Chapter 7

1And this is the law of the guilt offering. It is a holy of holies.   אוְזֹ֥את תּוֹרַ֖ת הָֽאָשָׁ֑ם קֹ֥דֶשׁ קָֽדָשִׁ֖ים הֽוּא:
It is a holy of holies: It shall be sacrificed, but an animal substituted for it may not be sacrificed, [rather it remains in pasture until it becomes defective and then is redeemed]. — [Torath Kohanim 7:79]   קדש קדשים הוא: הוא קרב ואין תמורתו קרבה:
2They shall slaughter the guilt offering in the place where they slaughter the burnt offering; and its blood shall be dashed upon the altar, around.   בבִּמְק֗וֹם אֲשֶׁ֤ר יִשְׁחֲטוּ֙ אֶת־הָ֣עֹלָ֔ה יִשְׁחֲט֖וּ אֶת־הָֽאָשָׁ֑ם וְאֶת־דָּמ֛וֹ יִזְרֹ֥ק עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּ֖חַ סָבִֽיב:
They shall slaughter: Heb. יִשְׁחֲטוּ. [By using the plural verb, יִשְׁחֲטוּ, Scripture here has seemingly] come to describe many slaughterers [i.e., it has included the case of a communal guilt-offering, which has “many slaughterers,” i.e., is slaughtered for many]. However, since we do not find a case of a communal guilt-offering [mentioned in Scriptures, the verse is understood somewhat differently: it uses the plural pronoun,] as it links the guilt-offering with the burnt-offering [where we do have a case of a communal sacrifice], in order to include also the communal burnt-offering in the requirement that it too be slaughtered in the northern sector [of the Holy Temple courtyard, just as is required of an individual’s burnt-offering]. — [Torath Kohanim 7:82] [Rashi , as amended by Maharshal in Yerioth Shelomo , quoted by Leket Bahir. For alternative interpretations, see Chavel, Yosef Hallel. Many scholars consider this comment an addendum to Rashi because it does not appear in any early editions or manuscripts.]   ישחטו: ריבה לנו שחיטות הרבה, לפי שמצינו אשם בצבור, נאמר ישחטו רבים. ותלאו בעולה להביא עולת צבור לצפון:
3And all of its fat he shall offer from it: the tail and the fat covering the innards,   גוְאֵ֥ת כָּל־חֶלְבּ֖וֹ יַקְרִ֣יב מִמֶּ֑נּוּ אֵ֚ת הָֽאַלְיָ֔ה וְאֶת־הַחֵ֖לֶב הַֽמְכַסֶּ֥ה אֶת־הַקֶּֽרֶב:
All of its fat…: Until here, the sacrificial parts of a guilt-offering had not yet been delineated. This is why Scripture needs to delineate them here (verses 34). However, [the sacrificial parts of] the sin-offering have already been delineated in the parashah of וַיִּקְרָא (see Lev. 4:89), [and that is why its sacrificial parts were not delineated in the section describing the law of the sin-offering (see verses 6:18-23 above)].   ואת כל חלבו וגו': עד כאן לא נתפרשו אמורין באשם, לכך הוצרך לפרשם כאן, אבל חטאת כבר נתפרשו בה בפרשת ויקרא (פרק ב):
the tail: [In the case of the peace-offering, the Torah treated sheep and goat offerings as two separate entities, by specifying the sacrificial procedures for each one separately (see Lev. 3:7-15). Why, then, is no distinction made between sheep and goats in the case of guilt-offerings?] Since [for] a guilt-offering only a ram (אַיִל) or a lamb (כֶּבֶשׂ) may be brought, and rams and lambs are included in [the category of those animals whose] tail [is one of the sacrificial parts, [no distinction is made between sheep and goats].   את האליה: לפי שאשם אינו בא אלא איל או כבש, ואיל וכבש נתרבו באליה:
4and the two kidneys [along] with the fat that is upon them, which is on the flanks, and the diaphragm with the liver; along with the kidneys he shall remove it.   דוְאֵת֙ שְׁתֵּ֣י הַכְּלָיֹ֔ת וְאֶת־הַחֵ֨לֶב֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר עֲלֵיהֶ֔ן אֲשֶׁ֖ר עַל־הַכְּסָלִ֑ים וְאֶת־הַיֹּתֶ֨רֶת֙ עַל־הַכָּבֵ֔ד עַל־הַכְּלָיֹ֖ת יְסִירֶֽנָּה:
5And the kohen shall cause them to [go up in] smoke on the altar as a fire offering to the Lord. It is a guilt offering.   הוְהִקְטִ֨יר אֹתָ֤ם הַכֹּהֵן֙ הַמִּזְבֵּ֔חָה אִשֶּׁ֖ה לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה אָשָׁ֖ם הֽוּא:
It is a guilt-offering: Heb. אָשָׁם הוּא, [meaning that it is a guilt-offering] until its name is removed from it [by sending it out to pasture]. This teaches us concerning a guilt-offering whose owner has died, or whose owner has [lost the original animal, and subsequently] received atonement [through another animal], although it [the original guilt-offering animal] stands ready that its value [in money used to buy another animal which] is to be offered up as an עוֹלַת קַיִץ מִזְבֵּחַ (i.e., “a burnt-offering which was provision for the altar”; see Rashi, Lev. 1:2), nevertheless, if the [original guilt-offerings] were slaughtered, [if this had been done] before they are sent out to pasture. [Actually, the law is that the animals in these cases, the animal is sent out to pasture so that it become blemished and consequently unfit for sacrifice. Then it is sold, and its proceeds used for burnt-offerings for “provision for the altar.” Here, however, Rashi tells us that the status of “guilt-offering” is removed from the animal as soon as it is sent out to pasture, even before it becomes blemished. This expression, הוּא אָשָׁם, “It is a guilt-offering,”] does not come to teach us that a guilt-offering becomes invalid if it was sacrificed for another purpose [other than for a guilt-offering], as they expounded on [the word] הִיא in the case of the sin-offering (see Rashi Lev. 4:24, 5:9). [That is] because in the case of a guilt-offering, Scripture states “It is a guilt-offering” only after the sacrificial parts have been burnt. [And if we say that the verse is teaching us that the guilt-offering must be sacrificed for that specific purpose, not for any other, then this law must include also the procedure of burning the sacrificial parts, that they too must be burned for the purpose of a guilt-offering]. However, [we learned in Tractate Zev. (5b) that in the case of a guilt-offering,] if its sacrificial parts were not offered up [at all], it is valid.   אשם הוא: עד שינתק שמו ממנו. לימד על אשם שמתו בעליו או שנתכפרו בעליו, אף על פי שעומד להיות דמיו עולה לקיץ המזבח, אם שחטו סתם, אינו כשר לעולה קודם שנתק לרעיה. ואינו בא ללמד על האשם שיהא פסול שלא לשמו, כמו שדרשו הוא, הכתוב בחטאת, לפי שאשם לא נאמר בו אשם הוא, אלא לאחר הקטרת אמורין, והוא עצמו שלא הוקטרו אמוריו כשר:
6Any male among the kohanim may eat it; it shall be eaten in a holy place. It is a holy of holies.   וכָּל־זָכָ֥ר בַּכֹּֽהֲנִ֖ים יֹֽאכְלֶ֑נּוּ בְּמָק֤וֹם קָדוֹשׁ֙ יֵֽאָכֵ֔ל קֹ֥דֶשׁ קָֽדָשִׁ֖ים הֽוּא:
It is a holy of holies: [But has this not already been stated in verse 1?] This is expounded on in Torath Kohanim (7:84).   קדש קדשים הוא: בתורת כהנים הוא נדרש:
7Like the sin offering, so is the guilt offering, they have one law; the kohen who effects atonement through it to him it shall belong.   זכַּֽחַטָּאת֙ כָּֽאָשָׁ֔ם תּוֹרָ֥ה אַחַ֖ת לָהֶ֑ם הַכֹּהֵ֛ן אֲשֶׁ֥ר יְכַפֶּר־בּ֖וֹ ל֥וֹ יִֽהְיֶֽה:
They have one law: in regard to this matter:   תורה אחת להם: בדבר זה:
the kohen who effects atonement through it: i.e., [any kohen] who is fit to effect atonement, takes a share in it. This excludes one who immersed himself on that day [for his uncleanness, who may not perform the sacrificial service or eat holy things until sunset], one lacking atonement [if he did not yet bring his sacrifice on the day after his immersion, such as a זָב or a מְצֹרָע], and one whose close relative died on that day, [who is also disqualified from performing the sacrificial service]. - [Torath Kohanim 7:86]   הכהן אשר יכפר בו: הראוי לכפרה חולק בו, פרט לטבול יום ומחוסר כפורים ואונן:
8And the kohen who offers up a person's burnt offering, the skin of the burnt offering which he has offered up, belongs to the kohen; it shall be his.   חוְהַ֨כֹּהֵ֔ן הַמַּקְרִ֖יב אֶת־עֹ֣לַת אִ֑ישׁ ע֤וֹר הָֽעֹלָה֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר הִקְרִ֔יב לַכֹּהֵ֖ן ל֥וֹ יִֽהְיֶֽה:
the skin of the burnt-offering which he has offered, belongs to the kohen; it shall be his: This excludes one who immersed himself on that day, one lacking atonement, and one whose close relative died on that day. — [Torath Kohanim 7:89]   עור העלה אשר הקריב לכהן לו יהיה: פרט לטבול יום ומחוסר כפורים ואונן שאינן חולקים בעורות:
9And any meal offering baked in an oven, and any one made in a deep pan or in a shallow pan, belongs to the kohen who offers it up; it shall be his.   טוְכָל־מִנְחָ֗ה אֲשֶׁ֤ר תֵּֽאָפֶה֙ בַּתַּנּ֔וּר וְכָל־נַֽעֲשָׂ֥ה בַמַּרְחֶ֖שֶׁת וְעַל־מַֽחֲבַ֑ת לַכֹּהֵ֛ן הַמַּקְרִ֥יב אֹתָ֖הּ ל֥וֹ תִֽהְיֶֽה:
belongs to the kohen who offers it up: One might think that it belongs to him alone. Scripture, therefore, states (in the next verse), “[And any meal-offering…] shall belong to all the sons of Aaron.” One might think, then, that it [indeed] belongs to all of them. Scripture, therefore, states (in the preceding verse), “belongs to the kohen who offers it up.” So how [can this be reconciled]? [It belongs] to the family of the day when they offer it up. [The kohanim were divided into twenty-four divisions called “watches,” each watch being on duty for the temple service for one week. Each day of the week, a different family of kohanim from that week’s watch was on duty. When a kohen offered up an Israelite’s meal-offering, it was shared equally among all of his family, who were on duty that day]. — [Torath Kohanim 7:92]   לכהן המקריב אתה וגו': יכול לו לבדו, תלמוד לומר לכל בני אהרן תהיה. יכול לכולן, תלמוד לומר לכהן המקריב, הא כיצד לבית אב של אותו יום שמקריבין אותה:
10And any meal offering mixed with oil or dry, shall belong to all the sons of Aaron, one like the other.   יוְכָל־מִנְחָ֥ה בְלוּלָֽה־בַשֶּׁ֖מֶן וַֽחֲרֵבָ֑ה לְכָל־בְּנֵ֧י אַֽהֲרֹ֛ן תִּֽהְיֶ֖ה אִ֥ישׁ כְּאָחִֽיו:
mixed with oil: This is a voluntarily donated meal-offering. - [see Lev. 2:1]   בלולה בשמן: זו מנחת נדבה:
or dry: This is a sinner’s meal-offering (Lev. 5:11) and the meal-offering of jealousies [sacrificed during the investigation ritual of the סוֹטָה, woman suspected of adultery] (Num. 5:15), which do not contain oil [and thus the term “dry”].   וחרבה: זו מנחת חוטא ומנחת קנאות שאין בהן שמן:
11And this is the law of the peace offering, which he shall bring to the Lord.   יאוְזֹ֥את תּוֹרַ֖ת זֶ֣בַח הַשְּׁלָמִ֑ים אֲשֶׁ֥ר יַקְרִ֖יב לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
12If he is bringing it as a thanksgiving offering, he shall offer, along with the thanksgiving offering unleavened loaves mixed with oil, unleavened wafers anointed with oil, and scalded flour mixed with oil.   יבאִ֣ם עַל־תּוֹדָה֘ יַקְרִיבֶ֒נּוּ֒ וְהִקְרִ֣יב | עַל־זֶ֣בַח הַתּוֹדָ֗ה חַלּ֤וֹת מַצּוֹת֙ בְּלוּלֹ֣ת בַּשֶּׁ֔מֶן וּרְקִיקֵ֥י מַצּ֖וֹת מְשֻׁחִ֣ים בַּשָּׁ֑מֶן וְסֹ֣לֶת מֻרְבֶּ֔כֶת חַלֹּ֖ת בְּלוּלֹ֥ת בַּשָּֽׁמֶן:
If he is bringing it as a thanksgiving-offering: i.e., if [he is bringing the offering] to give thanks [to God] for a miracle that had happened to him, for instance, those who made a sea-voyage [and returned safely] or journeyed in the desert, or those who had been imprisoned [and were subsequently released], or a sick person who recovered. All these are required to give thanks [to God], for regarding them, it is written, “They shall give thanks to the Lord for His kindness and for his wonders to the children of men. And they shall slaughter sacrifices of thanksgiving” (Ps. 107:2122). If on account of one of these one vowed [to bring] these peace-offerings, then they are שַׁלְמֵי תּוֹדָה “thanksgiving peace-offerings,” which require the [accompanying offering of] bread, mentioned in this passage, and they may be eaten only on the day [that they were offered] and the night [that follows], as is specified here.   אם על תודה יקריבנו: אם על דבר הודאה על נס שנעשה לו, כגון יורדי הים והולכי מדברות וחבושי בית האסורים וחולה שנתרפא שהם צריכין להודות שכתוב בהן (תהלים קז כא - כב) יודו לה' חסדו ונפלאותיו לבני אדם ויזבחו זבחי תודה. אם על אחת מאלה נדר שלמים הללו, שלמי תודה הן, וטעונות לחם האמור בענין, ואינן נאכלין אלא ליום ולילה, כמו שמפורש כאן:
he shall offer, along with the thanksgiving-offering: four kinds of bread: חַלּוֹת, loaves, רְקִיקִין, wafers, רְבוּכָה, scalded loaves, [which are] three types of unleavened bread (מַצָּה,) and it is written, “with leavened loaves.” Each kind consists of ten loaves. Thus it is explained in [Tractate] Men. (77b). And the total volume [of all of the accompanying bread] amounted to five Jerusalem se’ah [where one Jerusalem se’ah equals two-fifths of an ephah], which is equivalent to six se’ah by desert standard [where one se’ah by desert standard, smaller than the Jerusalem measure, equals one-third of an ephah , because all of the loaves comprised a volume of] twenty tenths [of an ephah] (Men. 76b-77a). [Now, each leavened loaf comprised a volume of one-tenth of an ephah . Thus, since there were ten of these loaves, as above, the total leavened volume came to one ephah . The unleavened volume, i.e., the total volume of all the other three kinds of unleavened loaves, also equaled one ephah . Hence, the total volume of the accompanying bread was twenty tenths of an ephah, i.e., two ephoth.]   והקריב על זבח התודה: ארבעה מיני לחם חלות, ורקיקין, ורבוכה, שלשה מיני מצה, וכתיב (פסוק יג) על חלת לחם חמץ וגו', וכל מין ומין עשר חלות, כך מפורש במנחות (עז א). ושעורן חמש סאין ירושלמיות שהן שש מדבריות, עשרים עשרון:
scalded flour: means: Bread [made from dough that is] thoroughly scalded by boiling water.   מרבכת: לחם חלוט ברותחין כל צרכו:
13Along with loaves of leavened bread, he shall bring his offering along with his thanksgiving peace offering.   יגעַל־חַלֹּת֙ לֶ֣חֶם חָמֵ֔ץ יַקְרִ֖יב קָרְבָּנ֑וֹ עַל־זֶ֖בַח תּוֹדַ֥ת שְׁלָמָֽיו:
he shall… bring his offering…along with his thanksgiving peace-offering: [Scripture, in addition to verse 12, repeats the link between the accompanying bread and the sacrifice itself.] [This] tells [us]: This bread does not acquire intrinsic holiness that it should become invalid if taken out [of the Holy precincts], or if it comes into contact with a טְבוּל יוֹם [a person who has immersed for his uncleanness, but for whom the sun has not yet set to effect his cleanness], and that it cannot be redeemed to become non-consecrated-until the sacrifice [i.e., until the thanksgiving peace-offering it accompanies] is slaughtered. — [Men. 78b]   יקריב קרבנו על זבח: מגיד שאין הלחם קדוש קדושת הגוף להפסל ביוצא וטבול יום ומלצאת לחולין בפדיון, עד שישחט הזבח:
14And he shall bring from it one out of each offering, as a separation for the Lord; the kohen who dashes the blood of the peace offering it shall be his.   ידוְהִקְרִ֨יב מִמֶּ֤נּוּ אֶחָד֙ מִכָּל־קָרְבָּ֔ן תְּרוּמָ֖ה לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה לַכֹּהֵ֗ן הַזֹּרֵ֛ק אֶת־דַּ֥ם הַשְּׁלָמִ֖ים ל֥וֹ יִֽהְיֶֽה:
one out of each offering: One loaf out of each kind. He shall take these as a תְּרוּמָה, a separation for the kohen officiating at his sacrifice. The rest [of the sacrifice] is eaten by the owner with the exception of the breast and the thigh, as the waving of the breast and the thigh of peace-offerings is delineated below (see verse 34), and a thanksgiving-offering is called a peace-offering [and consequently, we apply the laws of a peace-offering to it]. — [Zev. 4a]   אחד מכל קרבן: לחם אחד מכל מין ומין יטול תרומה לכהן העובד עבודתה, והשאר נאכל לבעלים ובשרה לבעלים, חוץ מחזה ושוק שבה, כמו שמפורש למטה (פסוקים כט - לב) תנופת חזה ושוק בשלמים. והתודה קרויה שלמים:
15And the flesh of his thanksgiving peace offering shall be eaten on the day it is offered up; he shall not leave any of it over until morning.   טווּבְשַׂ֗ר זֶ֚בַח תּוֹדַ֣ת שְׁלָמָ֔יו בְּי֥וֹם קָרְבָּנ֖וֹ יֵֽאָכֵ֑ל לֹֽא־יַנִּ֥יחַ מִמֶּ֖נּוּ עַד־בֹּֽקֶר:
And the flesh of his thanksgiving peace-offering: [The verse could have said, “And its flesh.” Consequently,] there are many inclusions here, namely: to include the sin-offering, the guilt-offering, the ram of the nazarite, the חֲגִיגָה, festival-offering of the fourteenth day [of Nissan, i.e., the eve of Passover]-that they all may be eaten only on the day [they were offered up] and the [following] night. — [Torath Kohanim 7:112]   ובשר זבח תודת שלמיו: יש כאן רבויין הרבה, לרבות חטאת ואשם ואיל נזיר וחגיגת י"ד, שיהיו נאכלין ליום ולילה:
shall be eaten on the day it is offered up: and like the time limit for eating its flesh, so is the time limit for its bread. - [Torath Kohanim 7:112]   ביום קרבנו יאכל: וכזמן בשרה זמן לחמה:
he shall not leave any of it over until morning: He may, however, eat it during the entire night. If so, why did [our Sages] say that [it may be eaten only] until midnight? In order to distance people from a transgression [to ensure that people stay far away from the limit decreed by the Torah and do not eat if after dawn]. — [Ber. 2a]   לא יניח ממנו עד בקר: אבל אוכל הוא כל הלילה, אם כן למה אמרו עד חצות, כדי להרחיק אדם מן העבירה:
16But if his sacrifice is a vow or a voluntary donation, on the day he offers up his sacrifice it may be eaten, and on the next day, whatever is left over from it, may be eaten.   טזוְאִם־נֶ֣דֶר | א֣וֹ נְדָבָ֗ה זֶ֚בַח קָרְבָּנ֔וֹ בְּי֛וֹם הַקְרִיב֥וֹ אֶת־זִבְח֖וֹ יֵֽאָכֵ֑ל וּמִמָּ֣חֳרָ֔ת וְהַנּוֹתָ֥ר מִמֶּ֖נּוּ יֵֽאָכֵֽל:
But if [his sacrifice] is a vow or a voluntary donation: that he did not bring it to give thanks for a miracle, it does not require bread, and it may be eaten for two days [namely, the day of offering and the following day], as is delineated in this section.   ואם נדר או נדבה: שלא הביאה על הודאה של נס, אינה טעונה לחם ונאכלת לשני ימים, כמו שמפורש בענין:
and on the next day, whatever is left over from it: on the first day, may be eaten. [The Hebrew is וְהַנּוֹתָר, lit. and whatever is left over.] This vav [which prefixes the word וְהַנּוֹתָר] is superfluous [and the word is to be understood as though it said, הַנּוֹתָר]. There are many similar examples [of extra vavs] in Scripture, e.g., “And these are the sons of Zibe’on: Aiah (וְאַיֶָּה) and Anah” (Gen. 36:24); “ permitting the Sanctuary (וְקֹדֶשׁ) and the host to be trampled” (Dan. 8:13).   וממחרת והנותר ממנו: בראשון יאכל. וי"ו זו יתירה היא, ויש כמוה הרבה במקרא, כגון ואלה בני צבעון ואיה וענה (בראשית לו כד), תת וקדש וצבא מרמס (דניאל ח יג):
17However, whatever is left over from the flesh of the sacrifice on the third day, shall be burnt in fire.   יזוְהַנּוֹתָ֖ר מִבְּשַׂ֣ר הַזָּ֑בַח בַּיּוֹם֙ הַשְּׁלִישִׁ֔י בָּאֵ֖שׁ יִשָּׂרֵֽף:
18And if any of the flesh of his peace offering is to be eaten on the third day, it shall not be accepted; it shall not count for the one who offers it; [rather,] it shall be rejected, and the person who eats of it shall bear his sin.   יחוְאִ֣ם הֵֽאָכֹ֣ל יֵֽ֠אָכֵ֠ל מִבְּשַׂר־זֶ֨בַח שְׁלָמָ֜יו בַּיּ֣וֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי֘ לֹ֣א יֵֽרָצֶה֒ הַמַּקְרִ֣יב אֹת֗וֹ לֹ֧א יֵֽחָשֵׁ֛ב ל֖וֹ פִּגּ֣וּל יִֽהְיֶ֑ה וְהַנֶּ֛פֶשׁ הָֽאֹכֶ֥לֶת מִמֶּ֖נּוּ עֲו‍ֹנָ֥הּ תִּשָּֽׂא:
And…is to be eaten: Scripture is referring to someone who, at the time of slaughtering [the sacrifice], intends to eat it on the third day [in which case the sacrifice becomes invalid]. Now, one might think, however, that [the Torah means that the sacrifice does not become invalid because of intention, but] if one eats of it on the third day, that it would become invalid retroactively [as the verse literally means]. Scripture, therefore, says, הַמַּקְרִיב אוֹתוֹ לֹא יֵחָשֵׁב, meaning that it is invalidated only at the time of sacrificing it [i.e., slaughtering], and not on the third day. [Torath Kohanim 7:118] Hence, its explanation [of the verse] is as follows: At the time of sacrificing [slaughtering] the offering, this [intention] shall not enter one’s thoughts, and if one had this intention [at the time of slaughtering], it shall be rejected (פִּגּוּל).   ואם האכל יאכל וגו': במחשב בשחיטה לאכלו בשלישי הכתוב מדבר. יכול אם אכל ממנו בשלישי יפסל למפרע, תלמוד לומר המקריב אותו לא יחשב, בשעת הקרבה הוא נפסל, ואינו נפסל בשלישי. וכן פירושו בשעת הקרבתו לא תעלה זאת במחשבה, ואם חשב פגול יהיה:
and the person who eats of it: Even within the [normally permitted] time limit, “shall bear his sin.”   והנפש האכלת ממנו: אפילו בתוך הזמן עונה תשא:
19And the flesh that touches anything unclean shall not be eaten. It shall be burned in fire. But regarding the flesh, anyone who is clean may eat [the] flesh.   יטוְהַבָּשָׂ֞ר אֲשֶׁר־יִגַּ֤ע בְּכָל־טָמֵא֙ לֹ֣א יֵֽאָכֵ֔ל בָּאֵ֖שׁ יִשָּׂרֵ֑ף וְהַ֨בָּשָׂ֔ר כָּל־טָה֖וֹר יֹאכַ֥ל בָּשָֽׂר:
And the flesh: of holy peace-offerings, “ that touches anything unclean shall not be eaten.” [This verse is not referring to piggul.]   והבשר: של קדש שלמים אשר יגע בכל טמא לא יאכל:
But regarding the flesh: Heb. וְהַבָָּשָׂר. [The word וְהַבָָּשָׂר, the second time it occurs in this verse, seems superfluous. However,] it comes to include a limb, part of which went outside [its prescribed boundaries, to inform us] that the inner part is permitted [to be eaten]. — [Torath Kohanim 7:128]   והבשר: לרבות אבר שיצא מקצתו, שהפנימי מותר:
anyone who is clean may eat [the] flesh: What is Scripture coming to teach here? Since Scripture says, “and the blood of your sacrifices shall be poured…and you shall eat the meat” (Deut. 12:27), one might think that only the owner may eat of the peace-offering, therefore, Scripture says here, “anyone who is clean may eat [the] flesh.” - [Torath Kohanim 7:30, 129]   כל טהור יאכל בשר: מה תלמוד לומר, לפי שנאמר (דברים יב כז) ודם זבחיך ישפך וגו' והבשר תאכל, יכול לא יאכלו שלמים אלא הבעלים, לכך נאמר כל טהור יאכל בשר:
anyone who is clean may eat [the] flesh: This means: All that I have forbidden you regarding a sin-offering and a guilt-offering, namely, that if they go outside the hangings [of the courtyard of the Tabernacle, or the boundaries of the Temple courtyard], they become prohibited as the verse says, “They shall eat it in the courtyard” (Lev. 6:9), concerning this flesh [of peace-offerings, which are קֳדָשִׁים קַלִּים, sacrifices with a lesser degree of holiness], I say to you, “Anyone who is clean may eat [the] flesh” even [outside the Temple courtyard,] throughout the entire city [of Jerusalem].)   והבשר כל טהור יאכל בשר: כלומר כל מה שאסרתי לך בחטאת ואשם, שאם יצאו חוץ לקלעים אסורין, כמו שכתוב (ו ט) בחצר אהל מועד יאכלוה, בבשר זה אני אומר לך כל טהור יאכל בשר אפילו בכל העיר:
20A person who eats the flesh of a peace offering of the Lord, while his uncleanness is upon him, that soul shall be cut off from its people.   כוְהַנֶּ֜פֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר־תֹּאכַ֣ל בָּשָׂ֗ר מִזֶּ֤בַח הַשְּׁלָמִים֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר לַֽיהֹוָ֔ה וְטֻמְאָת֖וֹ עָלָ֑יו וְנִכְרְתָ֛ה הַנֶּ֥פֶשׁ הַהִ֖וא מֵֽעַמֶּֽיהָ:
while his uncleanness is upon him: Scripture is referring to uncleanness of the body. [I.e., an unclean person who eats from the holy peace-offering, in which case, he incurs excision]. [Torath Kohanim 7:131] However, one who is clean, who eats the unclean flesh [of a peace-offering], is not punished with excision; nevertheless, he is punished for transgressing the Scriptural admonition [in the previous verse], “And the flesh that touches anything unclean, [shall not be eaten]. ” The admonition regarding an unclean person who eats clean flesh, however, is not written explicitly in the Torah, but our Sages derived this through a גְּזֵרָה שָׁוָה [an instance of similar wording. They had a tradition in certain Scriptural passages, that two common key words or expressions serve to link the laws of these seemingly unconnected passages. Here, the word טֻמְאָתוֹ appears in our verse and in Num. 19:13, and since the prohibition in Numbers has an admonition attached to it, so too, here, our prohibition is considered to have an admonition attached to it]. [Mak. 14b] Now, there are three mentions of the punishment of excision regarding persons who eat holy sacrificial meat, while their body is unclean [first, in Lev. 22:3, “Any man from among any of your offspring, who comes near the holy (sacrifices)…that soul shall be cut off,” where “comes near” means to eat (see Rashi there), and the second and third mentions are these verses (20 and 21).] Our Rabbis expounded on them in [Tractate] Shevuoth (7a), as follows: One of them is [needed to state] the general law; one of them is [needed to state] a particular case [namely, the peace-offering, in order to preclude the eating of certain clean foods that are not sacrificed on the altar, which do not have the punishment of excision]; and one of them is needed to teach us that the וְיוֹרֵד קָרְבָָּן עוֹלֶה [an ascending and descending sacrifice, namely an offering which has different options, an animal, birds, or flour, according to the ability of the one who brings it] that [when the verse says, “he incurs guilt” (Lev. 5:2), and may bring a קָרְבָּן עוֹלֶה וְיוֹרֵד Scripture is exclusively referring to the case [of a person in an unclean state, who] defiles the Sanctuary [i.e., enters it while in the unclean state], or [if he eats from] its holy sacrifices.   וטומאתו עליו: בטומאת הגוף הכתוב מדבר, אבל טהור שאכל את הטמא, אינו ענוש כרת, אלא באזהרה והבשר אשר יגע בכל טמא וגו' (פסוק יט). ואזהרת טמא שאכל את הטהור אינה מפורשת בתורה, אלא חכמים למדוה בגזרה שוה. שלש כריתות אמורות באוכלי קדשים בטומאת הגוף, ודרשוה רבותינו בשבועות (ז א) אחת לכלל ואחת לפרט ואחת ללמד על קרבן עולה ויורד, שלא נאמר אלא על טומאת מקדש וקדשיו:
21And a person who touches anything unclean, whether uncleanness from a human or an unclean animal [carcass] or any unclean [carcass of an] abominable creature, and then eats of the flesh of a peace offering to the Lord, that soul shall be cut off from its people.   כאוְנֶ֜פֶשׁ כִּֽי־תִגַּ֣ע בְּכָל־טָמֵ֗א בְּטֻמְאַ֤ת אָדָם֙ א֣וֹ | בִּבְהֵמָ֣ה טְמֵאָ֗ה א֚וֹ בְּכָל־שֶׁ֣קֶץ טָמֵ֔א וְאָכַ֛ל מִבְּשַׂר־זֶ֥בַח הַשְּׁלָמִ֖ים אֲשֶׁ֣ר לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה וְנִכְרְתָ֛ה הַנֶּ֥פֶשׁ הַהִ֖וא מֵֽעַמֶּֽיהָ:
22And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying:   כבוַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶל־משֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר:
23Speak to the Children of Israel, saying: You shall not eat any fat of an ox, sheep, or goat.   כגדַּבֵּ֛ר אֶל־בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל לֵאמֹ֑ר כָּל־חֵ֜לֶב שׁ֥וֹר וְכֶ֛שֶׂב וָעֵ֖ז לֹ֥א תֹאכֵֽלוּ:
24The fat of carrion and the fat of an animal with a fatal disease or injury, may be used for any work, but you shall not eat it.   כדוְחֵ֤לֶב נְבֵלָה֙ וְחֵ֣לֶב טְרֵפָ֔ה יֵֽעָשֶׂ֖ה לְכָל־מְלָאכָ֑ה וְאָכֹ֖ל לֹ֥א תֹֽאכְלֻֽהוּ:
may be used for any work: [Scripture already permits the use of carrion (see Deut. 14:21); surely, the fats are included in the rest of the animal. So what is this verse teaching us?] It comes to teach us that the fat does not impart the uncleanness which is imparted by carrion [in general]. — [Torath Kohanim 7:139]   יעשה לכל מלאכה: בא ולימד על החלב שאינו מטמא טומאת נבלות:
however, you shall not eat it: [We already know that eating fat is prohibited (see Lev. 3: 17), and we also know that eating carrion and treifah is prohibited (see Deut. 14:21 and Exod. 22:30). So what is this verse teaching us? The answer is that] the Torah says: "The prohibition of carrion or treifah is superimposed upon the prohibition of fats insofar as if someone eats it, he is liable also for transgressing the prohibition of [eating] carrion [or eating treifah], and you do not say that one prohibition cannot be superimposed on another prohibition. - [Zev. 70a]   ואכל לא תאכלהו: אמרה תורה יבוא איסור נבלה וטרפה ויחול על איסור חלב, שאם אכלו, יתחייב אף על לאו של נבלה, ולא תאמר אין איסור חל על איסור:
25For anyone who eats fat of animals from which sacrifices are brought as fire offerings to the Lord, the soul who eats [it] shall be cut off from its people.   כהכִּ֚י כָּל־אֹכֵ֣ל חֵ֔לֶב מִן־הַ֨בְּהֵמָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֨ר יַקְרִ֥יב מִמֶּ֛נָּה אִשֶּׁ֖ה לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה וְנִכְרְתָ֛ה הַנֶּ֥פֶשׁ הָֽאֹכֶ֖לֶת מֵֽעַמֶּֽיהָ:
26And you shall not eat any blood in any of your dwelling places, whether from birds or from animals.   כווְכָל־דָּם֙ לֹ֣א תֹֽאכְל֔וּ בְּכֹ֖ל מֽוֹשְׁבֹֽתֵיכֶ֑ם לָע֖וֹף וְלַבְּהֵמָֽה:
[And you shall not eat any blood…] whether from birds or from animals: Excluded [from this prohibition is] the blood of fish and locusts. — [Torath Kohanim 7:143]   לעוף ולבהמה: פרט לדם דגים וחגבים:
in any of your dwelling places: Since this prohibition [of eating blood] is an obligation relevant to a person, rather than being dependent on land, it applies to all dwelling places [of the Jews, whether in Israel or outside of it]. [But one might think it obvious that since it is a personal obligation, it would apply anywhere, as is indeed the rule. So why should it be stated here?] In Tractate Kiddushin, chapter one (37b), it is explained why this is necessary to be stated.   בכל מושבתיכם: לפי שהיא חובת הגוף ואינה חובת קרקע, נוהגת בכל מושבות, ובמסכת קדושין בפרק א' (לז א) מפרש למה הוצרך לומר:
27Any person who eats any blood, that soul shall be cut off from its people.   כזכָּל־נֶ֖פֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר־תֹּאכַ֣ל כָּל־דָּ֑ם וְנִכְרְתָ֛ה הַנֶּ֥פֶשׁ הַהִ֖וא מֵֽעַמֶּֽיהָ:
28And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying:   כחוַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶל־משֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר:
29Speak to the Children of Israel, saying: Anyone who brings his peace offering to the Lord, shall bring his sacrifice to the Lord from his peace offering.   כטדַּבֵּ֛ר אֶל־בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל לֵאמֹ֑ר הַמַּקְרִ֞יב אֶת־זֶ֤בַח שְׁלָמָיו֙ לַֽיהֹוָ֔ה יָבִ֧יא אֶת־קָרְבָּנ֛וֹ לַֽיהֹוָ֖ה מִזֶּ֥בַח שְׁלָמָֽיו:
30His own hands shall bring the fire offerings of the Lord. The fat, on the breast, he shall bring it, the breast, to wave it as a waving before the Lord.   ליָדָ֣יו תְּבִיאֶ֔ינָה אֵ֖ת אִשֵּׁ֣י יְהֹוָ֑ה אֶת־הַחֵ֤לֶב עַל־הֶֽחָזֶה֙ יְבִיאֶ֔נּוּ אֵ֣ת הֶֽחָזֶ֗ה לְהָנִ֥יף אֹת֛וֹ תְּנוּפָ֖ה לִפְנֵ֥י יְהֹוָֽה:
His own hands shall bring: That the owner’s hand should be above, with the fats and the breast placed in it, and the kohen’s hand should be beneath [it. With the portions arranged in this manner,] they wave them. — [Men. 61b]   ידיו תביאינה וגו': שתהא יד הבעלים מלמעלה והחלב והחזות נתונין בה, ויד כהן מלמטה ומניפן:
the fire-offerings of the Lord: And what are the “fire-offerings” [referred to here]? They are “the fat…on the breast.”   את אשי ה': ומה הן האשים, את החלב על החזה:
he shall bring it: When he brings it from the slaughtering area, he places the fat on the breast, but when he gives it into the hand of the kohen who is to perform the waving, the breast is situated above and the fat below. This is what is mentioned elsewhere (10:15),“They shall bring the thigh of the elevated-offering and the breast as a wave-offering upon the fats of the fire-offerings, to wave.” After the waving, he gives it to the kohen who will burn it. The breast is now situated below [and the fats above]. This is what is stated (9:20), “And they placed the fats upon the breasts, and he caused to [go up in] smoke the fats on the altar.” We learn that three kohanim are required for it. Thus it is explained in Tractate Menachoth (62a).   יביאנו: כשמביאו מבית המטבחים נותן החלב על החזה, וכשנותנו ליד הכהן המניף נמצא החזה למעלה והחלב למטה, וזהו האמור במקום אחר (ויק' י טו) שוק התרומה וחזה התנופה על אשי החלבים יביאו להניף וגו', ולאחר התנופה נותנו לכהן המקטיר, ונמצא החזה למטה, וזהו שנאמר (ויק' ט כ) וישימו את החלבים על החזות ויקטר החלבים המזבחה. למדנו ששלשה כהנים זקוקין לה, כך מפורש במנחות (סב א):
The fat, on the breast, he shall bring it: Why is the breast brought? To wave it he brings it, but not that it should be part of the “fire-offerings.” Since it is stated: “the fire-offerings of the Lord. The fat, on the breast,” one might think that the breast is also included in the fire-offerings; therefore, the verse continues, “The breast to wave…”   את החלב על החזה יביאנו: ואת החזה למה מביא, להניף אותו הוא מביאו, ולא שיהא הוא מן האשים. לפי שנאמר את אשי ה' את החלב על החזה, יכול שיהא אף החזה לאשים, לכך נאמר את החזה להניף וגו':
31And the kohen shall cause the fat to [go up in] smoke on the altar, and the breast shall belong to Aaron and his sons.   לאוְהִקְטִ֧יר הַכֹּהֵ֛ן אֶת־הַחֵ֖לֶב הַמִּזְבֵּ֑חָה וְהָיָה֙ הֶֽחָזֶ֔ה לְאַֽהֲרֹ֖ן וּלְבָנָֽיו:
And the kohen will cause the fat to [go up in] smoke: and afterwards, the breast “shall belong to Aaron.” [Hence,] we learn that the meat [of the sacrifice] shall not be eaten while the sacrificial parts are [still] off the altar [i.e., before they have been burnt]. — [Torath Kohanim 7:151]   והקטיר הכהן את החלב: ואחר כך והיה החזה לאהרן, למדנו שאין הבשר נאכל בעוד שהאמורים למטה מן המזבח:
32And you shall give the right thigh as an elevation offering to the kohen, from your peace offering.   לבוְאֵת֙ שׁ֣וֹק הַיָּמִ֔ין תִּתְּנ֥וּ תְרוּמָ֖ה לַכֹּהֵ֑ן מִזִּבְחֵ֖י שַׁלְמֵיכֶֽם:
the right thigh: refers to [the part of the animal’s hind leg extending] from the אַרְכּוּבָה [knee-joint, the bone and the flesh of which are usually] sold together with the head, up till the middle joint [of the upper leg] which is called רֶגֶל סֹבֶ שֶׁל. [The animal’s leg has three sections to it; thus, the שׁוֹק is the middle of those three sections.] [Chul. 134b]   שוק: מן הפרק של ארכובה הנמכרת עם הראש עד הפרק האמצעי, שהוא סובך של רגל:
33[Anyone] of the sons of Aaron who offers up the blood of the peace offering and the fat he shall have the right thigh as a portion.   לגהַמַּקְרִ֞יב אֶת־דַּ֧ם הַשְּׁלָמִ֛ים וְאֶת־הַחֵ֖לֶב מִבְּנֵ֣י אַֽהֲרֹ֑ן ל֧וֹ תִֽהְיֶ֛ה שׁ֥וֹק הַיָּמִ֖ין לְמָנָֽה:
who offers up the blood…: i.e., who is fit [to perform] the dashing of its blood and to burn its fats. Thus excluded from receiving a share in the meat [of the breast and thigh], is a kohen who is unclean at the time of the dashing of the blood or at the time of the burning of the fats. — [Torath Kohanim 7:153]   המקריב את דם השלמים וגו': מי שהוא ראוי לזריקתו ולהקטיר חלביו, יצא טמא בשעת זריקת דמים או בשעת הקטר חלבים, שאינו חולק בבשר:
34For I have taken the breast of the waving and the thigh of the elevation from the children of Israel, from their peace offerings, and I have given them to Aaron the kohen and to his sons as an eternal statute, from the children of Israel.   לדכִּי֩ אֶת־חֲזֵ֨ה הַתְּנוּפָ֜ה וְאֵ֣ת | שׁ֣וֹק הַתְּרוּמָ֗ה לָקַ֨חְתִּי֙ מֵאֵ֣ת בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל מִזִּבְחֵ֖י שַׁלְמֵיהֶ֑ם וָֽאֶתֵּ֣ן אֹ֠תָ֠ם לְאַֽהֲרֹ֨ן הַכֹּהֵ֤ן וּלְבָנָיו֙ לְחָק־עוֹלָ֔ם מֵאֵ֖ת בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
waving…elevation: [The term תְּנוּפָה, waving, denotes a forward and backward motion, while the term תְּרוּמָה, elevation, denotes an upward and downward motion. Since both terms are used here, we learn that] the kohen would move them forward and backward, upward and downward. — [Torath Kohanim 7:150]   התנופה, התרומה: מוליך ומביא, מעלה ומוריד:
35This is [the grant for] Aaron's anointment and his sons' anointment, from the fire offerings of the Lord, on the day that He brought them near, to be kohanim for the Lord.   להזֹ֣את מִשְׁחַ֤ת אַֽהֲרֹן֙ וּמִשְׁחַ֣ת בָּנָ֔יו מֵֽאִשֵּׁ֖י יְהֹוָ֑ה בְּיוֹם֙ הִקְרִ֣יב אֹתָ֔ם לְכַהֵ֖ן לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
36Which the Lord commanded to give them on the day that He anointed them, from the children of Israel. [This is] an eternal statute for their generations.   לואֲשֶׁ֠ר צִוָּ֨ה יְהֹוָ֜ה לָתֵ֣ת לָהֶ֗ם בְּיוֹם֙ מָשְׁח֣וֹ אֹתָ֔ם מֵאֵ֖ת בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל חֻקַּ֥ת עוֹלָ֖ם לְדֹֽרֹתָֽם:
37This is the law for the burnt offering, for the meal offering, and for the sin offering, and for the guilt offering, and for the investitures, and for the peace offering,   לזזֹ֣את הַתּוֹרָ֗ה לָֽעֹלָה֙ לַמִּנְחָ֔ה וְלַֽחַטָּ֖את וְלָֽאָשָׁ֑ם וְלַ֨מִּלּוּאִ֔ים וּלְזֶ֖בַח הַשְּׁלָמִֽים:
and for the investitures: The day of the initiation into the kehunah.   ולמלואים: ליום חינוך הכהונה:
38which the Lord commanded Moses on Mount Sinai, on the day He commanded the children of Israel to offer up their sacrifices to the Lord in the Sinai Desert.   לחאֲשֶׁ֨ר צִוָּ֧ה יְהֹוָ֛ה אֶת־משֶׁ֖ה בְּהַ֣ר סִינָ֑י בְּי֨וֹם צַוֹּת֜וֹ אֶת־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל לְהַקְרִ֧יב אֶת־קָרְבְּנֵיהֶ֛ם לַֽיהֹוָ֖ה בְּמִדְבַּ֥ר סִינָֽי: