Chapter 50

1Joseph fell on his father's face, and he wept over him and kissed him.   אוַיִּפֹּ֥ל יוֹסֵ֖ף עַל־פְּנֵ֣י אָבִ֑יו וַיֵּ֥בְךְּ עָלָ֖יו וַיִּשַּׁק־לֽוֹ:
2And Joseph commanded his servants, the physicians, to embalm his father, and the physicians embalmed Israel.   בוַיְצַ֨ו יוֹסֵ֤ף אֶת־עֲבָדָיו֙ אֶת־הָרֹ֣פְאִ֔ים לַֽחֲנֹ֖ט אֶת־אָבִ֑יו וַיַּֽחַנְט֥וּ הָרֹֽפְאִ֖ים אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
to embalm his father: This involves compounding aromatic spices. — [From Targum Jonathan and Targum Yerushalmi]   לַֽחֲנֹט אֶת־אָבִיו: עִנְיַן מִרְקַחַת בְּשָׂמִים הוּא:
3And forty days were completed for him for so are the days of embalming completed and the Egyptians wept over him for seventy days.   גוַיִּמְלְאוּ־לוֹ֙ אַרְבָּעִ֣ים י֔וֹם כִּ֛י כֵּ֥ן יִמְלְא֖וּ יְמֵ֣י הַֽחֲנֻטִ֑ים וַיִּבְכּ֥וּ אֹת֛וֹ מִצְרַ֖יִם שִׁבְעִ֥ים יֽוֹם:
And forty days were completed for him: They completed for him the days of his embalming, when forty days were completed for him.   וַיִּמְלְאוּ־לוֹ: הִשְׁלִימוּ לוֹ יְמֵי חֲנִיטָתוֹ עַד שֶׁמָּלְאוּ לוֹ מ' יוֹם:
and the Egyptians wept over him for seventy days: Forty [days] for embalming and thirty for weeping, because a blessing had come to them when he arrived-the famine ended and the waters of the Nile increased. — [From Bereshith Rabbathi , Targum Jonathan]   וַיִּבְכּוּ אֹתוֹ מִצְרַיִם שִׁבְעִים יוֹם: מ' לַחֲנִיטָה וְל' לִבְכִיָּה, לְפִי שֶׁבָּאָה לָהֶם בְּרָכָה לְרַגְלוֹ, שֶׁכָּלָה הָרָעָב וְהָיוּ מֵי נִילוּס מִתְבָּרְכִין:
4When the days of his weeping had passed, Joseph spoke to Pharaoh's household, saying, "If now I have found favor in your eyes, speak now in Pharaoh's ears, saying,   דוַיַּֽעַבְרוּ֙ יְמֵ֣י בְכִית֔וֹ וַיְדַבֵּ֣ר יוֹסֵ֔ף אֶל־בֵּ֥ית פַּרְעֹ֖ה לֵאמֹ֑ר אִם־נָ֨א מָצָ֤אתִי חֵן֙ בְּעֵ֣ינֵיכֶ֔ם דַּבְּרוּ־נָ֕א בְּאָזְנֵ֥י פַרְעֹ֖ה לֵאמֹֽר:
5'My father adjured me, saying, "Behold, I am going to die. In my grave, which I dug for myself in the land of Canaan, there you shall bury me." So now, please let me go up and bury my father and return.' "   האָבִ֞י הִשְׁבִּיעַ֣נִי לֵאמֹ֗ר הִנֵּ֣ה אָֽנֹכִי֘ מֵת֒ בְּקִבְרִ֗י אֲשֶׁ֨ר כָּרִ֤יתִי לִי֙ בְּאֶ֣רֶץ כְּנַ֔עַן שָׁ֖מָּה תִּקְבְּרֵ֑נִי וְעַתָּ֗ה אֶֽעֱלֶה־נָּ֛א וְאֶקְבְּרָ֥ה אֶת־אָבִ֖י וְאָשֽׁוּבָה:
which I dug for myself: Heb. כָּרִיתִי. According to its simple meaning, it (כָּרִיתִי) is similar to “If a man digs (יִכְרֶה)” (Exod. 21:33) (Targum Jonathan ben Uzziel). Its midrashic interpretation also fits the language [of the text here] [viz., that it is] like קָנִיתִי, I bought. Rabbi Akiva said, “When I went to [some] cities by the sea, they called selling (מְכִירָה) כִּירָה” (Rosh Hashanah 26a). [Similarly, it may have been used for “buying.”] Another midrashic interpretation is that it is a term derived from כְּרִי, a stack, [meaning] that Jacob took all the silver and gold that he had brought from Laban’s house and made it into a stack. He said to Esau, “Take this for your share in the cave” (Tanchuma Buber, Vayishlach 11; Gen. Rabbah 100:5). See Rashi on 46: 6.   אֲשֶׁר כָּרִיתִי לִי: כִּפְשׁוּטוֹ כְּמוֹ כִּי יִכְרֶה אִישׁ. וּמִדְרָשׁוֹ עוֹד מִתְיַשֵּׁב עַל הַלָּשׁוֹן, כְּמוֹ אֲשֶׁר קָנִיתִי, אָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר כְּשֶׁהָלַכְתִי לִכְרַכֵּי הַיָּם הָיוּ קוֹרִין לִמְכִירָה כִּירָה, וְעוֹד מִדְרָשׁוֹ לְשׁוֹן כְּרִי דָגוּר, שֶׁנָּטַל יַעֲקֹב כָּל כֶּסֶף וְזָהָב שֶׁהֵבִיא מִבֵּית לָבָן וְעָשָׂה אוֹתוֹ כְּרִי וְאָמַר לְעֵשָׂו טֹל זֶה בִּשְׁבִיל חֶלְקְךָ בַּמְּעָרָה:
6And Pharaoh said, "Go up and bury your father as he adjured you."   ווַיֹּ֖אמֶר פַּרְעֹ֑ה עֲלֵ֛ה וּקְבֹ֥ר אֶת־אָבִ֖יךָ כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר הִשְׁבִּיעֶֽךָ:
as he adjured you: But were it not for the oath, I would not permit you [to go]. He (Pharaoh) was afraid to tell him (Joseph) to transgress the oath, however, lest he say, “If so, I will transgress the oath that I swore to you that I would not reveal that I understand the holy tongue (Hebrew) in addition to seventy languages of the nations of the world, but you do not understand it (Hebrew),” as is found in Tractate Sotah (36b).   כַּֽאֲשֶׁר הִשְׁבִּיעֶֽךָ: וְאִם לֹא בִּשְׁבִיל הַשְּׁבוּעָה לֹא הָיִיתִי מַנִּיחֲךָ, אֲבָל יָרֵא לוֹמַר עֲבֹר עַל הַשְּׁבוּעָה שֶׁלֹּא יֹאמַר אִם כֵּן אֶעֱבֹר עַל הַשְּׁבוּעָה שֶׁנִּשְׁבַּעְתִי לְךָ, שֶׁלֹּא אֲגַלֶּה עַל לְשׁוֹן הַקֹּדֶשׁ שֶׁאֲנִי מַכִּיר עוֹדֵף עַל ע' לָשׁוֹן, וְאַתָּה אֵינְךָ מַכִּיר בּוֹ, כִּדְאִיתָא בְּמַסֶּכֶת סוֹטָה:
7So Joseph went up to bury his father, and all Pharaoh's servants, the elders of his house, and all the elders of the land of Egypt went up with him,   זוַיַּ֥עַל יוֹסֵ֖ף לִקְבֹּ֣ר אֶת־אָבִ֑יו וַיַּֽעֲל֨וּ אִתּ֜וֹ כָּל־עַבְדֵ֤י פַרְעֹה֙ זִקְנֵ֣י בֵית֔וֹ וְכֹ֖ל זִקְנֵ֥י אֶֽרֶץ־מִצְרָֽיִם:
8and Joseph's entire household and his brothers and his father's household; only their young children and their flocks and cattle did they leave in the land of Goshen.   חוְכֹל֙ בֵּ֣ית יוֹסֵ֔ף וְאֶחָ֖יו וּבֵ֣ית אָבִ֑יו רַ֗ק טַפָּם֙ וְצֹאנָ֣ם וּבְקָרָ֔ם עָֽזְב֖וּ בְּאֶ֥רֶץ גּֽשֶׁן:
9And chariots and horsemen also went up with him, and the camp was very numerous.   טוַיַּ֣עַל עִמּ֔וֹ גַּם־רֶ֖כֶב גַּם־פָּֽרָשִׁ֑ים וַיְהִ֥י הַמַּֽחֲנֶ֖ה כָּבֵ֥ד מְאֹֽד:
10And they came to the threshing floor of the thornbushes, which is on the other side of the Jordan, and there they conducted a very great and impressive eulogy, and he made for his father a mourning of seven days.   יוַיָּבֹ֜אוּ עַד־גֹּ֣רֶן הָֽאָטָ֗ד אֲשֶׁר֙ בְּעֵ֣בֶר הַיַּרְדֵּ֔ן וַיִּ֨סְפְּדוּ־שָׁ֔ם מִסְפֵּ֛ד גָּד֥וֹל וְכָבֵ֖ד מְאֹ֑ד וַיַּ֧עַשׂ לְאָבִ֛יו אֵ֖בֶל שִׁבְעַ֥ת יָמִֽים:
the threshing floor of the thornbushes: It was surrounded by thornbushes. Our Rabbis, however, interpreted it [that it was called the threshing floor of the thornbushes] to commemorate the event, when all the people of Canaan and the princes of Ishmael came to [fight a] war. When they saw Joseph’s crown hanging on Jacob’s coffin, they all stood up and hung their own crowns on it and surrounded it with crowns, like a threshing floor surrounded by a fence of thorns. — [From Sotah 13a]   גֹּרֶן הָֽאָטָד: מֻקָּף אֲטָדִין הָיָה, וְרַבּוֹתֵינוּ דָּרְשׁוּ (סוטה י"ג), עַל שֵׁם הַמְּאֹרָע, שֶׁבָּאוּ כָּל מַלְכֵי כְנַעַן וּנְשְׂיאֵי יִשְׁמָעֵאל לַמִּלְחָמָה, וְכֵיוָן שֶׁרָאוּ כִתְרוֹ שֶׁל יוֹסֵף תָּלוּי בַּאֲרוֹנוֹ שֶׁל יַעֲקֹב עָמְדוּ כֻלָּן וְתָלוּ בוֹ כִתְרֵיהֶם וְהִקִּיפוּהוּ כְּתָרִים כְּגֹרֶן הַמֻּקָּף סְיָג שֶׁל קוֹצִים:
11The Canaanite[s], the inhabitant[s] of the land, saw the mourning at the threshing floor of the thornbushes, and they said, "This is an intense mourning for the Egyptians." Therefore, they named it Abel Mizraim (Egypt mourns), which is on the other side of the Jordan.   יאוַיַּ֡רְא יוֹשֵׁב֩ הָאָ֨רֶץ הַכְּנַֽעֲנִ֜י אֶת־הָאֵ֗בֶל בְּגֹ֨רֶן֙ הָֽאָטָ֔ד וַיֹּ֣אמְר֔וּ אֵֽבֶל־כָּבֵ֥ד זֶ֖ה לְמִצְרָ֑יִם עַל־כֵּ֞ן קָרָ֤א שְׁמָהּ֙ אָבֵ֣ל מִצְרַ֔יִם אֲשֶׁ֖ר בְּעֵ֥בֶר הַיַּרְדֵּֽן:
12And his sons did to him just as he had commanded them.   יבוַיַּֽעֲשׂ֥וּ בָנָ֖יו ל֑וֹ כֵּ֖ן כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר צִוָּֽם:
as he had commanded them: What was it that he had commanded them?- [What the Torah elaborates in the following verse.]   כַּֽאֲשֶׁר צִוָּֽם: מַהוּ אֲשֶׁר צִוָּם?
13And his sons carried him to the land of Canaan, and they buried him in the cave of the field of Machpelah, which field Abraham had bought for burial property from Ephron the Hittite before Mamre.   יגוַיִּשְׂא֨וּ אֹת֤וֹ בָנָיו֙ אַ֣רְצָה כְּנַ֔עַן וַיִּקְבְּר֣וּ אֹת֔וֹ בִּמְעָרַ֖ת שְׂדֵ֣ה הַמַּכְפֵּלָ֑ה אֲשֶׁ֣ר קָנָה֩ אַבְרָהָ֨ם אֶת־הַשָּׂדֶ֜ה לַֽאֲחֻזַּת־קֶ֗בֶר מֵאֵ֛ת עֶפְרֹ֥ן הַֽחִתִּ֖י עַל־פְּנֵ֥י מַמְרֵֽא:
And his sons carried him: But not his grandsons, for so he had commanded them: “Neither shall any Egyptian carry my coffin nor any of your sons, for they are born of the daughters of Canaan, but you [alone].” He designated a position for them [by his coffin], [so that] three [of them would carry] on the east, and so on for [all] four directions. [This was] similar to their arrangement in the traveling of the camp [in the desert] of the groupings [of the tribes as] they were designated here. [He also ordered,] “Levi shall not carry it because he (i.e., his tribe) is destined to carry the Ark. Joseph shall not carry it because he is a king. Manasseh and Ephraim shall carry it instead of them.” That is the meaning of “Each one according to his group with signs” (Num. 2:2), according to the sign that their father gave them to carry his coffin. — [From Tanchuma Bamidbar 12]   וַיִּשְׂאוּ אֹתוֹ בָנָיו: וְלֹא בְנֵי בָנָיו, שֶׁכָּךְ צִוָּם, אַל יִשְׂאוּ מִטָּתִי לֹא אִישׁ מִצְרִי וְלֹא אֶחָד מִבְּנֵיכֶם, שֶׁהֵם מִבְּנוֹת כְּנַעַן, אֶלָּא אַתֶּם, וְקָבַע לָהֶם מָקוֹם ג' לַמִּזְרָח, וְכֵן לְד' רוּחוֹת, וּכְסִדְרָן לְמַסַּע מַחֲנֶה שֶׁל דְּגָלִים נִקְבְעוּ כָאן; לֵוִי לֹא יִשָּׂא, שֶׁהוּא עָתִיד לָשֵׂאת אֶת הָאָרוֹן, וְיוֹסֵף לֹא יִשָּׂא, לְפִי שֶׁהוּא מֶלֶךְ, מְנַשֶּׁה וְאֶפְרַיִם יִהְיוּ תַחְתֵּיהֶם, וְזֶהוּ אִישׁ עַל דִּגְלוֹ בְאֹתֹת – בְּאוֹת שֶׁמָּסַר לָהֶם אֲבִיהֶם לִשָּׂא מִטָּתוֹ:
14And Joseph returned to Egypt, he and his brothers, and all who had gone up with him to bury his father, after he had buried his father.   ידוַיָּ֨שָׁב יוֹסֵ֤ף מִצְרַ֨יְמָה֙ ה֣וּא וְאֶחָ֔יו וְכָל־הָֽעֹלִ֥ים אִתּ֖וֹ לִקְבֹּ֣ר אֶת־אָבִ֑יו אַֽחֲרֵ֖י קָבְר֥וֹ אֶת־אָבִֽיו:
he and his brothers, and all who had gone up with him: Here, when they returned, [Scripture] places his brothers before the Egyptians who had gone up with him, whereas when they left, [Scripture] places the Egyptians before his brothers, as it is said: “and all Pharaoh’s servants…went up with him” (verse 7), and afterwards, “And Joseph’s entire household and his brothers” (verse 8). But because they (the Egyptians) saw the honor that the kings of Canaan had bestowed, (i.e.,) that they hung their crowns on Jacob’s coffin, they treated them (Joseph’s brothers) with respect. — [From Sotah 13b]   הוּא וְאֶחָיו וְכָל־הָֽעֹלִים אִתּוֹ: בַּחֲזָרָתָן הִקְדִּים אֶחָיו לַמִּצְרִים הָעוֹלִים אִתּוֹ, וּבַהֲלִיכָתָן הִקְדִּים מִצְרַיִם לְאֶחָיו, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וַיַּעֲלוּ אִתּוֹ כָּל עַבְדֵי פַרְעֹה וְגוֹ', וְאַחַר כָּךְ כָּל בֵּית יוֹסֵף וְאֶחָיו, אֶלָּא לְפִי שֶׁרָאוּ כָבוֹד שֶׁעָשׂוּ מַלְכֵי כְנַעַן שֶׁתָּלוּ כִתְרֵיהֶם בַאֲרוֹנוֹ שֶׁל יַעֲקֹב נָהֲגוּ בָהֶם כָּבוֹד:
15Now Joseph's brothers saw that their father had died, and they said, "Perhaps Joseph will hate us and return to us all the evil that we did to him."   טווַיִּרְא֤וּ אֲחֵֽי־יוֹסֵף֙ כִּי־מֵ֣ת אֲבִיהֶ֔ם וַיֹּ֣אמְר֔וּ ל֥וּ יִשְׂטְמֵ֖נוּ יוֹסֵ֑ף וְהָשֵׁ֤ב יָשִׁיב֙ לָ֔נוּ אֵ֚ת כָּל־הָ֣רָעָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר גָּמַ֖לְנוּ אֹתֽוֹ:
Now Joseph’s brothers saw that their father had died: What does it mean that they saw? They recognized his (Jacob’s) death in Joseph, for they were accustomed to dine at Joseph’s table, and he was friendly toward them out of respect for his father, but as soon as Jacob died, he was no longer friendly toward them. — [From Targum Jonathan ben Uzziel; Tanchuma Buber, Shemoth 2]   וַיִּרְאוּ אֲחֵֽי־יוֹסֵף כִּי־מֵת אֲבִיהֶם: מַהוּ וַיִּרְאוּ? הִכִּירוּ בְּמִיתָתוֹ אֵצֶל יוֹסֵף, שֶׁהָיוּ רְגִילִים לִסְעֹד עַל שֻׁלְחָנוֹ שֶׁל יוֹסֵף וְהָיָה מְקָרְבָן בִּשְׁבִיל כְּבוֹד אָבִיו, וּמִשֶּׁמֵּת יַעֲקֹב לֹא קֵרְבָן (בראשית רבה):
Perhaps Joseph will hate us: Heb. לוּ [The word] לוּ has many different meanings. לוּ is used as an expression of request or to denote “if only,” [as in these examples:] “If only (לוּ) it would be as you say” (Gen. 30:34); “If only (לוּ) you would listen to me” (ibid. 23:13); “If only (לוּ) we had been content” (Josh. 7:7); “If only (לוּ) we had died” (Num. 14:2). לוּ sometimes means “if” (אִם) or “perhaps” (אוּלַי) , e.g., “If (לוּ) they had been wise” (Deut. 32:29); “Had (לוּא) you hearkened to My commandments” (Isa. 48: 18); “And even if (וְלוּ) I should weigh on my palms” (II Sam. 18:12). לוּ sometimes serves as an expression of “perhaps,” [as in] “Perhaps (לוּ) will hate us” (Gen. 50:15). And there is no similar use [of this word] in Scriptures. It is [used as] an expression of “perhaps” (אוּלַי), like “Perhaps (אוּלַי) the woman will not follow me” (Gen. 24:39), which denotes “perhaps.” There is also an example of אוּלַי [used as] an expression of a request, e. g., “If only (אוּלַי) the Lord will see [the tears of] my eye” (II Sam. 16:12); “If only (אוּלַי) the Lord will be with me” (Josh. 14:12). This is similar to “If only (לוּ) it would be as you say” (Gen. 30:34). Sometimes אוּלַי is an expression of “if:” “If (אוּלַי) there are fifty righteous men” (Gen. 18:24). - [From Targum Onkelos]   לוּ יִשְׂטְמֵנוּ: שֶׁמָּא יִשְׂטְמֵנוּ; לוּ מִתְחַלֵּק לְעִנְיָנִים הַרְבֵּה; יֵשׁ לוּ מְשַׁמֵּשׁ בִּלְשׁוֹן בַּקָּשָׁה וּלְשׁוֹן הַלְוַאי, כְּגוֹן לוּ יְהִי כִדְבָרֶךָ, לוּ שְׁמָעֵנִי, וְלוּ הוֹאַלְנוּ, לוּ מַתְנוּ, וְיֵשׁ לוּ מְשַׁמֵּשׁ בִּלְשׁוֹן אִם וְאוּלַי, כְּגוֹן לוּ חָכְמוּ (דברים ל"ב), לוּ הִקְשַׁבְתָּ לְמִצְוֹתָי (ישעיהו מ"ח), וְלוּ אָנֹכִי שֹׁקֵל עַל כַּפַּי (שמואל ב י"ח); וְיֵשׁ לוּ מְשַׁמֵשׁ בִּלְשׁוֹן שֶׁמָּא, לוּ יִשְׂטְמֵנוּ, וְאֵין לוֹ עוֹד דּוֹמֶה בַמִּקְרָא, וְהוּא לְשׁוֹן אוּלַי, כְּמוֹ אֻלַי לֹא תֵלֵךְ הָאִשָּׁה אַחֲרָי, לְשׁוֹן שֶׁמָּא הוּא; וְיֵשׁ אוּלַי לְשׁוֹן בַּקָּשָׁה, כְּגוֹן אוּלַי יִרְאֶה ה' בְּעֵינִי (שמואל ב ט"ז), אוּלַי ה' אוֹתִי (יהושע י"ד), הֲרֵי הוּא כְּמוֹ לוּ יְהִי כִדְבָרֶךָ, וְיֵשׁ אוּלַי לְשׁוֹן אִם, אוּלַי יֵשׁ נ' צַדִּיקִם:
16So they commanded [messengers to go] to Joseph, to say, "Your father commanded [us] before his death, saying,   טזוַיְצַוּ֕וּ אֶל־יוֹסֵ֖ף לֵאמֹ֑ר אָבִ֣יךָ צִוָּ֔ה לִפְנֵ֥י מוֹת֖וֹ לֵאמֹֽר:
they commanded [messengers to go] to Joseph: Like “and He commanded them to the children of Israel” (Exod. 6:13). [That is,] he commanded Moses and Aaron to be messengers to the children of Israel. In this case, too, they (the brothers) commanded their messenger to be a messenger to Joseph to say this to him. Whom did they command? Bilhah’s sons who were frequently with him, as it is said: “and he was a lad [and was] with the sons of Bilhah” (Gen. 37:2). - [From Targum Yerushalmi as quoted by Chizkuni]   וַיְצַוּוּ אֶל־יוֹסֵף: כְּמוֹ וַיְצַוֵּם אֶל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל – צִוָּה לְמֹשֶׁה וּלְאַהֲרֹן לִהְיוֹת שְׁלוּחִים אֶל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל, אַף זֶה וַיְצַוּוּ אֶל שְׁלוּחָם, לִהְיוֹת שָׁלִיחַ אֶל יוֹסֵף לוֹמַר לוֹ כֵן. וְאֶת מִי צִוּוּ? אֶת בְּנֵי בִלְהָה, שֶׁהָיוּ רְגִילִין אֶצְלוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וְהוּא נַעַר אֶת בְּנֵי בִלְהָה:
Your father commanded: They altered the facts for the sake of peace. Jacob gave no such command, since he did not suspect Joseph. — [From Yeb. 65b, Tanchuma Toledoth 1].   אָבִיךָ צִוָּה: שִׁנּוּ בַדָּבָר מִפְּנֵי הַשָּׁלוֹם, כִּי לֹא צִוָּה יַעֲקֹב כֵּן, שֶׁלֹּא נֶחֱשַׁד יוֹסֵף בְּעֵינָיו (בראשית רבה, יבמות ס"ה):
17'So shall you say to Joseph, "Please, forgive now your brothers' transgression and their sin, for they did evil to you. Now please forgive the transgression of the servants of the God of your father." ' " Joseph wept when they spoke to him.   יזכֹּה־תֹֽאמְר֣וּ לְיוֹסֵ֗ף אָ֣נָּ֡א שָׂ֣א נָ֠א פֶּ֣שַׁע אַחֶ֤יךָ וְחַטָּאתָם֙ כִּֽי־רָעָ֣ה גְמָל֔וּךָ וְעַתָּה֙ שָׂ֣א נָ֔א לְפֶ֥שַׁע עַבְדֵ֖י אֱלֹהֵ֣י אָבִ֑יךָ וַיֵּ֥בְךְּ יוֹסֵ֖ף בְּדַבְּרָ֥ם אֵלָֽיו:
please forgive the transgression of the servants of the God of your father: Although your father is dead, his God is alive, and they are His servants. — [From Tanchuma Buber, Shemoth 2]   שָׂא נָא לְפֶשַׁע עַבְדֵי אֱלֹהֵי אָבִיךָ: אִם אָבִיךָ מֵת, אֱלֹהָיו קַיָּם, וְהֵם עֲבָדָיו:
18His brothers also went and fell before him, and they said, "Behold, we are your slaves."   יחוַיֵּֽלְכוּ֙ גַּם־אֶחָ֔יו וַיִּפְּל֖וּ לְפָנָ֑יו וַיֹּ֣אמְר֔וּ הִנֶּ֥נּוּ לְךָ֖ לַֽעֲבָדִֽים:
His brothers also went: in addition to sending messengers.   וַיֵּֽלְכוּ גַּם־אֶחָיו: מוּסָף עַל הַשְּׁלִיחוּת:
19But Joseph said to them, "Don't be afraid, for am I instead of God?   יטוַיֹּ֧אמֶר אֲלֵהֶ֛ם יוֹסֵ֖ף אַל־תִּירָ֑אוּ כִּ֛י הֲתַ֥חַת אֱלֹהִ֖ים אָֽנִי:
for am I instead of God?: Heb. הִתַחַת. Am I perhaps in His place? [The prefixed “hey” denotes] wonder. If I wanted to harm you, would I be able? Did not all of you plan evil against me? The Holy One, blessed be He, however, designed it for good. So how can I alone harm you?   כִּי הֲתַחַת אֱלֹהִים אָֽנִי: שֶׁמָּא בִּמְקוֹמוֹ אֲנִי? בִּתְמִיהָ, אִם הָיִיתִי רוֹצֶה לְהָרַע לָכֶם, כְּלוּם אֲנִי יָכוֹל? וַהֲלֹא אַתֶּם כֻּלְּכֶם חֲשַׁבְתֶּם עָלַי רָעָה, וְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא חֲשָׁבָהּ לְטוֹבָה וְהֵיאַךְ אֲנִי לְבַדִּי יָכוֹל לְהָרַע לָכֶם?
20Indeed, you intended evil against me, [but] God designed it for good, in order to bring about what is at present to keep a great populace alive.   כוְאַתֶּ֕ם חֲשַׁבְתֶּ֥ם עָלַ֖י רָעָ֑ה אֱלֹהִים֙ חֲשָׁבָ֣הּ לְטֹבָ֔ה לְמַ֗עַן עֲשׂ֛ה כַּיּ֥וֹם הַזֶּ֖ה לְהַֽחֲיֹ֥ת עַם־רָֽב:
21So now do not fear. I will sustain you and your small children." And he comforted them and spoke to their hearts.   כאוְעַתָּה֙ אַל־תִּירָ֔אוּ אָֽנֹכִ֛י אֲכַלְכֵּ֥ל אֶתְכֶ֖ם וְאֶת־טַפְּכֶ֑ם וַיְנַחֵ֣ם אוֹתָ֔ם וַיְדַבֵּ֖ר עַל־לִבָּֽם:
and spoke to their hearts: Convincing words. Before you came down here, they (the Egyptians) were spreading rumors about me that I was a slave. Through you, it became known that I am a free man. Now if I kill you, what will people say? “He (Joseph) saw a group of young men and glorified himself through them by saying, ‘They are my brothers’ and at the end he killed them. Is there such a thing as a brother who kills his brothers” (Gen. Rabbah 100:9)? Another explanation: If ten candles could not extinguish one candle, [how can one candle extinguish ten candles?] (Meg. 16b).   וַיְדַבֵּר עַל־לִבָּֽם: דְּבָרִים הַמִּתְקַבְּלִים עַל הַלֵּב – עַד שֶׁלֹּא יְרַדְתֶּם לְכָאן הָיוּ מְרַנְּנִים עָלַי שֶׁאֲנִי עֶבֶד, עַל יְדֵיכֶם נוֹדַע שֶׁאֲנִי בֶן חֹרִין, וְאִם אֲנִי הוֹרֵג אֶתְכֶם, מָה הַבְּרִיוֹת אוֹמְרוֹת? כַּת שֶׁל בַּחוּרִים רָאָה וְנִשְׁתַּבֵּחַ בָּהֶם וְאָמַר אַחַי הֵם, וּלְבַסּוֹף הָרַג אוֹתָם; יֵשׁ לְךָ אָח שֶׁהוֹרֵג אֶת אֶחָיו? דָּבָר אַחֵר, עֲשָׂרָה נֵרוֹת לֹא יָכְלוּ לְכַבּוֹת נֵר אֶ' וְכוּ':
22So Joseph dwelt in Egypt, he and his father's household, and Joseph lived a hundred and ten years.   כבוַיֵּ֤שֶׁב יוֹסֵף֙ בְּמִצְרַ֔יִם ה֖וּא וּבֵ֣ית אָבִ֑יו וַיְחִ֣י יוֹסֵ֔ף מֵאָ֥ה וָעֶ֖שֶׂר שָׁנִֽים:
23Joseph saw children of a third generation [born] to Ephraim; also the sons of Machir the son of Manasseh were born on Joseph's knees.   כגוַיַּ֤רְא יוֹסֵף֙ לְאֶפְרַ֔יִם בְּנֵ֖י שִׁלֵּשִׁ֑ים גַּ֗ם בְּנֵ֤י מָכִיר֙ בֶּן־מְנַשֶּׁ֔ה יֻלְּד֖וּ עַל־בִּרְכֵּ֥י יוֹסֵֽף:
on Joseph’s knees: As the Targum renders: [were born and Joseph raised them, i.e.,] he raised them between his knees.   עַל־בִּרְכֵּי יוֹסֵף: כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ גִּדְּלָן בֵּין בִּרְכָּיו:
24Joseph said to his brothers, "I am going to die; God will surely remember you and take you up out of this land to the land that He swore to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob."   כדוַיֹּ֤אמֶר יוֹסֵף֙ אֶל־אֶחָ֔יו אָֽנֹכִ֖י מֵ֑ת וֵֽאלֹהִ֞ים פָּקֹ֧ד יִפְקֹ֣ד אֶתְכֶ֗ם וְהֶֽעֱלָ֤ה אֶתְכֶם֙ מִן־הָאָ֣רֶץ הַזֹּ֔את אֶל־הָאָ֕רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֥ר נִשְׁבַּ֛ע לְאַבְרָהָ֥ם לְיִצְחָ֖ק וּלְיַֽעֲקֹֽב:
25And Joseph adjured the children of Israel, saying, "God will surely remember you, and you shall take up my bones out of here."   כהוַיַּשְׁבַּ֣ע יוֹסֵ֔ף אֶת־בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל לֵאמֹ֑ר פָּקֹ֨ד יִפְקֹ֤ד אֱלֹהִים֙ אֶתְכֶ֔ם וְהַֽעֲלִתֶ֥ם אֶת־עַצְמֹתַ֖י מִזֶּֽה:
26And Joseph died at the age of one hundred ten years, and they embalmed him and he was placed into the coffin in Egypt.   כווַיָּ֣מָת יוֹסֵ֔ף בֶּן־מֵאָ֥ה וָעֶ֖שֶׂר שָׁנִ֑ים וַיַּֽחַנְט֣וּ אֹת֔וֹ וַיִּ֥ישֶׂם בָּֽאָר֖וֹן בְּמִצְרָֽיִם: