to touch these carcasses]!   ובנבלתם לא תגעו: רבותינו פירשו, ברגל. שאדם חייב לטהר את עצמו ברגל. יכול יהיו מוזהרים בכל השנה, תלמוד לומר (ויקרא כא, א) אמור אל הכהנים וגו' ומה טומאת המת חמורה, כהנים מוזהרים ואין ישראל מוזהרים, טומאת נבלה קלה לא כל שכן:
9These you may eat of all that are in the waters; all that have fins and scales, you may eat.   טאֶת־זֶה֙ תֹּֽאכְל֔וּ מִכֹּ֖ל אֲשֶׁ֣ר בַּמָּ֑יִם כֹּ֧ל אֲשֶׁר־ל֛וֹ סְנַפִּ֥יר וְקַשְׂקֶ֖שֶׂת תֹּאכֵֽלוּ:
10But whatever does not have fins and scales, you shall not eat; it is unclean for you.   יוְכֹ֨ל אֲשֶׁ֧ר אֵין־ל֛וֹ סְנַפִּ֥יר וְקַשְׂקֶ֖שֶׂת לֹ֣א תֹאכֵ֑לוּ טָמֵ֥א ה֖וּא לָכֶֽם:
11You may eat every clean bird.   יאכָּל־צִפּ֥וֹר טְהֹרָ֖ה תֹּאכֵֽלוּ:
You may eat every clean bird: [“Every”] comes to include [as permissible to eat] the bird that is set free [in the purification rite] of a metzora (see Lev. 14:7). - [Sifrei ; Kid. 57a]   כל צפור טהורה תאכלו: להתיר משולחת שבמצורע:
12But these are those from which you shall not eat: The eagle [or the griffin vulture], the ossifrage, the osprey;   יבוְזֶ֕ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר לֹא־תֹֽאכְל֖וּ מֵהֶ֑ם הַנֶּ֥שֶׁר וְהַפֶּ֖רֶס וְהָֽעָזְנִיָּֽה:
But these are those from which you shall not eat: [The word “which” comes] to forbid [as food] the [bird that is] slaughtered [in the purification rite of a metzora]. — [Sifrei; Kid. 57a]   וזה אשר לא תאכלו מהם: לאסור את השחוטה:
13and the white vulture, and the black vulture, and the kite after its species;   יגוְהָֽרָאָה֙ וְאֶת־הָ֣אַיָּ֔ה וְהַדַּיָּ֖ה לְמִינָֽהּ:
the white vulture and the black vulture: רָאָה, אַיָּה and דַּיָּה are [names for] the same [or similar] bird. Why is its name called רָאָה ? Because it sees (רוֹאֶה) very well. And why does [Scripture] admonish you with all its names? In order not to give an opponent any opportunity to disagree, so that the one who wishes to prohibit should not call it רָאָה, and the one who wishes to permit it will say, “This one is named דַּיָּה,” or “This one is named אַיָּה,” and Scripture did not prohibit this one!" And in the case of birds, [Scripture] enumerates the unclean species, to teach that the clean birds are more numerous than the unclean [in contrast with Rashi on verses 4-5, regarding animals]. Therefore, it enumerates the fewer ones. - [Chul. 63b]   והראה ואת האיה וגו': היא ראה היא איה היא דיה. ולמה נקרא שמה ראה, שרואה ביותר. ולמה הזהיר בכל שמותיה, שלא ליתן פתחון פה לבעל דין לחלוק, שלא יהא האוסרה קורא אותה ראה והבא להתיר אומר, זו דיה שמה או איה שמה, וזו לא אסר הכתוב. ובעופות פרט לך הטמאים, ללמד שהעופות הטהורים מרובים על הטמאים, לפיכך פרט את המועט:
14And every raven after its species;   ידוְאֵ֥ת כָּל־עֹרֵ֖ב לְמִינֽוֹ:
15And the ostrich, and the owl, and the gull, and the hawk after its species;   טווְאֵת֙ בַּ֣ת הַיַּֽעֲנָ֔ה וְאֶת־הַתַּחְמָ֖ס וְאֶת־הַשָּׁ֑חַף וְאֶת־הַנֵּ֖ץ לְמִינֵֽהוּ:
16The falcon, and the ibis, and the bat;   טזאֶת־הַכּ֥וֹס וְאֶת־הַיַּנְשׁ֖וּף וְהַתִּנְשָֽׁמֶת:
the bat: Heb. וְהַתִּנְשֶׁמֶת, calve-soriz [in Old French], bat, [chauve souris in modern French. Note that Rashi on Isa. 2:20 brings this laaz for עִטַלֵּף, whereas here and in Lev. 11:18, he brings it for תִּנְשֶׁמֶת and does not identify עִטַלֵּף.   והתנשמת: קלב"א שורי"ץ [עטלף]:
17And the pelican, and the magpie, and the cormorant;   יזוְהַקָּאָ֥ת וְאֶת־הָֽרָחָ֖מָה וְאֶת־הַשָּׁלָֽךְ:
the cormorant: [or the gull] Heb. שָׁלָךְ, [a bird] that draws out (שׁוֹלֶה) fish from the sea. — [Chul. 63b]   שלך: השולה דגים מן הים:
18And the stork, and the heron and its species, and the hoopoe, and the atalef.   יחוְהַ֣חֲסִידָ֔ה וְהָֽאֲנָפָ֖ה לְמִינָ֑הּ וְהַדּֽוּכִיפַ֖ת וְהָֽעֲטַלֵּֽף:
and the hoopoe: וְהַדּוּכִיפַת. The wild rooster, [which is called] in Old French haruppe, and which has a double crest. — [Gittin 68]   דוכיפת: הוא תרנגול הבר ובלע"ז הרופ"א [דוכיפת] וכרבלתו כפולה:
19And every flying insect is unclean for you; they may not be eaten.   יטוְכֹל֙ שֶׁ֣רֶץ הָע֔וֹף טָמֵ֥א ה֖וּא לָכֶ֑ם לֹ֖א יֵֽאָכֵֽלוּ:
flying insects: שֶׁרֶץ. These are the lowly [creatures] that swarm on the ground: flies, hornets, and the unclean species of locusts. [All these] are called שֶׁרֶץ.   שרץ העוף: הם הנמוכים הרוחשים על הארץ, כגון זבובין וצרעים וחגבים טמאים, הם קרויים שרץ:
20You may eat any clean fowl.   ככָּל־ע֥וֹף טָה֖וֹר תֹּאכֵֽלוּ:
You may eat every clean fowl: But not the unclean ones. Here [Scripture] comes to attach a positive commandment to the negative commandment. Similarly, in the case of [clean] animals, it says: “that you may eat” (verse 6), [but] not the unclean ones. A prohibition inferred from a positive commandment [is regarded as] a positive commandment, so that one [who eats such food] transgresses a positive and a negative commandment.   כל עוף טהור תאכלו: ולא את הטמא. בא ליתן עשה על לא תעשה. וכן בבהמה, אותה תאכלו ולא בהמה טמאה, לאו הבא מכלל עשה עשה, לעבור עליהם בעשה ולא תעשה:
21You shall not eat any carcass. You may give it to the stranger who is in your cities, that he may eat it, or you may sell it to a foreigner; for you are a holy people to the Lord, your God. You shall not cook a kid in its mother's milk.   כאלֹא־תֹֽאכְל֣וּ כָל־נְ֠בֵלָ֠ה לַגֵּ֨ר אֲשֶׁר־בִּשְׁעָרֶ֜יךָ תִּתְּנֶ֣נָּה וַֽאֲכָלָ֗הּ א֤וֹ מָכֹר֙ לְנָכְרִ֔י כִּ֣י עַ֤ם קָדוֹשׁ֙ אַתָּ֔ה לַֽיהֹוָ֖ה אֱלֹהֶ֑יךָ לֹֽא־תְבַשֵּׁ֥ל גְּדִ֖י בַּֽחֲלֵ֥ב אִמּֽוֹ:
You shall not eat any carcass. You may give it] to the stranger who is within your cities: [i.e.,] a resident alien (גֵּר תּוֹשָׁב), who has accepted upon himself not to worship idols, but he eats carcasses [animals not ritually slaughtered]. — [Sifrei]   לגר אשר בשעריך: גר תושב שקבל עליו שלא לעבוד עבודה זרה ואוכל נבלות:
for you are a holy people to the Lord: Sanctify yourself with that which is permitted to you; i.e., there are things which are technically permissible, but which some people treat as forbidden. In the presence of these people, do not treat those things as permissible. — [Sifrei]   כי עם קדוש אתה לה': קדש את עצמך במותר לך. דברים המותרים ואחרים נוהגים בהם איסור, אל תתירם בפניהם:
You shall not cook a kid [in its mother’s milk]: [This is stated] three times [here, in Exod. 23:19, and in Exod. 34:26], to exclude wild animals, fowl, and unclean animals [from the prohibition of cooking meat in milk]. — [Chul. 113a]   לא תבשל גדי: שלש פעמים. פרט לחיה ולעופות ולבהמה טמאה: לא תבשל גדי וגו':
22You shall tithe all the seed crop that the field gives forth, year by year.   כבעַשֵּׂ֣ר תְּעַשֵּׂ֔ר אֵ֖ת כָּל־תְּבוּאַ֣ת זַרְעֶ֑ךָ הַיֹּצֵ֥א הַשָּׂדֶ֖ה שָׁנָ֥ה שָׁנָֽה:
You shall tithe [all the seed crop]: What has one matter to do with the other [i.e., the prohibition of cooking a kid, and tithing]? The Holy One, blessed is He, said to Israel: Do not cause Me to destroy the [developing] kernels (גְּדָיִים) of grain, while they are yet in their “mother’s womb” [i.e., in the husks], for if you do not tithe your produce properly, when it is near ripening I will bring forth an easterly wind, which will blast them, as it is said, “and blast before becoming standing grain” (II Kings 19:26) (Tanchuma). [And just as cooking the kid in its mother’s milk and the tithes are juxtaposed,] so is the topic of the first fruits (בִּכּוּרִים) [juxtaposed to cooking the kid in its mother’s milk (see Exod. 23:19, 34:26), to teach us that, if you do not bring your first fruits to the Temple as commanded, your fruit produce will wither].   עשר תעשר: מה ענין זה אצל זה, אמר להם הקב"ה לישראל, לא תגרמו לי לבשל גדיים של תבואה עד שהן במעי אמותיהן, שאם אין אתם מעשרים מעשרות כראוי, כשהוא סמוך להתבשל אני מוציא רוח קדים והיא משדפתן. שנאמר (מלכים ב' יט, כא) ושדפה לפני קמה, וכן לענין בכורים:
[You shall tithe…] year by year: From here, we derive [the ruling] that one may not give tithes from the new [crop] for the old [i.e., from this year’s crop for last year’s]. — [Sifrei]   שנה שנה: מכאן שאין מעשרין מן החדש על הישן:
23And you shall eat before the Lord, your God, in the place He chooses to establish His Name therein, the tithes of your grain, your wine, and your oil, and the firstborn of your cattle and of your sheep, so that you may learn to fear the Lord, your God, all the days.   כגוְאָֽכַלְתָּ֞ לִפְנֵ֣י | יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֗יךָ בַּמָּק֣וֹם אֲשֶׁר־יִבְחַר֘ לְשַׁכֵּ֣ן שְׁמ֣וֹ שָׁם֒ מַעְשַׂ֤ר דְּגָֽנְךָ֙ תִּֽירשְׁךָ֣ וְיִצְהָרֶ֔ךָ וּבְכֹרֹ֥ת בְּקָֽרְךָ֖ וְצֹאנֶ֑ךָ לְמַ֣עַן תִּלְמַ֗ד לְיִרְאָ֛ה אֶת־יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ כָּל־הַיָּמִֽים:
And you shall eat [before the Lord your God, in the place He chooses… the tithes of your grain…]: This refers to ma’aser sheini, “the second tithe,” for we have already learned to give ma’aser rishon, “the first tithe,” to the Levites, as it is said, “[Speak to the Levites…] when you take from the children of Israel [the tithe]… ” (Num. 18:26), and it gives them permission to eat it anywhere [not only in Jerusalem], as it is said, “and you may eat it in any place” (Num. 18:31). Thus you must conclude that this one [which may be eaten by its owners and must be eaten in Jerusalem,] is another tithe [namely, the second tithe].   ואכלת וגו': זה מעשר שני. שכבר למדנו ליתן מעשר ראשון ללוים, שנאמר (במדבר יח, כו) כי תקחו מאת בני ישראל וגו', ונתן להם רשות לאכלו בכל מקום, שנאמר (שם יח, לא) ואכלתם אותו בכל מקום, על כרחך זה מעשר אחר הוא:
24And if the way be too long for you, that you are unable to carry it, for the place which the Lord, your God, will choose to establish His Name therein, is too far from you, for the Lord, your God, will bless you   כדוְכִֽי־יִרְבֶּ֨ה מִמְּךָ֜ הַדֶּ֗רֶךְ כִּ֣י לֹ֣א תוּכַל֘ שְׂאֵתוֹ֒ כִּֽי־יִרְחַ֤ק מִמְּךָ֙ הַמָּק֔וֹם אֲשֶׁ֤ר יִבְחַר֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ לָשׂ֥וּם שְׁמ֖וֹ שָׁ֑ם כִּ֥י יְבָֽרֶכְךָ֖ יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶֽיךָ:
For [the Lord your God] will bless you: so that your produce will be too much to carry.   כי יברכך: שתהא התבואה מרובה לשאת:
25Then you shall turn it into money, and bind up the money in your hand, and you shall go to the place the Lord, your God, will choose.   כהוְנָֽתַתָּ֖ה בַּכָּ֑סֶף וְצַרְתָּ֤ הַכֶּ֨סֶף֙ בְּיָ֣דְךָ֔ וְהָֽלַכְתָּ֙ אֶל־הַמָּק֔וֹם אֲשֶׁ֥ר יִבְחַ֛ר יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ בּֽוֹ:
26And you shall turn that money into whatever your soul desires; cattle, sheep, new wine or old wine, or whatever your soul desires, and you shall eat there before the Lord, your God, and you shall rejoice, you and your household.   כווְנָֽתַתָּ֣ה הַכֶּ֡סֶף בְּכֹל֩ אֲשֶׁר־תְּאַוֶּ֨ה נַפְשְׁךָ֜ בַּבָּקָ֣ר וּבַצֹּ֗אן וּבַיַּ֨יִן֙ וּבַשֵּׁכָ֔ר וּבְכֹ֛ל אֲשֶׁ֥ר תִּשְׁאָֽלְךָ֖ נַפְשֶׁ֑ךָ וְאָכַ֣לְתָּ שָּׁ֗ם לִפְנֵי֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ וְשָֽׂמַחְתָּ֖ אַתָּ֥ה וּבֵיתֶֽךָ:
[And you will turn that money] into whatever your soul desires: This is a כְּלָל, a general statement [not limited to anything in particular. Whereas the next expression,]   בכל אשר תאוה נפשך: כלל:
cattle, or sheep, new wine or old wine: [represents a] פְּרָט, a “specification” [that is, it details particular things, limiting the matter to those things. After this, the verse continues,]   בבקר ובצאן וביין ובשכר: פרט:
or whatever your soul desires: [The verse] again reverts to a כְּלָל, a “general statement.” [Now we have learned that when a verse expresses a כְּלָל, a פְּרָט, and then a כְּלָל again, as in this case, we apply the characteristics of the פְּרָט to the whole matter. That is,] just as the items listed in the פְּרָט 1) are products of things themselves produced by the earth [e.g., wine comes from grapes], and 2) are fitting to be food for man, [so must the money replacing them be used to purchase such products]. — [Eruvin 27a]   ובכל אשר תשאלך נפשך: חזר וכלל. מה הפרט מפורש ולד ולדות הארץ וראוי למאכל אדם וכו':
27And [as for] the Levite who is in your cities you shall not forsake him, for he has neither portion nor inheritance with you.   כזוְהַלֵּוִ֥י אֲשֶׁר־בִּשְׁעָרֶ֖יךָ לֹ֣א תַֽעַזְבֶ֑נּוּ כִּ֣י אֵ֥ין ל֛וֹ חֵ֥לֶק וְנַֽחֲלָ֖ה עִמָּֽךְ:
And [as for] the Levite… - you shall not forsake him: By not giving him the first tithe.   והלוי וגו' לא תעזבנו: מליתן לו מעשר ראשון:
for he has neither portion nor inheritance with you: This excludes gleanings (Lev. 19:9), forgotten sheaves (Deut. 24:19), the end of the field (Lev. 19:9), [all of which are left for the poor,] and ownerless things, for the Levite does have a portion in these things, just as you do, and [consequently,] they are not subject to tithing.   כי אין לו חלק ונחלה עמך: יצאו לקט שכחה ופאה והפקר, שאף הוא יש לו חלק עמך בהן כמוך, ואינן חייבין במעשר:
28At the end of three years, you shall take out all the tithe of your crop in that year and place it in your cities.   כחמִקְצֵ֣ה | שָׁל֣שׁ שָׁנִ֗ים תּוֹצִיא֙ אֶת־כָּל־מַעְשַׂר֙ תְּבוּאָ֣תְךָ֔ בַּשָּׁנָ֖ה הַהִ֑וא וְהִנַּחְתָּ֖ בִּשְׁעָרֶֽיךָ:
At the end of three years [you shall take out all the tithe of your crop in that year]: This comes to teach us that if one kept his tithes from the first and the second year of the shemitah [cycle], he has to remove them from his house in the third [year].   מקצה שלש שנים: בא ולמד שאם השהה מעשרותיו של שנה ראשונה ושנייה לשמטה, שיבערם מן הבית בשלישית:
29And the Levite because he has no portion or inheritance with you and the stranger, and the orphan, and the widow, who are in your cities, will come and eat and be satisfied; so that the Lord, your God, will bless you in all the work of your hand that you will do.   כטוּבָ֣א הַלֵּוִ֡י כִּ֣י אֵין־לוֹ֩ חֵ֨לֶק וְנַֽחֲלָ֜ה עִמָּ֗ךְ וְ֠הַגֵּ֠ר וְהַיָּת֤וֹם וְהָֽאַלְמָנָה֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר בִּשְׁעָרֶ֔יךָ וְאָֽכְל֖וּ וְשָׂבֵ֑עוּ לְמַ֤עַן יְבָֽרֶכְךָ֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ בְּכָל־מַֽעֲשֵׂ֥ה יָֽדְךָ֖ אֲשֶׁ֥ר תַּֽעֲשֶֽׂה:
And the Levite… will come: And take the first tithe.   ובא הלוי: ויטול מעשר ראשון:
and the stranger, and the orphan… [will come]: And take the second tithe, which this year [the third in the seven year cycle], belongs to the poor, and you [yourself] may not eat it in Jerusalem, in the manner you were required to eat the second tithe in the [first] two years [of this cycle].   והגר והיתום: ויטלו מעשר שני, שהוא של עני של שנה זו, ולא תאכלנו אתה בירושלים כדרך שנזקקת לאכול מעשר שני של שתי שנים:
will come and eat and be satisfied: Give them enough to satisfy them. From here [our Rabbis] said: One must not give the poor from the threshing floor less [than half a kav of wheat, or a kav of barley] (Sifrei). And you go up to Jerusalem with the [second] tithe of the first and the second years which you have delayed [to bring], and you shall confess: “I have removed the sanctified things from the house” (see Deut. 26:13), as is stated in [the section beginning with] “When you have finished tithing…” (Deut. 26:12).   ואכלו ושבעו: תן להם כדי שביעה. מכאן אמרו אין פוחתין לעני בגורן וכו'. ואתה הולך לירושלים למעשר של שנה ראשונה ושנייה שהשהית ומתודה (דברים כו, יג) בערתי הקדש מן הבית, כמו שמפורש (שם כו, יב) בכי תכלה לעשר: