Chapter 43

1But the hunger was severe in the land.   אוְהָֽרָעָ֖ב כָּבֵ֥ד בָּאָֽרֶץ:
2And it came to pass, when they finished eating the grain that they had brought from Egypt, that their father said to them, "Go back [and] buy us a little food."   בוַיְהִ֗י כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֤ר כִּלּוּ֙ לֶֽאֱכֹ֣ל אֶת־הַשֶּׁ֔בֶר אֲשֶׁ֥ר הֵבִ֖יאוּ מִמִּצְרָ֑יִם וַיֹּ֤אמֶר אֲלֵיהֶם֙ אֲבִיהֶ֔ם שֻׁ֖בוּ שִׁבְרוּ־לָ֥נוּ מְעַט־אֹֽכֶל:
when they finished eating: Judah had said to them, “Wait for the old man until there is no more bread left in the house.” - [from Tanchuma Mikeitz 8, Gen. Rabbah 91:6]   כַּֽאֲשֶׁר כִּלּוּ לֶֽאֱכֹל: יְהוּדָה אָמַר לָהֶם הַמְתִּינוּ לַזָּקֵן עַד שֶׁתִּכְלֶה פַת מִן הַבַּיִת (בראשית רבה):
when they finished.: [Onkelos renders:] כַּד שֵׁצִיאוּ, when they stopped. The one who renders: כַּד סַפִּיקוּ is in error. “When the camels had finished drinking” (Gen. 24:22) is rendered: כַּד סַפִּיקוּ, which means “when they had drunk their fill,” [for] that was the end of their drinking. This instance of “when they had finished eating,” however, means “when the food was depleted,” and we render: כַּד שֵׁצִיאוּ   כַּֽאֲשֶׁר כִּלּוּ: כַּד שֵׁצִיאוּ, וְהַמְתַרְגֵּם כַּד סַפִּיקוּ טוֹעֶה; כַּאֲשֶׁר כִּלּוּ הַגְּמַלִּים לִשְׁתּוֹת מְתֻרְגָּם כַּד סַפִּיקוּ – כְּשֶׁשָּׁתוּ דֵי סִפּוּקָם הוּא גְמַר שְׁתִיָּתָם; אֲבָל זֶה כַּאֲשֶׁר כִּלּוּ לֶאֱכֹל, כַּאֲשֶׁר תַּם הָאֹכֶל הוּא, וּמְתַרְגְּמִינָן כַּד שֵׁצִיאוּ:
3But Judah spoke to him, saying, "The man warned us repeatedly, saying, 'You shall not see my face if your brother is not with you.'   גוַיֹּ֧אמֶר אֵלָ֛יו יְהוּדָ֖ה לֵאמֹ֑ר הָעֵ֣ד הֵעִד֩ בָּ֨נוּ הָאִ֤ישׁ לֵאמֹר֙ לֹֽא־תִרְא֣וּ פָנַ֔י בִּלְתִּ֖י אֲחִיכֶ֥ם אִתְּכֶֽם:
warned us repeatedly: Heb. הָעֵד הֵעִד, an expression of warning, since a warning is usually given in the presence of witnesses (עֵדִים). Similarly, “I warned (הַעִדֹתִי) your forefathers” (Jer. 11:7); “Go down, warn (הָעֵד) the people” (Exod. 19:21).   הָעֵד הֵעִד: לְשׁוֹן הַתְרָאָה שֶׁסְּתָם הַתְרָאָה מַתְרֶה בוֹ בִּפְנֵי עֵדִים, וְכֵן הַעִדֹתִי בַּאֲבוֹתֵיכֶם (ירמיהו י"א); רֵד הָעֵד בָּעָם (שמות י"ט):
'You shall not see my face if your brother is not with you.’: Heb. בִּלְתִּי, lit., without. You shall not see me without your brother [being] with you. Onkelos, however, renders: except when your brother is with you. He explained the verse according to its context, but he was not precise in translating it in accordance with the language of the verse.   לֹֽא־תִרְאוּ פָנַי בִּלְתִּי אֲחִיכֶם אִתְּכֶֽם: לֹא תִרְאוּנִי בְלֹא אֲחִיכֶם אִתְּכֶם; וְאֻנְקְלוֹס תִּרְגֵּם אֶלָּהֵן כַּד אֲחוּכוֹן עִמְּכוֹן, יִשֵּׁב הַדָּבָר עַל אָפְנוֹ וְלֹא דִּקְדֵּק לְתַרְגֵּם אַחַר לְשׁוֹן הַמִּקְרָא:
4If you send our brother with us, we will go down and buy food for you.   דאִם־יֶשְׁךָ֛ מְשַׁלֵּ֥חַ אֶת־אָחִ֖ינוּ אִתָּ֑נוּ נֵֽרְדָ֕ה וְנִשְׁבְּרָ֥ה לְךָ֖ אֹֽכֶל:
5But if you do not send [him], we will not go down, because the man said to us, 'You shall not see my face if your brother is not with you.' "   הוְאִם־אֵֽינְךָ֥ מְשַׁלֵּ֖חַ לֹ֣א נֵרֵ֑ד כִּֽי־הָאִ֞ישׁ אָמַ֤ר אֵלֵ֨ינוּ֙ לֹֽא־תִרְא֣וּ פָנַ֔י בִּלְתִּ֖י אֲחִיכֶ֥ם אִתְּכֶֽם:
6And Israel said, "Why have you harmed me, by telling the man that you have another brother?"   ווַיֹּ֨אמֶר֙ יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל לָמָ֥ה הֲרֵֽעֹתֶ֖ם לִ֑י לְהַגִּ֣יד לָאִ֔ישׁ הַע֥וֹד לָכֶ֖ם אָֽח:
7They said, "The man asked about us and about our family, saying, 'Is your father still alive? Do you have a brother?' And we told him according to these words. Could we have known that he would say, 'Bring your brother down'?"   זוַיֹּֽאמְר֡וּ שָׁא֣וֹל שָֽׁאַל־הָ֠אִ֠ישׁ לָ֣נוּ וּלְמֽוֹלַדְתֵּ֜נוּ לֵאמֹ֗ר הַע֨וֹד אֲבִיכֶ֥ם חַי֙ הֲיֵ֣שׁ לָכֶ֣ם אָ֔ח וַנַּ֨גֶּד־ל֔וֹ עַל־פִּ֖י הַדְּבָרִ֣ים הָאֵ֑לֶּה הֲיָד֣וֹעַ נֵדַ֔ע כִּ֣י יֹאמַ֔ר הוֹרִ֖ידוּ אֶת־אֲחִיכֶֽם:
about us and about our family: Heb. וּלְמוֹלַדְתֵּנוּ, about our lineage (Targum Jonathan). Midrashically, [it is explained:] Even the matters (עִנְיָנֵי) of our cradles he revealed to us. — [from Gen. Rabbah 91:10]   לָנוּ וּלְמֽוֹלַדְתֵּנוּ: לְמִשְׁפְּחוֹתֵנוּ. וּמִדְרָשׁוֹ אֲפִלּוּ עֲצֵי עֲרִיסוֹתֵנוּ גִּלָּה לָנוּ:
And we told him: that we have a father and a brother.   וַנַּגֶּד־לוֹ: שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָנוּ אָב וְאָח:
according to these words: According to his questions that he asked, we were compelled to answer.   עַל־פִּי הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה: עַל פִּי שְׁאֵלוֹתָיו אֲשֶׁר שָׁאַל, הֻזְקַקְנוּ לְהַגִּיד:
that he would say: Heb. כִּי יֹאמַר. [This is equivalent to] אִשֶׁר יֹאמַר, that he would say. כִּי is used as an expression for אִם, and אִם is used as an expression for אִשֶׁר, that. Hence, this is one of its four usages, for this [כִּי] is like אִם, as “until (עַד אִם) I have spoken my words” (24:33). - [after targumim]   כִּי יֹאמַר: אֲשֶׁר יֹאמַר, כִּי מְשַׁמֵּשׁ בִּלְשׁוֹן אִם וְאִם מְשַׁמֵּשׁ בִּלְשׁוֹן אֲשֶׁר; הֲרֵי זֶה שִׁמּוּשׁ אֶחָד מֵאַרְבַּע לְשׁוֹנוֹתָיו שֶׁמְּשַׁמֵּשׁ כִּי, וְהוּא אִם, שֶׁהֲרֵי כִּי זֶה כְמוֹ אִם, כְּמוֹ עַד אִם דִּבַּרְתִּי דְּבָרָי (בראשית כ״ד:ל״ג):
8And Judah said to Israel, his father, "Send the lad with me, and we will get up and go, and we will live and not die, both we and you and also our young children.   חוַיֹּ֨אמֶר יְהוּדָ֜ה אֶל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֣ל אָבִ֗יו שִׁלְחָ֥ה הַנַּ֛עַר אִתִּ֖י וְנָק֣וּמָה וְנֵלֵ֑כָה וְנִֽחְיֶה֙ וְלֹ֣א נָמ֔וּת גַּם־אֲנַ֥חְנוּ גַם־אַתָּ֖ה גַּם־טַפֵּֽנוּ:
and we will live: The Holy Spirit flickered within him. Through this trip, your spirit will be revived, as it is said: “and the spirit of their father Jacob was revived” (Gen. 45:27).   וְנִֽחְיֶה: נִצְנְצָה בוֹ רוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ, עַל יְדֵי הֲלִיכָה זוֹ תְחִי רוּחֲךָ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וַתְּחִי רוּחַ יַעֲקֹב אֲבִיהֶם (בראשית מ"ה):
and not die: of hunger. As for Benjamin, we are not sure whether he will be seized or he will not be seized, but all of us will [certainly] die of hunger if we do not go. It would be better to leave the doubtful situation and seize the [situation that is] certain. — [from Tanchuma Mikeitz 8]   וְלֹא נָמוּת: בָּרָעָב; בִּנְיָמִין סָפֵק יִתָּפֵשׂ סָפֵק לֹא יִתָּפֵשׂ, וְאָנוּ כֻּלָּנוּ מֵתִים בָּרָעָב אִם לֹא נֵלֵךְ, מוּטָב שֶׁתַּנִּיחַ אֶת הַסָּפֵק וְתִתְפֹּשׂ אֶת הַוַּדַּאי:
9I will guarantee him; from my hand you can demand him. If I do not bring him to you and stand him up before you, I will have sinned against you forever.   טאָֽנֹכִי֙ אֶֽעֶרְבֶ֔נּוּ מִיָּדִ֖י תְּבַקְשֶׁ֑נּוּ אִם־לֹ֨א הֲבִֽיאֹתִ֤יו אֵלֶ֨יךָ֙ וְהִצַּגְתִּ֣יו לְפָנֶ֔יךָ וְחָטָ֥אתִי לְךָ֖ כָּל־הַיָּמִֽים:
and stand him up before you: That I will not bring him to you dead, but alive.   וְהִצַּגְתִּיו לְפָנֶיךָ: שֶׁלֹּא אֲבִיאֶנּוּ אֵלֶיךָ מֵת, כִּי אִם חַי:
I will have sinned against you forever: For the world to come. - [from Gen. Rabbah 91:10]   וְחָטָאתִי לְךָ כָּל־הַיָּמִֽים: לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא:
10For had we not tarried, by now we would have already returned twice."   יכִּ֖י לוּלֵ֣א הִתְמַהְמָ֑הְנוּ כִּֽי־עַתָּ֥ה שַׁ֖בְנוּ זֶ֥ה פַֽעֲמָֽיִם:
had we not tarried: because of you, we would have [already] returned with Simeon, and you would not have suffered all these days.   לוּלֵא התמהמנו: עַל יָדְךָ, כְּבָר הָיִינוּ שָׁבִים עִם שִׁמְעוֹן וְלֹא נִצְטַעַרְתָּ כָּל הַיָּמִים הַלָּלוּ:
11So Israel, their father, said to them, "If so, then do this: take some of the choice products of the land in your vessels, and take down to the man as a gift, a little balm and a little honey, wax and lotus, pistachios and almonds.   יאוַיֹּ֨אמֶר אֲלֵהֶ֜ם יִשְׂרָאֵ֣ל אֲבִיהֶ֗ם אִם־כֵּ֣ן | אֵפוֹא֘ זֹ֣את עֲשׂוּ֒ קְח֞וּ מִזִּמְרַ֤ת הָאָ֨רֶץ֙ בִּכְלֵיכֶ֔ם וְהוֹרִ֥ידוּ לָאִ֖ישׁ מִנְחָ֑ה מְעַ֤ט צֳרִי֙ וּמְעַ֣ט דְּבַ֔שׁ נְכֹ֣את וָלֹ֔ט בָּטְנִ֖ים וּשְׁקֵדִֽים:
then: Heb. אֵפוֹא. This is a redundant word, used for stylistic purposes in the Hebrew. If [it is] so, [that] I will be compelled to do [this]-that I will [have to] send him with you-I will have to search and seek where [is the place that we can say,] “Here is (אַיֵּה פֹה) a solution as well as advice to give you, and [therefore] I say, ‘Do this.’”   אֵפוֹא: לְשׁוֹן יֶתֶר הוּא, לְתַקֵּן מִלָּה בְלָשׁוֹן עִבְרִי, אִם כֵּן אֶזְדַּקֵּק לַעֲשׂוֹת, שֶׁאֶשְׁלָחֶנּוּ עִמָּכֶם, צָרִיךְ אֲנִי לַחֲזֹר וּלְבַקֵּשׁ אַיֵּה פֹה תַקָּנָה וְעֵצָה לְהַשִּׂיאֲכֶם, וְאוֹמֵר אֲנִי זאת עשו:
some of the choice products of the land: Heb. מִזִמְּרַת הָאָרֶץ lit., from the song of the land. Targumim render: מִדִּמְשַׁבָּח בְּאַרְעָא, “from what is praised in the land,” about which everyone sings, [rejoicing] that it came into the world.   מִזִּמְרַת הָאָרֶץ: מִדִּמְשַׁבַּח בְּאַרְעָא – שֶׁהַכֹּל מְזַמְּרִים עָלָיו כְּשֶׁהוּא בָא לָעוֹלָם:
wax: Heb. נְכֹאת, wax. — [from Gen. Rabbah 91:11, Targum Onkelos] Cf. Rashi above on 37:25.   נְכֹאת: שַׁעֲוָה:
pistachios: Heb. בָּטְנִים I do not know what they are. In the alphabetized dictionary of Rabbi Machir, I saw [that they are] pistachios, but I believe that they are אִפַרְסְקִים (mentioned in the Mishnah, Kilayim 1:4, and the Talmud, Shabbath 45a).   בָּטְנִים: לֹא יָדַעְתִּי מַה הֵם, וּבְפֵרוּשֵׁי א"ב שֶׁל רַבִּי מָכִיר רָאִיתִי פשט"ציאס וְדוֹמֶה לִי שֶׁהֵם אֲפַרְסְקִין:
12And take double the money in your hand[s], and the money that was returned in the mouth of your sacks you shall return in your hand[s], perhaps it was an error.   יבוְכֶ֥סֶף מִשְׁנֶ֖ה קְח֣וּ בְיֶדְכֶ֑ם וְאֶת־הַכֶּ֜סֶף הַמּוּשַׁ֨ב בְּפִ֤י אַמְתְּחֹֽתֵיכֶם֙ תָּשִׁ֣יבוּ בְיֶדְכֶ֔ם אוּלַ֥י מִשְׁגֶּ֖ה הֽוּא:
And…double the money: Twice as much as the first.   וְכֶסֶף מִשְׁנֶה: פִּי שְׁנַיִם כָּרִאשׁוֹן:
take…in your hand[s]: to purchase food, perhaps the price has risen.   קְחוּ בְיֶדְכֶם: לִשְׁבֹּר אֹכֶל, שֶׁמָּא הוּקַר הַשַּׁעַר:
perhaps it was an error: Perhaps the one appointed over the house inadvertently forgot it.   אוּלַי מִשְׁגֶּה הֽוּא: שֶׁמָּא הַמְמֻנֶּה עַל הַבַּיִת שְׁכָחוֹ שׁוֹגֵג:
13And take your brother, and get up, go back to the man.   יגוְאֶת־אֲחִיכֶ֖ם קָ֑חוּ וְק֖וּמוּ שׁ֥וּבוּ אֶל־הָאִֽישׁ:
14And may the Almighty God grant you compassion before the man, and he will release to you your other brother and Benjamin, and as for me as I am bereaved, I am bereaved."   ידוְאֵ֣ל שַׁדַּ֗י יִתֵּ֨ן לָכֶ֤ם רַֽחֲמִים֙ לִפְנֵ֣י הָאִ֔ישׁ וְשִׁלַּ֥ח לָכֶ֛ם אֶת־אֲחִיכֶ֥ם אַחֵ֖ר וְאֶת־בִּנְיָמִ֑ין וַֽאֲנִ֕י כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר שָׁכֹ֖לְתִּי שָׁכָֽלְתִּי:
And may the Almighty God: From now on, you lack nothing but prayer. Behold I am praying for you. — [from Gen. Rabbah 91:11]   וְאֵל שַׁדַּי: מֵעַתָּה אֵינְכֶם חֲסֵרִים כְּלוּם אֶלָּא תְפִלָּה, הֲרֵינִי מִתְפַּלֵּל עֲלֵיכֶם:
the Almighty God: Heb. אֵ-ל שַׁדַּי, Whose grant of mercy is sufficient (שֶׁדַי), and Who has sufficient power to grant, May He grant you compassion. This is its simple meaning (Zohar, vol. 2, p. 257a). Its midrashic interpretation, however, is: May He Who said to His world, “Enough!” (שֶׁאָמַר דָּי) say to my troubles, “Enough!” for I have not enjoyed tranquility since my youth. [I endured] the trouble of Laban (who tricked me and pursued me with the desire of killing me), the trouble of Esau (who wanted to kill me), the trouble of Rachel (who died in childbirth), the trouble of Dinah (who was violated and kidnapped by Shechem), the trouble of Joseph (who disappeared), the trouble of Simeon (who is being detained by the ruler of Egypt), and the trouble of Benjamin (whom he demands that I send to him) (Tanchuma Mikeitz 10).   אל שַׁדַּי: שֶׁדַּי בִּנְתִינַת רַחֲמָיו וּכְדַי הַיְכֹלֶת בְּיָדוֹ לִתֵּן, יִתֵּן לָכֶם רַחֲמִים, זֶהוּ פְשׁוּטוֹ. וּמִדְרָשׁוֹ מִי שֶׁאָמַר לָעוֹלָם דַּי, יֹאמַר דַּי לְצָרוֹתַי, שֶׁלֹּא שָׁקַטְתִּי מִנְּעוּרַי, צָרַת לָבָן, צָרַת עֵשָׂו, צָרַת רָחֵל, צָרַת דִּינָה, צָרַת יוֹסֵף, צָרַת שִׁמְעוֹן, צָרַת בִּנְיָמִין:
and he will release to you: Heb. וְשִׁלַח. He will release to you, as the Targum renders, [meaning that] he will release him from his bonds, an expression similar to “he shall let him out to freedom (לַחָפְשִׁי יְשַׁלְחֶנוּ)” (Exod. 21:26). It is, however, inappropriate to translate it as an expression of sending away because they were going there to him.   וְשִׁלַּח לָכֶם: וְיִפְטַר לְכוֹן כְּתַרְגּוּמוֹ – יִפְטְרֶנּוּ מֵאֱסוּרָיו, לְשׁוֹן לַחָפְשִׁי יְשַׁלְּחֶנּוּ (שמות כ"א), וְאֵינוֹ נוֹפֵל בַּתַּרְגּוּם לְשׁוֹן וַיִּשְׁלַח, שֶׁהֲרֵי לְשָׁם הֵם הוֹלְכִים אֶצְלוֹ:
your…brother: This is Simeon.   אֶת־אֲחִיכֶם: זֶה שִׁמְעוֹן:
other: The Holy Spirit [of prophecy] was cast into him to include Joseph. - [from Avoth d’Rabbi Nathan,]   אַחֵר: רוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ נִזְרְקָה בוֹ, לְרַבּוֹת יוֹסֵף (בראשית רבה):
and as for me: Until you return, I will be bereaved out of doubt.   וַֽאֲנִי: עַד שׁוּבְכֶם אֶהְיֶה שַׁכּוּל מִסָּפֵק:
as I am bereaved: of Joseph and Simeon.   כַּֽאֲשֶׁר שָׁכֹלְתִּי: מִיּוֹסֵף וּמִשִּׁמְעוֹן:
I am bereaved: of Benjamin.   שָׁכֹלְתִּי: מִבִּנְיָמִין:
15So the men took this gift, and they took double the money in their hand[s] and Benjamin, and they got up and went down to Egypt and stood before Joseph.   טווַיִּקְח֤וּ הָֽאֲנָשִׁים֙ אֶת־הַמִּנְחָ֣ה הַזֹּ֔את וּמִשְׁנֶה־כֶּ֛סֶף לָֽקְח֥וּ בְיָדָ֖ם וְאֶת־בִּנְיָמִ֑ן וַיָּקֻ֨מוּ֙ וַיֵּֽרְד֣וּ מִצְרַ֔יִם וַיַּֽעַמְד֖וּ לִפְנֵ֥י יוֹסֵֽף:
and Benjamin: The Targum renders: וּדְבָרוּ יַת בִּנְיָמִן, and they led Benjamin away. [I.e., Onkelos was not satisfied with the verb נְסִיבוּ, they took, but added another verb, וּדְבָרוּ, and they led away. [That is] because [the expressions for] taking money and taking a person are not the same in Aramaic. Regarding a thing “taken in the hand,” we translate וּנְסִיב, but something taken by persuasion, we translate וּדְבָר.   וְאֶת־בנימין: מְתַּרְגְּמִינַן וּדְבָרוּ יָת בִּנְיָמִין, לְפִי שֶׁאֵין לְקִיחַת הַכֶּסֶף וּלְקִיחַת הָאָדָם שָׁוָה בְלָשׁוֹן אֲרַמִּי; בְּדָבָר הַנִּקָּח בַּיָּד מְתַרְגְּמִינָן וּנְסִיב, וְדָבָר הַנִּקָּח בְּהַנְהָגַת דְּבָרִים, מְתַרְגְּמִינָן וּדְבַר:
16[When] Joseph saw Benjamin with them, he said to the overseer of his house, "Bring the men into the house and [give orders] to slaughter an animal and to prepare, for the men will eat with me at lunch."   טזוַיַּ֨רְא יוֹסֵ֣ף אִתָּם֘ אֶת־בִּנְיָמִין֒ וַיֹּ֨אמֶר֙ לַֽאֲשֶׁ֣ר עַל־בֵּית֔וֹ הָבֵ֥א אֶת־הָֽאֲנָשִׁ֖ים הַבָּ֑יְתָה וּטְבֹ֤חַ טֶ֨בַח֙ וְהָכֵ֔ן כִּ֥י אִתִּ֛י יֹֽאכְל֥וּ הָֽאֲנָשִׁ֖ים בַּצָּֽהֳרָֽיִם:
and [give orders] to slaughter an animal and to prepare: Heb. וּטְבֹח ַטֶבַח וְהָכֵן, like וְלִטְבֹּח ַטֶבַח וּלְהָכֵן, and טְבֹחַ is not the imperative, for [if so,] he would have said וּטְבַח   וּטְבֹחַ טֶבַח וְהָכֵן: כְּמוֹ וְלִטְבֹּחַ טֶבַח וּלְהָכִין, וְאֵין טְבֹחַ לְשׁוֹן צִוּוּי, שֶׁהָיָה לוֹ לוֹמַר וּטְבַח:
at lunch: Heb. בָּצָּהֲרָיִם This is translated [by the targumim] as בְּשֵׁירוּתָא, an Aramaic term denoting the first meal of the day. In Old French disner, lunch. There are many [examples of this word] in the Talmud: “he threw his meal (שֵׁירוּתֵיהּ) to a dog” (Ta’anith 11b); “he cut [the bread] for the entire meal (שֵׁירוּתָא)” (Ber. 39b), but every [other] translation of צָהֳרַיִם is טִהִרָא.   בַּצָּֽהֳרָֽיִם: זֶה מְתֻרְגָּם בְּשֵׁירוּתָא, שֶׁהוּא לְשׁוֹן סְעוּדָה רִאשׁוֹנָה בְלָשׁוֹן אֲרַמִּי וּבְלַעַז דיזנ"ר, וְיֵשׁ הַרְבֵּה בַּתַּלְמוּד, שָׁדָא לְכַלְבָּא שֵׁירוּתֵהּ; בָּצַע אַכּוּלָּא שֵׁירוּתָא, אֲבָל כָּל תַּרְגּוּם שֶׁל צָהֳרַיִם טִיהֲרָא:
17And the man did as Joseph had said, and the man brought the men into Joseph's house.   יזוַיַּ֣עַשׂ הָאִ֔ישׁ כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֖ר אָמַ֣ר יוֹסֵ֑ף וַיָּבֵ֥א הָאִ֛ישׁ אֶת־הָֽאֲנָשִׁ֖ים בֵּ֥יתָה יוֹסֵֽף:
18Now the men were frightened because they had been brought into Joseph's house, and they said, "On account of the money that came back in our sacks at first, we are brought, to roll upon us and to fall upon us and to take us as slaves and our donkeys [as well]."   יחוַיִּֽירְא֣וּ הָֽאֲנָשִׁ֗ים כִּ֣י הֽוּבְאוּ֘ בֵּ֣ית יוֹסֵף֒ וַיֹּֽאמְר֗וּ עַל־דְּבַ֤ר הַכֶּ֨סֶף֙ הַשָּׁ֤ב בְּאַמְתְּחֹתֵ֨ינוּ֙ בַּתְּחִלָּ֔ה אֲנַ֖חְנוּ מֽוּבָאִ֑ים לְהִתְגֹּלֵ֤ל עָלֵ֨ינוּ֙ וּלְהִתְנַפֵּ֣ל עָלֵ֔ינוּ וְלָקַ֧חַת אֹתָ֛נוּ לַֽעֲבָדִ֖ים וְאֶת־חֲמֹרֵֽינוּ:
Now the men were frightened: Heb. וַיִירְאוּ It is written with two “yuds,” and is translated וּדְחִילוּ, “were frightened.”   וַיִּֽירְאוּ הָֽאֲנָשִׁים: כָּתוּב הוּא בִּשְׁנֵי יוֹדִ"ין, וְתַרְגּוּמוֹ וּדְחִילוּ:
because they had been brought into Joseph’s house: And it was not customary for others who came to purchase grain to lodge in Joseph’s house, but in the inns in the city. So they were frightened that this was [done] only [in order] to put them in prison.   כִּי הֽוּבְאוּ בֵּית יוֹסֵף: וְאֵין דֶּרֶךְ שְׁאָר הַבָּאִים לִשְׁבֹּר בָּר לָלוּן בְּבֵית יוֹסֵף, כִּי אִם בְּפֻנְדְּקָאוֹת שֶׁבָּעִיר וַיִּֽירְאוּ שֶׁאֵין זֶה אֶלָּא לְאָסְפָם אֶל מִשְׁמָר:
we are brought: into this house.   אֲנַחְנוּ מֽוּבָאִים: אֶל תּוֹךְ הַבַּיִת הַזֶּה:
to roll upon us: Heb. לְהִתְגֹלֵל עָלֵינוּ So that the fabricated accusation regarding the money will roll upon us and fall upon us, [“Rolling” denotes the plot, and “falling” the ultimate attack.] Onkelos, however, rendered וּלְהִתְנַפֵּל עָלֵינוּ as וּלְאִסְתְּקָפָא עִלָנָא, which is an expression denoting “fabricating false accusations,” just as the Targum renders עִלִילֹת דְּבָרִים as“and he makes a false accusation against her” (Deut. 22:14) [with the words] תַּסְקוּפֵי מִלִין He (Onkelos) does not translate it literally to conform to the language of the verse. But לְהִתְגֹלֵל, which he (Onkelos) renders לְאִתְרַבְרְבָא, “to aggrandize himself,” is an expression derived from “the golden bowl (גֻלַת)” (Eccl. 12:6); “And Huzzab the queen (גֻלְתָה) was carried away” (Nahum 2:8), which denotes royalty.   לְהִתְגֹּלֵל: לִהְיוֹת מִתְגַּלְגֶּלֶת עָלֵינוּ עֲלִילַת הַכֶּסֶף וְלִהְיוֹתָהּ נוֹפֶלֶת עָלֵינוּ; וְאֻנְקְלוֹס שֶׁתִּרְגֵּם וּלְאִסְתַּקָּפָא עֲלָנָא הוּא לְשׁוֹן לְהִתְעוֹלֵל, כְּדִמְתַרְגְּמִינָן עֲלִילַת דְּבָרִים – תַּסְקוּפֵי מִלִּין, וְלֹא תִרְגְּמוֹ אַחַר לְשׁוֹן הַמִּקְרָא וּלְהִתְגּוֹלֵל שֶׁתִּרְגֵּם לְאִתְרַבְרָבָא, הוּא לְשוֹן גֻּלַּת הַזָּהָב (קהלת י"ב), וְהֻצַּב גֻּלְּתָה הֹעֲלָתָה (נחום ב'), שֶׁהוּא לְשׁוֹן מַלְכוּת:
19So they drew near the man who was over Joseph's house, and they spoke to him at the entrance of the house.   יטוַיִּגְּשׁוּ֙ אֶל־הָאִ֔ישׁ אֲשֶׁ֖ר עַל־בֵּ֣ית יוֹסֵ֑ף וַיְדַבְּר֥וּ אֵלָ֖יו פֶּ֥תַח הַבָּֽיִת:
20And they said, "Please, my lord, we came down at first to purchase food.   כוַיֹּֽאמְר֖וּ בִּ֣י אֲדֹנִ֑י יָרֹ֥ד יָרַ֛דְנוּ בַּתְּחִלָּ֖ה לִשְׁבָּר־אֹֽכֶל:
Please, my lord: Heb. בִּי, an expression of entreaty and supplication, in Aramaic: בָּיָיא בָּיָיא. Rashi bases this translation on Onkelos.   בִּי אֲדֹנִי: לְשׁוֹן בַּעְיָא וְתַחֲנוּנִים הוּא, בְלָשׁוֹן אֲרַמִּי בַּיָּא בַּיָּא (יבמות צ"ז, סנהדרין ס"ד):
we came down: Heb. יָרֹד יָרַדְנוּ. This is a degradation for us. We were accustomed to sustaining others, but now we must rely on you. — [from Gen. Rabbah 92:3]   יָרֹד יָרַדְנוּ: יְרִידָה הִיא לָנוּ, רְגִילִים הָיִינוּ לְפַרְנֵס אֲחֵרִים, עַכְשָׁו אָנוּ צְרִיכִים לְךָ (בראשית רבה):
21And it came to pass when we came to the lodging place that we opened our sacks, and behold! each man's money was in the mouth of his sack, our money in full weight; and we returned it in our hand[s].   כאוַיְהִ֞י כִּי־בָ֣אנוּ אֶל־הַמָּל֗וֹן וַנִּפְתְּחָה֙ אֶת־אַמְתְּחֹתֵ֔ינוּ וְהִנֵּ֤ה כֶֽסֶף־אִישׁ֙ בְּפִ֣י אַמְתַּחְתּ֔וֹ כַּסְפֵּ֖נוּ בְּמִשְׁקָל֑וֹ וַנָּ֥שֶׁב אֹת֖וֹ בְּיָדֵֽנוּ:
22And we brought down other money in our hand[s] to purchase food. We do not know who put our money into our sacks."   כבוְכֶ֧סֶף אַחֵ֛ר הוֹרַ֥דְנוּ בְיָדֵ֖נוּ לִשְׁבָּר־אֹ֑כֶל לֹ֣א יָדַ֔עְנוּ מִי־שָׂ֥ם כַּסְפֵּ֖נוּ בְּאַמְתְּחֹתֵֽינוּ:
23And he said, "Peace to you; fear not. Your God and the God of your father gave you a treasure in your sacks; your money came to me." And he brought Simeon out to them.   כגוַיֹּ֩אמֶר֩ שָׁל֨וֹם לָכֶ֜ם אַל־תִּירָ֗אוּ אֱלֹ֨הֵיכֶ֜ם וֵֽאלֹהֵ֤י אֲבִיכֶם֙ נָתַ֨ן לָכֶ֤ם מַטְמוֹן֙ בְּאַמְתְּחֹ֣תֵיכֶ֔ם כַּסְפְּכֶ֖ם בָּ֣א אֵלָ֑י וַיּוֹצֵ֥א אֲלֵהֶ֖ם אֶת־שִׁמְעֽוֹן:
Your God: In your merit, and if your merit is insufficient, the God of your father, in the merit of your father, gave you a treasure. — [from Gen. Rabbah 92:4 according to Albeck’s edition, Lekach Tov, Sechel Tov]   אֱלֹהֵיכֶם: בִּזְכוּתְכֶם, וְאִם אֵין זְכוּתְכֶם כְּדַאי, ואלהי אביכם, בִּזְכוּת אֲבִיכֶם נתן לכם מטמון:
24Then the man brought the men (the brothers) into Joseph's house, and he gave [them] water, and they washed their feet, and he gave fodder to their donkeys.   כדוַיָּבֵ֥א הָאִ֛ישׁ אֶת־הָֽאֲנָשִׁ֖ים בֵּ֣יתָה יוֹסֵ֑ף וַיִּתֶּן־מַ֨יִם֙ וַיִּרְחֲצ֣וּ רַגְלֵיהֶ֔ם וַיִּתֵּ֥ן מִסְפּ֖וֹא לַֽחֲמֹֽרֵיהֶֽם:
Then the man brought: One bringing in after another bringing in [they were brought inside twice], because they (the brothers) pushed him (the man) outside until they spoke to him at the entrance of the house. As soon as he said to them, “Peace to you,” they followed and entered after him. — [from Gen. Rabbah 92:4]   וַיָּבֵא הָאִישׁ: הֲבָאָה אַחַר הֲבָאָה, לְפִי שֶׁהָיוּ דוֹחֲפִים אוֹתוֹ לַחוּץ עַד שֶׁדִּבְּרוּ אֵלָיו פֶּתַח הַבַּיִת; וּמִשֶּׁאָמַר לָהֶם שָׁלוֹם לָכֶם, נִמְשְׁכוּ וּבָאוּ אַחֲרָיו:
25And they prepared the gift until Joseph would come at lunchtime, for they heard that there they would eat bread.   כהוַיָּכִ֨ינוּ֙ אֶת־הַמִּנְחָ֔ה עַד־בּ֥וֹא יוֹסֵ֖ף בַּצָּֽהֳרָ֑יִם כִּ֣י שָֽׁמְע֔וּ כִּי־שָׁ֖ם יֹ֥אכְלוּ לָֽחֶם:
And they prepared: Heb. וַיָכִינוּ, they prepared. They adorned it with beautiful vessels. — [from Targum Onkelos]   וַיָּכִינוּ: הִזְמִינוּ, עִטְּרוּהָ בְּכֵלִים נָאִים:
26And Joseph came home, and they brought him the gift that was in their hand[s], into the house, and they prostrated themselves to him to the ground.   כווַיָּבֹ֤א יוֹסֵף֙ הַבַּ֔יְתָה וַיָּבִ֥יאוּ ל֛וֹ אֶת־הַמִּנְחָ֥ה אֲשֶׁר־בְּיָדָ֖ם הַבָּ֑יְתָה וַיִּשְׁתַּֽחֲווּ־ל֖וֹ אָֽרְצָה:
into the house: From the anteroom into the reception hall.   הַבַּיְתָה: מִפְּרוֹזְדּוֹר לִטְרַקְלִין:
27He inquired after their welfare, and he said to them, "Is your elderly father, whom you mentioned, well? Is he still alive?"   כזוַיִּשְׁאַ֤ל לָהֶם֙ לְשָׁל֔וֹם וַיֹּ֗אמֶר הֲשָׁל֛וֹם אֲבִיכֶ֥ם הַזָּקֵ֖ן אֲשֶׁ֣ר אֲמַרְתֶּ֑ם הַֽעוֹדֶ֖נּוּ חָֽי:
28And they said, "Your servant, our father, is well; he is still alive." And they bowed and prostrated themselves.   כחוַיֹּֽאמְר֗וּ שָׁל֛וֹם לְעַבְדְּךָ֥ לְאָבִ֖ינוּ עוֹדֶ֣נּוּ חָ֑י וַיִּקְּד֖וּ וַיִּשְׁתַּֽחֲוֽוּ כתיב וישתחו:
And they bowed and prostrated themselves: Because of the greeting [i.e. to acknowledge Joseph’s greeting]. Bowing (קִידָה) means inclining the head (קָדְקֹד). הִשְׁתַּחִוָאָה means prostrating oneself to the ground. — [from Ber. 34b]   וַיִּקְּדוּ וַיִּשְׁתַּֽחֲוֽוּ: עַל שְׁאִלַת שָׁלוֹם קִידָה – כְּפִיפַת קָדְקֹד; הִשְׁתַּחֲוָאָה – מִשְׁתַּטֵּחַ לָאָרֶץ:
29And he lifted his eyes and saw Benjamin, his brother, the son of his mother, and he said, "Is this your little brother, whom you told me about?" And he said, "May God favor you, my son. "   כטוַיִּשָּׂ֣א עֵינָ֗יו וַיַּ֞רְא אֶת־בִּנְיָמִ֣ין אָחִיו֘ בֶּן־אִמּוֹ֒ וַיֹּ֗אמֶר הֲזֶה֙ אֲחִיכֶ֣ם הַקָּטֹ֔ן אֲשֶׁ֥ר אֲמַרְתֶּ֖ם אֵלָ֑י וַיֹּאמַ֕ר אֱלֹהִ֥ים יָחְנְךָ֖ בְּנִֽי:
“May God favor you…”: In connection with the other tribes, we heard [them marked by] favor-“with whom God has favored your servant” (Gen. 33:5). Benjamin, however, had not yet been born. Therefore, Joseph blessed him with favor. — [from Gen. Rabbah 92:5]   אֱלֹהִים יָחְנְךָ בְּנִֽי: בִּשְׁאָר שְׁבָטִים שָׁמַעְנוּ חֲנִינָה אֲשֶׁר חָנַן אֱלֹהִים אֶת עַבְדֶּךָ (בראשית ל"ג), וּבִנְיָמִין עֲדַיִן לֹא נוֹלַד, לְכָךְ בֵּרְכוֹ יוֹסֵף בַּחֲנִינָה:
30And Joseph hastened, for his mercy was stirred toward his brother, and he wanted to weep; so he went into the room and wept there.   לוַיְמַהֵ֣ר יוֹסֵ֗ף כִּֽי־נִכְמְר֤וּ רַֽחֲמָיו֙ אֶל־אָחִ֔יו וַיְבַקֵּ֖שׁ לִבְכּ֑וֹת וַיָּבֹ֥א הַחַ֖דְרָה וַיֵּ֥בְךְּ שָֽׁמָּה:
for his mercy was stirred: He (Joseph) asked him (Benjamin), “Have you a brother from your mother?” He replied, “I had a brother, but I do not know where he is.” “Have you any sons?” He replied, “I have ten.” He asked, “And what are their names?” He replied, “Bela and Becher, etc.” He asked, “What is the significance of these names?” He replied, “All of them are connected to my brother and the troubles that befell him. [My first son was named] Bela because he (my brother) was swallowed up (נִבְלַע) among the nations. [My second son was named] Becher because he (my brother) was the firstborn (בְּכוֹר) of my mother. [My third son was named] Ashbel because God put him (my brother) into captivity (שְׁבָאו ֹאֵל). [My fourth son was named] Gera because he (my brother) was a stranger (נִתְגַּיֵר) in a lodging place. And [my fifth son was named] Na’aman because he (my brother) was very pleasant [to look upon] (נָעִים). [My sixth and seventh sons were named] Ehi and Rosh because he was my brother (אָחִי), and he was my superior (רֹאשִׁי). [My eighth son was named] Muppim because he (my brother) learned from the mouth of (מִפִּי) my father. [My ninth son was named] Huppim because he (my brother) did not see my wedding (חוּפָּתִי), neither did I see his wedding (חוּפָּתוֹ). And [my tenth son was named] Ard because he (my brother) descended (יָרַד) among the nations.” This is as stated in Tractate Sotah (36b). Immediately, his (Joseph’s) mercy was stirred.   כִּֽי־נִכְמְרוּ רַֽחֲמָיו: שְׁאָלוֹ יֵשׁ לְךָ אָח מֵאֵם? אָמַר לוֹ אָח הָיָה לִי, וְאֵינִי יוֹדֵעַ הֵיכָן הוּא; יֵשׁ לְךָ בָנִים? אָמַר לוֹ יֵשׁ לִי י', אָמַר לוֹ מַה שְּׁמָם? אָמַר לוֹ בֶּלַע וָבֶכֶר וְגוֹ'; אָמַר מַה טִּיבָן שֶׁל שֵׁמוֹת הַלָּלוּ? אָמַר לוֹ כֻּלָּם עַל שֵׁם אָחִי וְהַצָּרוֹת אֲשֶׁר מְצָאוּהוּ, בֶּלַע שֶׁנִּבְלַע בֵּין הָאֻמּוֹת, בֶּכֶר שֶׁהָיָה בְּכוֹר לְאִמִּי, אַשְׁבְּאֵל שֶׁשְּׁבָאוֹ אֵל, גֵּרָא שֶׁגָּר בְּאַכְסַנְיָא, וְנַעֲמָן שֶׁהָיָה נָעִים בְּיוֹתֵר, אֵחִי וָרֹאשׁ – אָחִי הָיָה וְרֹאשִׁי הָיָה, מֻפִּים – מִפִּי אָבִי לָמַד, וְחֻפִּים – שֶׁלֹּא רָאָה חֻפָּתִי וְלֹא רָאִיתִי אֲנִי חֻפָּתוֹ, וָאָרְדְּ – שֶׁיָּרַד לְבֵין הָאֻמּוֹת, כִּדְאִיתָא בְּמַסֶּכֶת סוֹטָה, מִיָּד נִכְמְרוּ רַחֲמָיו:
was stirred: Heb. נִכְמְרוּ, was heated. In the language of the Mishnah, “on a heating (כֹּמֶר) vessel of olives” (Sotah 74a), and in Aramaic, “because of the heating (מִכְמַר) of the meat” (Pes. 58a), and in the Scriptures, “Our skin is parched (נִכְמָרוּ) because of the heat of hunger” (Lam. 5:10). So is the way of all skin; when it is heated, it shrivels and shrinks. — [from Lam. Rabbah 5:10].   נִכְמְרוּ: נִתְחַמְּמוּ, וּבִלְשׁוֹן מִשְׁנָה עַל הַכֹּמֶר שֶׁל זֵתִים, וּבְלָשׁוֹן אֲרַמִּי בְּמִכְמַר בִּשְׂרָא; וּבַמִּקְרָא עוֹרֵנוּ כְּתַנּוּר נִכְמָרוּ (איכה ה'), נִתְחַמְּמוּ וְנִקְמְטוּ קְמָטִים קְמָטִים מִפְּנֵי זַלְעֲפוֹת רָעָב; כֵּן דֶּרֶךְ כָּל עוֹר כְּשֶׁמְּחַמְּמִין אוֹתוֹ נִקְמָט וְנִכְוָץ:
31And he washed his face and came out, and he restrained himself and said, "Serve the food."   לאוַיִּרְחַ֥ץ פָּנָ֖יו וַיֵּצֵ֑א וַיִּ֨תְאַפַּ֔ק וַיֹּ֖אמֶר שִׂ֥ימוּ לָֽחֶם:
and he restrained himself: Heb. וַיִתְאַפַּק, and he strengthened himself. וַיִתְאַפַּק is an expression of “the strong (אִפִיקֵי) shields” (Job 41:7), [meaning] strength, and similarly, “and loosens the belt of the strong (אִפִיקִים)” (ibid. 12:21).   וַיִּתְאַפַּק: נִתְאַמֵּץ; וְהוּא לְשׁוֹן אֲפִיקֵי מָגִנִּים (איוב מ"א), חֹזֶק, וְכֵן וּמְזִיחַ אֲפִיקִים רִפָּה (שם י"ב):
32And they set for him separately and for them separately, and for the Egyptians who ate with him separately, because the Egyptians could not eat food with the Hebrews, because it is an abomination to the Egyptians.   לבוַיָּשִׂ֥ימוּ ל֛וֹ לְבַדּ֖וֹ וְלָהֶ֣ם לְבַדָּ֑ם וְלַמִּצְרִ֞ים הָאֹֽכְלִ֤ים אִתּוֹ֙ לְבַדָּ֔ם כִּי֩ לֹ֨א יֽוּכְל֜וּן הַמִּצְרִ֗ים לֶֽאֱכֹ֤ל אֶת־הָֽעִבְרִים֙ לֶ֔חֶם כִּי־תֽוֹעֵבָ֥ה הִ֖וא לְמִצְרָֽיִם:
because it is an abomination to the Egyptians: It is a hateful thing for the Egyptians to eat with the Hebrews, and Onkelos gave the reason for the matter.   כִּי תֽוֹעֵבָה הִוא: דָּבָר שָׂנְאוּי הוּא לַמִּצְרִים לֶאֱכֹל אֶת הָעִבְרִים, וְאֻנְקְלוֹס נָתַן טַעַם לַדָּבָר:
33They sat before him, the firstborn according to his age, and the youngest according to his youth, and the men looked at each other in astonishment.   לגוַיֵּֽשְׁב֣וּ לְפָנָ֔יו הַבְּכֹר֙ כִּבְכֹ֣רָת֔וֹ וְהַצָּעִ֖יר כִּצְעִֽרָת֑וֹ וַיִּתְמְה֥וּ הָֽאֲנָשִׁ֖ים אִ֥ישׁ אֶל־רֵעֵֽהוּ:
the firstborn according to his age: He knocked his goblet and announced, “Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, and Zebulun, sons of one mother, sit in this order, which is the order of your births,” and so [did he order] all of them. When he reached Benjamin, he said, “This one has no mother, and I have no mother. Let him sit beside me.” - [from Gen. Rabbah 93:7]   הבכור כִּבְכֹרָתוֹ: מַכֶּה בַּגָּבִיעַ וְקוֹרֵא רְאוּבֵן, שִׁמְעוֹן, לֵוִי, יְהוּדָה, יִשָּׂשכָר, וּזְבוּלֻן, בְּנֵי אֵם אַחַת, הָסֵבּוּ כַּסֵּדֶר הַזֶּה, שֶׁהִיא סֵדֶר תּוֹלְדוֹתֵיכֶם, וְכֵן כֻּלָּם. כֵּיוָן שֶׁהִגִּיעַ לְבִנְיָמִין, אָמַר זֶה אֵין לוֹ אֵם וַאֲנִי אֵין לִי אֵם, יֵשֵׁב אֶצְלִי:
34And he had portions brought to them from before him, and Benjamin's portion was five times as large as the portions of any of them, and they drank and became intoxicated with him.   לדוַיִּשָּׂ֨א מַשְׂאֹ֜ת מֵאֵ֣ת פָּנָיו֘ אֲלֵהֶם֒ וַתֵּ֜רֶב מַשְׂאַ֧ת בִּנְיָמִ֛ן מִמַּשְׂאֹ֥ת כֻּלָּ֖ם חָמֵ֣שׁ יָד֑וֹת וַיִּשְׁתּ֥וּ וַיִּשְׁכְּר֖וּ עִמּֽוֹ:
portions: Heb. מַשְׂאֹת, meaning portions. — [from Targum Onkelos]   מַשְׂאֹת: מָנוֹת:
five times as large: His portion with his brothers, Joseph’s portion, and those of Asenath, Manasseh, and Ephraim. — [from Gen. Rabbah 92:5, Targum Jonathan]   חָמֵשׁ יָדוֹת: חֶלְקוֹ עִם אֶחָיו, וּמַשְׂאַת יוֹסֵף וְאָסְנַת וּמְנַשֶּׁה וְאֶפְרַיִם:
and they drank and became intoxicated with him: Since the day that they had sold him, neither they nor he had drunk wine, but on that day they drank. — [from Gen. Rabbah 92:5]   וַיִּשְׁכְּרוּ עִמּֽוֹ: וּמִיּוֹם שֶׁמְּכָרוּהוּ לֹא שָׁתוּ יַיִן וְלֹא הוּא שָׁתָה יַיִן, וְאוֹתוֹ הַיּוֹם שָׁתוּ (בראשית רבה):