Chapter 18

1Now Jehoshaphat had abundant riches and honor, and he allied himself in marriage with Ahab.   אוַיְהִ֧י לִיהֽוֹשָׁפָ֛ט עֹ֥שֶׁר וְכָב֖וֹד לָרֹ֑ב וַיִּתְחַתֵּ֖ן לְאַחְאָֽב:
2And he went down at the end of [several] years to Ahab, to Samaria, and Ahab slaughtered for him abundant sheep and cattle, and for the people who were with him, and he enticed him to go up to Ramoth-Gilead.   בוַיֵּרֶד֩ לְקֵ֨ץ שָׁנִ֚ים אֶל־אַחְאָב֙ לְשֹׁ֣מְר֔וֹן וַיִּזְבַּח־ל֨וֹ אַחְאָ֜ב צֹ֚אן וּבָקָר֙ לָרֹ֔ב וְלָעָ֖ם אֲשֶׁ֣ר עִמּ֑וֹ וַיְסִיתֵ֕הוּ לַֽעֲל֖וֹת אֶל־רָמ֥וֹת גִּלְעָֽד:
And he went down at the end of years: And in I Kings (22:2) it is written: “And it was in the third year, that Jehoshaphat came down, etc.” This refers to the third year since he had released Ben Hadad (ibid. 20:34).  
and he enticed him to go up to Ramoth Gilead: as is written in the Book of I Kings (22:3): “Do you know that Ramoth Gilead is ours,” because when Jacob built the mound [of stones] there and called it Galead, he took possession of it, and our forefathers took Gilead and the heights (רָמוֹת) , which are a continuation and an attachment to the city. But when our forefathers in Moses’ time seized Gilead, they were silent and refrained from taking it, because they did not care for it, or perhaps in Moses’ time, they did take it, but later the nations took it from Israel’s hands, but it is [in fact] ours.  
3And Ahab, the king of Israel, said to Jehoshaphat, the king of Judah, "Will you go with me to Ramoth-Gilead?" And he said to him, "Like me like you, and like your people are my people, and [they will go up] with you in battle."   גוַיֹּ֜אמֶר אַחְאָ֣ב| מֶֽלֶךְ־יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל אֶל־יְהֽוֹשָׁפָט֙ מֶ֣לֶךְ יְהוּדָ֔ה הֲתֵלֵ֥ךְ עִמִּ֖י רָמֹ֣ת גִּלְעָ֑ד וַיֹּ֣אמֶר ל֗וֹ כָּמ֚וֹנִי כָמ֙וֹךָ֙ וּכְעַמְּךָ֣ עַמִּ֔י וְעִמְּךָ֖ בַּמִּלְחָמָֽה:
4And Jehoshaphat said to the king of Israel, "Please inquire today the word of the Lord."   דוַיֹּ֥אמֶר יְהֽוֹשָׁפָ֖ט אֶל־מֶ֣לֶךְ יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל דְּרָשׁ־נָ֥א כַיּ֖וֹם אֶת־דְּבַ֥ר יְהֹוָֽה:
Please inquire today the word of the Lord: and [do not inquire] of the prophets of the baalim in whom you trust.  
5And the king of Israel gathered the prophets, four hundred men, and he said to them, "Shall we go to Ramoth Gilead, or shall I refrain?" and they said, "Ascend, and God will deliver [it] into the hands of the king."   הוַיִּקְבֹּ֨ץ מֶֽלֶךְ־יִשְׂרָאֵ֜ל אֶת־הַנְּבִאִים֘ אַרְבַּ֣ע מֵא֣וֹת אִישׁ֒ וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֲלֵהֶ֗ם הֲנֵלֵ֞ךְ אֶל־רָמֹ֥ת גִּלְעָ֛ד לַמִּלְחָמָ֖ה אִם־אֶחְדָּ֑ל וַיֹּֽאמְר֣וּ עֲלֵ֔ה וְיִתֵּ֥ן הָֽאֱלֹהִ֖ים בְּיַ֥ד הַמֶּֽלֶךְ:
And the king of Israel gathered the prophets, four hundred: And they were all true prophets, for he gathered for Jehoshaphat that which he had requested of him. And this is proven in the closely following text (verse 20f.): “And a spirit came forth, etc. and said: ‘I will entice him… and I will be a lying spirit in the mouth of all his prophets,’ for I will inspire them to say to Ahab: Ascend, and the Lord will deliver it into the hands of the king.” From here we can deduce that they were prophets of the Lord, for they prophesied only the word of the Lord, for if they were false prophets, they would not entice, for they would prophesy only that which they were inventing from their minds. Moreover, Jehoshaphat later said, “Is there no other prophet of the Lord?” I know that they are prophets of the Lord, but I have a tradition from my grandfather’s house that two prophets do not prophesy in the same style and with the same language, but all of these [prophets] are [unanimously] prophesying, “Ascend and prosper.”  
6And Jehoshaphat said, "Is there no other prophet of the Lord here from whom we may inquire?"   ווַיֹּ֙אמֶר֙ יְה֣וֹשָׁפָ֔ט הַאֵ֨ין פֹּ֥ה נָבִ֛יא לַֽיהֹוָ֖ה ע֑וֹד וְנִדְרְשָׁ֖ה מֵֽאֹתֽוֹ:
7And the king of Israel said to Jehoshaphat, "There is one more man from whom to inquire the word of the Lord, but I hate him for he does not prophesy good about me, but always bad; he is Micaiah the son of Imla." And Jehoshaphat said, "The king should not say that."   זוַיֹּ֣אמֶר מֶֽלֶךְ־יִשְׂרָאֵ֣ל| אֶֽל־יְהֽוֹשָׁפָ֡ט ע֣וֹד אִֽישׁ־אֶחָ֡ד לִדְרוֹשׁ֩ אֶת־יְהֹוָ֨ה מֵֽאֹת֜וֹ וַֽאֲנִ֣י שְׂנֵאתִ֗יהוּ כִּ֣י אֵ֠ינֶנּוּ מִתְנַבֵּ֨א עָלַ֚י לְטוֹבָה֙ כִּ֣י כָל־יָמָ֣יו לְרָעָ֔ה ה֖וּא מִיכָ֣יְהוּ בֶן־יִמְלָ֑א וַיֹּ֙אמֶר֙ יְהֽוֹשָׁפָ֔ט אַל־יֹאמַ֥ר הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ כֵּֽן:
but always bad: For this is what it says (I Kings 20:42): “Because you have released the man whom I designated for destruction, etc.”  
8And the king of Israel summoned one eunuch, and said, "Bring Micaiah the son of Imla at once."   חוַיִּקְרָא֙ מֶ֣לֶךְ יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל אֶל־סָרִ֖יס אֶחָ֑ד וַיֹּ֕אמֶר מַהֵ֖ר מִיכָ֥יְהוּ (כתיב מִיכָ֥הְוּ) בֶן־יִמְלָֽא:
Bring Micaiah at once: [Micaiah] is written with the “yud” missing. He called him by a different name, Micahu, in order to degrade him.  
9Now the king of Israel and Jehoshaphat, king of Judah, were seated each on his throne, dressed in [their] attire and seated in a threshing floor at the entrance of the gate of Samaria, and all the prophets were prophesying before them.   טוּמֶ֣לֶךְ יִשְׂרָאֵ֡ל וִיהֽוֹשָׁפָ֣ט מֶֽלֶךְ־יְהוּדָ֡ה יֽוֹשְׁבִים֩ אִ֨ישׁ עַל־כִּסְא֜וֹ מְלֻבָּשִׁ֚ים בְּגָדִים֙ וְיֽוֹשְׁבִ֣ים בְּגֹ֔רֶן פֶּ֖תַח שַׁ֣עַר שֹֽׁמְר֑וֹן וְכָ֨ל־הַנְּבִיאִ֔ים מִֽתְנַבְּאִ֖ים לִפְנֵיהֶֽם:
dressed in [their] attire: the royal raiment.  
and seated in a threshing floor: He is telling us that when the prophets prophesied before them, they were sitting outside the city, and spies of the king of Aram came there and heard that he [the prophet] informed the king of Israel that he alone would fall in battle. That is the reason that the king of Aram commanded his forces (v. 30): “Attack neither small nor great; only the king of Israel,” to fulfill the words of Micaiah. That is why it is written, “in a threshing floor,” for it was a place where spies could spy. If the meeting had been inside the city, the spies of the king of Aram would not have been able to infiltrate, for they would have detected that they were spies; but when they were outside the city, even if they [the Israelites] became aware of them, they could say, “We are going elsewhere, and the reason we drew near to the threshing floor is because of the great tumult and gathering of the armies here at the gate of the city; we were amazed, and turned off the road to see what was going on.” Consequently, the spies informed the king of Aram [what they had heard], who commanded to slay no one but the king of Israel. Otherwise, why did it enter his mind to command not to slay anyone of Israel, but the king? But he had spies who had heard Micaiah saying, (verses 16f.): “I saw all the Israelites scattered, etc. And the Lord said: These have no master.” This was a sign that the king would be slain, and that the Israelites would return each one to his house in peace. And they heard that he said, (v. 27): “If you return in peace…” The spies heard all and informed the king of Aram. The king of Aram then commanded to act in accordance with the word of Micaiah, and to slay only the king.  
10And Zedekiah the son of Chenaanah made himself iron horns, and he said, "So said the Lord: With these you shall gore Aram until you destroy them completely."   יוַיַּ֥עַשׂ ל֛וֹ צִדְקִיָּ֥הוּ בֶן־כְּנַֽעֲנָ֖ה קַרְנֵ֣י בַרְזֶ֣ל וַיֹּ֙אמֶר֙ כֹּֽה־אָמַ֣ר יְהֹוָ֔ה בְּאֵ֛לֶּה תְּנַגַּ֥ח אֶת־אֲרָ֖ם עַד־כַּלּוֹתָֽם:
11And all the prophets were prophesying likewise, saying, "Go up to Ramoth-Gilead and triumph, and the Lord will deliver [it] into the king's hand."   יאוְכָ֨ל־הַנְּבִאִ֔ים נִבְּאִ֥ים כֵּ֖ן לֵאמֹ֑ר עֲלֵ֞ה רָמֹ֚ת גִּלְעָד֙ וְהַצְלַ֔ח וְנָתַ֥ן יְהֹוָ֖ה בְּיַ֥ד הַמֶּֽלֶךְ:
12And the messenger who had gone to summon Micaiah spoke to him, saying, "Behold, the words of the prophets are unanimously favorable to the king. Now let your word be like one of theirs, and you shall speak favorably."   יבוְהַמַּלְאָ֞ךְ אֲשֶׁר־הָלַ֣ךְ| לִקְרֹ֣א לְמִיכָ֗יְהוּ דִּבֶּ֚ר אֵלָיו֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר הִנֵּ֞ה דִּבְרֵ֧י הַנְּבִאִ֛ים פֶּֽה־אֶחָ֥ד ט֖וֹב אֶל־הַמֶ֑לֶךְ וִֽיהִי־נָ֧א דְבָֽרְךָ֛ כְּאַחַ֥ד מֵהֶ֖ם וְדִבַּ֥רְתָּ טּֽוֹב:
13And Micaiah said, "As the Lord lives, whatever my God will say, that I will speak."   יגוַיֹּ֖אמֶר מִיכָ֑יְהוּ חַי־יְהֹוָ֕ה כִּ֛י אֶת־אֲשֶׁר־יֹאמַ֥ר אֱלֹהַ֖י אֹת֥וֹ אֲדַבֵּֽר:
14And he came to the king, and the king said to him, "Micah, shall we go to Ramoth-Gilead to war or shall I refrain?" And he said, "Go up and triumph, and may they be delivered into your hand."   ידוַיָּבֹא֘ אֶל־הַמֶּלֶךְ֒ וַיֹּ֨אמֶר הַמֶּ֜לֶךְ אֵלָ֗יו מִיכָה֙ הֲנֵלֵ֞ךְ אֶל־רָמֹ֥ת גִּלְעָ֛ד לַמִּלְחָמָ֖ה אִם־אֶחְדָּ֑ל וַיֹּ֙אמֶר֙ עֲל֣וּ וְהַצְלִ֔יחוּ וְיִנָּֽתְנ֖וּ בְּיֶדְכֶֽם:
Go up and triumph, and may they be delivered into your hand: i.e., May you only prosper, and may they be delivered into your hands.  
15And the king said to him, "How many times must I adjure you, that you shall not speak to me but truth in the name of the Lord?"   טווַיֹּ֚אמֶר אֵלָיו֙ הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ עַד־כַּמֶּ֥ה פְעָמִ֖ים אֲנִ֣י מַשְׁבִּיעֶ֑ךָ אֲ֠שֶׁר לֹֽא־תְדַבֵּ֧ר אֵלַ֛י רַק־אֱמֶ֖ת בְּשֵׁ֥ם יְהֹוָֽה:
16And he said, "I saw all the Israelites scattered over the mountains like sheep who have no shepherd. And the Lord said: These have no master. Let them return each one to his house in peace."   טזוַיֹּ֗אמֶר רָאִ֚יתִי אֶת־כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ נְפוֹצִ֣ים עַל־הֶֽהָרִ֔ים כַּצֹּ֕אן אֲשֶׁ֥ר אֵֽין־לָהֶ֖ן רֹעֶ֑ה וַיֹּ֚אמֶר יְהֹוָה֙ לֹֽא־אֲדֹנִ֣ים לָאֵ֔לֶּה יָשׁ֥וּבוּ אִֽישׁ־לְבֵית֖וֹ בְּשָׁלֽוֹם:
scattered over the mountains: For when they flee from battle, they flee on the mountains to a refuge, like (Gen. 14: 10): “and those who remained fled to the mountains.” In addition, the battle was on the heights of Gilead, a mountainous and hilly terrain.  
And the Lord said: These have no master: They are scattered like sheep on the mountains, because they have no shepherd, for their king will be slain.  
Let them return each one to his house in peace: Ahab alone will be killed, but the rest of the Israelites will return each one to his house in peace, as the king of Aram commanded his people.  
17And the king of Israel said to Jehoshaphat, "Did I not say to you that he would not prophesy good concerning me, only bad?"   יזוַיֹּ֥אמֶר מֶֽלֶךְ־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל אֶל־יְהֽוֹשָׁפָ֑ט הֲלֹא֙ אָמַ֣רְתִּי אֵלֶ֔יךָ לֹֽא־יִתְנַבֵּ֥א עָלַ֛י ט֖וֹב כִּ֥י אִם־לְרָֽע:
18And he said, "Therefore, listen to the word of the Lord. I saw the Lord seated on His throne, and all the host of heaven were standing on His right and His left.   יחוַיֹּ֕אמֶר לָכֵ֖ן שִׁמְע֣וּ דְבַר־יְהֹוָ֑ה רָאִ֚יתִי אֶת־יְהֹוָה֙ יוֹשֵׁ֣ב עַל־כִּסְא֔וֹ וְכָל־צְבָ֚א הַשָּׁמַ֙יִם֙ עֹֽמְדִ֔ים עַל־יְמִינ֖וֹ וּשְׂמֹאלֽוֹ:
and all the host of heaven were standing on His right and His left: These are the angels of destruction who stand before Him.  
19And the Lord said: Who will entice Ahab, king of Israel so that he will go up and fall in Ramoth-Gilead? One said thus, and another said thus.   יטוַיֹּ֣אמֶר יְהֹוָ֗ה מִ֚י יְפַתֶּה֙ אֶת־אַחְאָ֣ב מֶֽלֶךְ־יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וְיַ֕עַל וְיִפֹּ֖ל בְּרָמֹ֣ת גִּלְעָ֑ד וַיֹּ֗אמֶר זֶ֚ה אֹמֵ֣ר כָּ֔כָה וְזֶ֖ה אֹמֵ֥ר כָּֽכָה:
20And a certain spirit came forth and stood before the Lord and said: I will entice him. And the Lord said to him: Wherewith?   כוַיֵּצֵ֣א הָר֗וּחַ וַיַּֽעֲמֹד֙ לִפְנֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֔ה וַיֹּ֖אמֶר אֲנִ֣י אֲפַתֶּ֑נּוּ וַיֹּ֧אמֶר יְהֹוָ֛ה אֵלָ֖יו בַּמָּֽה:
And a certain spirit came forth: The meaning is: And an angel came forth, for he says above, “and all the host of heaven, etc.” One of the angels came forth and said, “I will entice him,” as it is stated (Ps. 104:4): “He makes His angels spirits.” [Cf. Comm. Dig. ad loc.] He preceded this account by stating, “and all the host of heaven were standing,” so that you should not wonder when you read, “And a certain spirit came forth,” who he was and where he came from. When he says, “and all the host of heaven were standing,” it is to inform you where he came from: from among the rest of the spirits standing beside Him. Our Rabbis (Sanh. 89a, Targum) however, explained that this was the spirit of Naboth.  
21And he said: I will go forth, and I will be a lying spirit in the mouth of all his prophets. And He said: You will entice and you will prevail. Go forth and do so.   כאוַיֹּ֗אמֶר אֵצֵא֙ וְהָיִ֙יתִי֙ לְר֣וּחַ שֶׁ֔קֶר בְּפִ֖י כָּל־נְבִיאָ֑יו וַיֹּ֗אמֶר תְּפַתֶּה֙ וְגַם־תּוּכָ֔ל צֵ֖א וַֽעֲשֵׂה־כֵֽן:
in the mouth of all his prophets: He should place the words “Go up and triumph,” in their mouths and he [Ahab] will go up and fall. This proves that they were true prophets who would prophesy only that which the Lord put into their mouths.  
You will entice and you will prevail: When an enticer comes to entice his fellow, the one being enticed sometimes understands that this one wishes to entice him, and he takes heed and does not allow himself to be enticed, but with Ahab, you will entice and you will prevail.  
22And now, behold the Lord has placed a lying spirit in the mouth of these, your prophets, but the Lord has spoken evil concerning you."   כבוְעַתָּ֗ה הִנֵּ֨ה נָתַ֚ן יְהֹוָה֙ ר֣וּחַ שֶׁ֔קֶר בְּפִ֖י נְבִיאֶ֣יךָ אֵ֑לֶּה וַֽיהֹוָ֛ה דִּבֶּ֥ר עָלֶ֖יךָ רָעָֽה:
23And Zedekiah the son of Chenaanah approached and struck Micaiah on the cheek, and said, "Which way did the spirit of the Lord pass from me to speak with you?"   כגוַיִּגַּשׁ֙ צִדְקִיָּ֣הוּ בֶן־כְּנַֽעֲנָ֔ה וַיַּ֥ךְ אֶת־מִיכָ֖יְהוּ עַל־הַלֶּ֑חִי וַיֹּ֗אמֶר אֵ֣י זֶ֚ה הַדֶּ֙רֶךְ֙ עָבַ֧ר רֽוּחַ־יְהֹוָ֛ה מֵאִתִּ֖י לְדַבֵּ֥ר אֹתָֽךְ:
24And Micaiah said, "Behold you will see on that day that you will come into a chamber within a chamber to hide."   כדוַיֹּ֣אמֶר מִיכָ֔יְהוּ הִנְּךָ֥ רֹאֶ֖ה בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֑וּא אֲשֶׁ֥ר תָּב֛וֹא חֶ֥דֶר בְּחֶ֖דֶר לְהֵֽחָבֵֽא:
Behold you will see: that Ahab will be killed.  
25And the king of Israel said, "Take Micaiah and return him to Amon the mayor of the city and to Joash the king's son.   כהוַיֹּ֙אמֶר֙ מֶ֣לֶךְ יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל קְחוּ֙ אֶת־מִיכָ֔יְהוּ וַֽהֲשִׁיבֻ֖הוּ אֶל־אָמ֣וֹן שַׂר־הָעִ֑יר וְאֶל־יוֹאָ֖שׁ בֶּן־הַמֶּֽלֶךְ:
26And you shall say: So said the king: Place this person in prison and feed him a scant amount of bread and a scant amount of water until I return in peace."   כווַֽאֲמַרְתֶּ֗ם כֹּה אָמַ֣ר הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ שִׂ֥ימוּ זֶ֖ה בֵּ֣ית הַכֶּ֑לֶא וְהַֽאֲכִילֻ֜הוּ לֶ֚חֶם לַ֙חַץ֙ וּמַ֣יִם לַ֔חַץ עַ֖ד שׁוּבִ֥י בְשָׁלֽוֹם:
Place this person in prison: We did not see that he incarcerated him in prison previously, but since he says, “and return him,” you may say that he had placed him in prison beforehand. If, however, you wish to say that they had never placed him in prison prior to this, “and return him” should not cause you any difficulty, because this is the style of the Scriptures, like (Ps. 9:18): “May the wicked return to the grave,” and many similar other cases.  
a scant amount of bread, etc.: An example of this is (Isa. 30:20): “scant bread and water of oppression.”  
27And Micaiah said, "If you return in peace, the Lord did not speak to me." And he said, "All ye peoples, listen."   כזוַיֹּ֣אמֶר מִיכָ֔יְהוּ אִם־שׁ֚וֹב תָּשׁוּב֙ בְּשָׁל֔וֹם לֹֽא־דִּבֶּ֥ר יְהֹוָ֖ה בִּ֑י וַיֹּ֕אמֶר שִׁמְע֖וּ עַמִּ֥ים כֻּלָּֽם:
28And the king of Israel and Jehoshaphat the king of Judah went up to Ramoth- Gilead.   כחוַיַּ֧עַל מֶֽלֶךְ־יִשְׂרָאֵ֛ל וִיהֽוֹשָׁפָ֥ט מֶֽלֶךְ־יְהוּדָ֖ה אֶל־רָמֹ֥ת גִּלְעָֽד:
29And the king of Israel said to Jehoshaphat, "[I will] disguise myself and go into battle, but you may wear your [royal] garb; so the king of Israel disguised himself, and they went into battle.   כטוַיֹּאמֶר֩ מֶ֨לֶךְ יִשְׂרָאֵ֜ל אֶל־יְהֽוֹשָׁפָ֗ט הִתְחַפֵּשׂ֙ וָב֣וֹא בַמִּלְחָמָ֔ה וְאַתָּ֖ה לְבַ֣שׁ בְּגָדֶ֑יךָ וַיִּתְחַפֵּשׂ֙ מֶ֣לֶךְ יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וַיָּבֹ֖אוּ בַּמִּלְחָמָֽה:
disguise myself and go: The meaning is: “I must make myself like a stranger and disguise myself in other clothes, so that they do not recognize that I am the king of Israel,” for he was wary of Micaiah’s words, saying, “If you return in peace, etc.” And he said to Jehoshaphat, “I wish to disguise myself and go to war, for I fear that the Arameans heard that Micaiah said, ‘If you return in peace,’ and they will attack only me.”  
but you may wear your garb: The royal costume and the coat of mail and the royal weapons, for there is no need for anyone to be wary of the prophet’s words except the king of Israel, for his [the king of Aram’s] spies told [him] the words of Micaiah.  
30And the king of Aram commanded the officers of his chariots, saying, "Attack neither small nor great, except only the king of Israel."   לוּמֶ֣לֶךְ אֲרָ֡ם צִוָּה֩ אֶת־שָׂרֵ֨י הָרֶ֚כֶב אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר לֹא תִּלָּ֣חֲמ֔וּ אֶת־הַקָּטֹ֖ן אֶת־הַגָּד֑וֹל כִּ֛י אִם־אֶת־מֶ֥לֶךְ יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל לְבַדּֽוֹ:
31And it was when the officers of the chariots saw Jehoshaphat that they said, "That is the king of Israel." They turned upon him to attack [him], and Jehoshaphat cried out, and the Lord helped him, and God enticed them away from him.   לאוַיְהִ֡י כִּרְאוֹת֩ שָׂרֵ֨י הָרֶ֜כֶב אֶת־יְהֽוֹשָׁפָ֗ט וְהֵ֚מָּה אָֽמְרוּ֙ מֶֽלֶךְ־יִשְׂרָאֵ֣ל ה֔וּא וַיָּסֹ֥בּוּ עָלָ֖יו לְהִלָּחֵ֑ם וַיִּזְעַ֚ק יְהֽוֹשָׁפָט֙ וַֽיהֹוָ֣ה עֲזָר֔וֹ וַיְסִיתֵ֥ם אֱלֹהִ֖ים מִמֶּֽנּוּ:
and Jehoshaphat cried out: He called to his troop and his armies to come to his aid, [using] the sign of the lion on his banner or the banner of the sons of Judah. And so is the custom when two troops engage in battle: each troop gives a name to the insignia of its division for the troop that is with it, so that if they separate from each other or if the troops mingle with one another, each troop shouts the name of its insignia, and they recognize the insignia and all gather together and become one group as originally. He did not, however, cry out to his God, as is proven from I Kings (22:32), for there it does not say, “and the Lord helped him, and God enticed them away from him,” but it is written, “And it was, etc.”  
32And it was when the officers of the chariots saw that he was not the king of Israel, that they turned back from [going] after him.   לבוַיְהִ֗י כִּרְאוֹת֙ שָׂרֵ֣י הָרֶ֔כֶב כִּ֥י לֹֽא־הָיָ֖ה מֶ֣לֶךְ יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וַיָּשׁ֖וּבוּ מֵאַֽחֲרָֽיו:
And it was when the officers of the chariots saw that he was not the king of Israel: for they immediately recognized and understood when he cried out the insignia of his division, as was explained. As soon as they recognized him, they turned away from him in accordance with the order of the king of Aram, and it was from the Lord that they recognized him.  
33And a man drew his bow innocently and it hit the king of Israel between the scales and the coat of mail, and he said to the charioteer, "Turn your hand and carry me out of the camp for I have become sick."   לגוְאִ֗ישׁ מָשַׁ֚ךְ בַּקֶּ֙שֶׁת֙ לְתֻמּ֔וֹ וַיַּךְ֙ אֶת־מֶ֣לֶךְ יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל בֵּ֥ין הַדְּבָקִ֖ים וּבֵ֣ין הַשִּׁרְיָ֑ן וַיֹּ֣אמֶר לָֽרַכָּ֗ב הֲפֹ֧ךְ יָֽדְךָ֛ (כתיב יָֽדְיךָ֛) וְהוֹצֵאתַ֥נִי מִן־הַמַּֽחֲנֶ֖ה כִּ֥י הָֽחֳלֵֽיתִי:
And a man drew his bow: An Israelite man intended to shoot at the camp of Aram, and inadvertently  
and it hit: The arrow [hit] the king of Israel.  
between the scales and the coat of mail: between the thong with which they attach the helmet on his head to the coat of mail. We cannot say that he was a heathen, because whom was he aiming at? Did not the king of Aram command, “Attack neither small nor great, except the king of Israel” ? And he did not even aim at him, for it is written, “innocently.” Perforce, you must say that the archer was an Israelite who intended to shoot at the camp of Aram, and inadvertently hit the king of Israel.  
and he said to the charioteer: to the one who drives the chariot.  
and carry me out of the camp: i. e., away from these front lines, and take me to the rear lines.  
34And the battle withdrew on that day, and the king of Israel was standing in the chariot against the Arameans until evening, and he died at the time of the setting of the sun.   לדוַתַּ֚עַל הַמִּלְחָמָה֙ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֔וּא וּמֶ֣לֶךְ יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל הָיָ֨ה מַֽעֲמִ֧יד בַּמֶּרְכָּבָ֛ה נֹ֥כַח אֲרָ֖ם עַד־הָעָ֑רֶב וַיָּ֕מָת לְעֵ֖ת בּ֥וֹא הַשָֽׁמֶשׁ:
And the battle withdrew: It withdrew, and not one of Israel was hurt except the king of Isra el, in accordance with the word of the prophet, (above verse 16): “These have no master. Let them return each one to his house in peace.” It does not say לְשָלוֹם, because Ahab was slain.  
was standing in the chariot: He exerted himself and stood up so that the Israelites should not realize that he was wounded and flee, for the beginning of defeat is fleeing.