Chapter 28

1And David assembled all the leaders of Israel, the leaders of the tribes, and the leaders of the divisions who serve the king, and the leaders of the thousands, and the leaders of the hundreds, and the officers over all the property and the livestock of the king and his sons, with the attendants and the mighty men, and to all the mighty warriors to Jerusalem.   אוַיַּקְהֵ֣ל דָּוִ֣יד אֶת־כָּל־שָׂרֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֡ל שָׂרֵ֣י הַשְּׁבָטִ֣ים וְשָׂרֵ֣י הַמַּחְלְק֣וֹת הַֽמְשָֽׁרְתִ֪ים אֶת־הַמֶּ֠֩לֶךְ וְשָׂרֵ֣י הָֽאֲלָפִ֣ים וְשָׂרֵ֣י הַמֵּא֡וֹת וְשָׂרֵ֣י כָל־רְכֽוּשׁ־וּמִקְנֶה֩ לַמֶּ֨לֶךְ וּלְבָנָ֜יו עִם־הַסָּֽרִיסִ֧ים וְהַגִּבּוֹרִ֛ים וּלְכָל־גִּבּ֥וֹר חָ֖יִל אֶל־יְרֽוּשָׁלִָֽם:
And David assembled all the leaders of Israel: These are the leaders, the leaders of the tribes, as it is written (above 27: 16): “And over the tribes of Israel, the leader of the Reubenites was…”  
and the leaders of the divisions: These are the twelve divisions of the king, as above (27:1): “And the Children of Israel to their number, etc.”  
and the leaders of the thousands: as above.  
and the leaders of the hundreds: their officers.  
and the officers over all the property and the livestock of the king: those whom he mentions above (27:25-31): “And over the treasuries of the king… and over the vineyards… and over the olive trees… and the livestock”; and the officers who were in charge of the cattle, and of the camels, and of the flocks, for every species of domestic animal is called מִקְנֶה, as it is written (Ecc. 2:7): “I also had much livestock (מִקְנֶה) consisting of cattle and flocks.”  
2And King David rose to his feet and said, "Hearken to me, my brethren and my people; as for me, it is with my heart to build a house of rest for the Ark of the Covenant of the Lord and for the footstool of our God, and I prepared to build.   בוַיָּ֨קָם דָּוִ֚יד הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ עַל־רַגְלָ֔יו וַיֹּ֕אמֶר שְׁמָע֖וּנִי אַחַ֣י וְעַמִּ֑י אֲנִ֣י עִם־לְבָבִ֡י לִבְנוֹת֩ בֵּ֨ית מְנוּחָ֜ה לַֽאֲר֣וֹן בְּרִֽית־יְהֹוָ֗ה וְלַֽהֲדֹם֙ רַגְלֵ֣י אֱלֹהֵ֔ינוּ וַֽהֲכִינ֖וֹתִי לִבְנֽוֹת:
3But God said to me, 'You shall not build a house in My name, because you are a man of war, and you have shed blood.'   גוְהָֽאֱלֹהִים֙ אָ֣מַר לִ֔י לֹֽא־תִבְנֶ֥ה בַ֖יִת לִשְׁמִ֑י כִּ֣י אִ֧ישׁ מִלְחָמ֛וֹת אַ֖תָּה וְדָמִ֥ים שָׁפָֽכְתָּ:
4But the Lord God of Israel chose me out of the entire house of my father to become king over Israel forever, for He chose Judah for a ruler and in Judah, my father's house, and among my father's sons, He desired me to make me reign over all Israel.   דוַיִּבְחַ֡ר יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֵי֩ יִשְׂרָאֵ֨ל בִּ֜י מִכֹּ֣ל בֵּֽית־אָבִ֗י לִהְי֨וֹת לְמֶ֚לֶךְ עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ לְעוֹלָ֔ם כִּ֚י בִֽיהוּדָה֙ בָּחַ֣ר לְנָגִ֔יד וּבְבֵ֥ית יְהוּדָ֖ה בֵּ֣ית אָבִ֑י וּבִבְנֵ֣י אָבִ֔י בִּ֣י רָצָ֔ה לְהַמְלִ֖יךְ עַל־כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
5And of all my sons-for the Lord gave me many sons-He chose my son Solomon to sit on the throne of the kingdom of the Lord over Israel.   הוּמִכָּ֨ל־בָּנַ֔י כִּי רַבִּ֣ים בָּנִ֔ים נָ֥תַן לִ֖י יְהֹוָ֑ה וַיִּבְחַר֙ בִּשְׁלֹמֹ֣ה בְנִ֔י לָשֶׁ֗בֶת עַל־כִּסֵּ֛א מַלְכ֥וּת יְהֹוָ֖ה עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
6And He said to me, 'Your son Solomon, he shall build My House and My Courts, for I have chosen him to me as a son, and I shall be to him as a father.   ווַיֹּ֣אמֶר לִ֔י שְׁלֹמֹ֣ה בִנְךָ֔ הֽוּא־יִבְנֶ֥ה בֵיתִ֖י וַֽחֲצֵֽרוֹתָ֑י כִּֽי־בָחַ֨רְתִּי ב֥וֹ לִי֙ לְבֵ֔ן וַֽאֲנִ֖י אֶֽהְיֶה־לּ֥וֹ לְאָֽב:
7And I shall establish his kingdom for eternity, if he strengthens himself to perform My commandments and My ordinances as of this day.'   זוַֽהֲכִינוֹתִ֥י אֶת־מַלְכוּת֖וֹ עַד־לְעוֹלָ֑ם אִם־יֶֽחֱזַ֗ק לַֽעֲשׂ֛וֹת מִצְו‍ֹתַ֥י וּמִשְׁפָּטַ֖י כַּיּ֥וֹם הַזֶּֽה:
8And now, before the eyes of all Israel, the congregation of the Lord, and in the ears of our God, observe and seek all the commandments of the Lord your God, in order that you inherit the good land and bequeath it to your sons after you forever.   חוְ֠עַתָּה לְעֵינֵ֨י כָל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֚ל קְהַל־יְהֹוָה֙ וּבְאָזְנֵ֣י אֱלֹהֵ֔ינוּ שִׁמְר֣וּ וְדִרְשׁ֔וּ כָּל־מִצְו‍ֹ֖ת יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֵיכֶ֑ם לְמַ֚עַן תִּֽירְשׁוּ֙ אֶת־הָאָ֣רֶץ הַטּוֹבָ֔ה וְהִנְחַלְתֶּ֛ם לִבְנֵיכֶ֥ם אַֽחֲרֵיכֶ֖ם עַד־עוֹלָֽם:
all Israel: the stranger like the native.  
and in the ears of our God: Before our God, similar to (Deut. 29:9): “You are standing today, all of you, before the Lord your God.” Also, (II Kings 23:3): “And the king stood on his place, etc. before the Lord.”  
observe and seek all the commandments of the Lord your God: He said this to all Israel together, but to Solomon he said it before all Israel [as in the following verse].  
9And you, my son Solomon, know the God of your father and worship Him with a whole heart and with an eager soul, for the Lord seeks all hearts, and He understands the thoughts of every creation; if you seek Him, He will be found to you, and if you forsake Him, He will abandon you forever.   טוְאַתָּ֣ה שְׁלֹמֹֽה־בְנִ֡י דַּע֩ אֶת־אֱלֹהֵ֨י אָבִ֜יךָ וְעָֽבְדֵ֗הוּ בְּלֵ֚ב שָׁלֵם֙ וּבְנֶ֣פֶשׁ חֲפֵצָ֔ה כִּ֚י כָל־לְבָבוֹת֙ דּוֹרֵ֣שׁ יְהֹוָ֔ה וְכָל־יֵ֥צֶר מַֽחֲשָׁב֖וֹת מֵבִ֑ין אִֽם־תִּדְרְשֶׁ֙נּוּ֙ יִמָּ֣צֵא לָ֔ךְ וְאִם־תַּֽעַזְבֶ֖נּוּ יַזְנִֽיחֲךָ֥ לָעַֽד:
and worship Him with a whole heart: Heb. בְּלֵב שָׁלֵם. It is not stated בְּלֵבָב שָׁלֵם, which would mean two hearts, but בְּלֵב שָׁלֵם, that you shall have but one heart for our Father Who is in heaven. And so did the liturgical poet set down (in the Kedushah of Musaph of the first day of Rosh Hashanah): “You have two hearts like one for the One.” Similar to this, [we find in] (I Kings 8:61): “Let your heart [therefore] be whole (שָׁלֵם) with the Lord our God.” It is not written שְׁלֵמִים but שָׁלֵם : your two hearts will be one whole heart. And so it is explained (Gen. 18:5): “… and refresh your heart (לִבְּכֶם) , afterwards you may pass on.” This teaches us that the angels have only one heart, and also in the future it will be so, as it is written: (Ps. 48:14): “Give heed (לִבְּכֶם lit., your heart) to its walls.”  
for the Lord seeks all hearts: Here it is appropriate to say לְבָבוֹת; the Lord seeks all hearts, whether good or bad.  
and He understands the thoughts of every creation: In Genesis Rabbah (9:3), we learned: “Before a creature is created, the Holy One, blessed be He, understands what the person is destined to think.”  
if you seek Him, He will be found to you: Therefore, I say, (v. 8): “and seek all the commandments of the Lord.”  
He will abandon you forever: Heb. יַזְנִיחֲךָ. It is not written here: He will forsake you (יַעַזָבְךָ), but He will abandon you (יַזְנִיחֲך) , which is [a] harsher [term] like (Isa. 19:6): “And they will abandon (הֶאֶזְנִיחוּ) the rivers” ; (Lam 2:7): “The Lord abandoned (זָנַח) His altar.”  
10See now, for the Lord has chosen you to build a house for the Sanctuary; be strong and do it."   ירְאֵ֣ה| עַתָּ֗ה כִּֽי־יְהֹוָ֛ה בָּ֧חַר בְּךָ֛ לִבְנֽוֹת־בַּ֥יִת לַמִּקְדָּ֖שׁ חֲזַ֥ק וַֽעֲשֵֽׂה:
for the Lord has chosen you to build a house for the Sanctuary: not to build it for Him to dwell therein, for the heavens and the heavens of the heavens cannot contain Him, but for the Sanctuary, for the requirement of the Ark, which is called מִקְדָּשׁ, as it is written (Num. 10:21): “And the Kehathites, the bearers of the מִקְדָּשׁ traveled,” and that is the Ark. He did not choose you because you are more praiseworthy than other men, but for His sake and for the sake of His mercies; therefore be strong and do it.  
11And David gave his son Solomon the pattern of the porch, and its houses, and its treasuries, and its upper stories, and its inner chambers, and the House of the Ark cover.   יאוַיִּתֵּ֣ן דָּוִ֣יד לִשְׁלֹמֹ֣ה בְנ֡וֹ אֶת־תַּבְנִ֣ית הָֽאוּלָם֩ וְאֶת־בָּ֨תָּ֜יו וְגַנְזַכָּ֧יו וַֽעֲלִיֹּתָ֛יו וַֽחֲדָרָ֥יו הַפְּנִימִ֖ים וּבֵ֥ית הַכַּפֹּֽרֶת:
the pattern of the porch: Its length, its width, and its height as is written in I Kings (6:3): “And the porch before the Temple of the House, etc.”  
and its treasuries: the place where the treasuries of the hallowed objects were deposited.  
12And the pattern of all that he had by the spirit; of the courts of the House of the Lord, and of all its chambers round about, of the treasuries of the House of God, and of the treasuries of the hallowed things.   יבוְתַבְנִ֗ית כֹּל֩ אֲשֶׁ֨ר הָיָ֚ה בָר֙וּחַ֙ עִמּ֔וֹ לְחַצְר֧וֹת בֵּֽית־יְהֹוָ֛ה וּלְכָל־הַלְּשָׁכ֖וֹת סָבִ֑יב לְאֹֽצְרוֹת֙ בֵּ֣ית הָֽאֱלֹהִ֔ים וּלְאֹֽצְר֖וֹת הַקֳּדָשִֽׁים:
that he had by the spirit: As Samuel the Seer showed him, as it is written (above 9:22): “… whom David and Samuel established permanently.” Our Rabbis said (Zeb. 54b) (I Sam. 19:22): “… and he asked and said, ‘Where are Samuel and David?’ And one said, 'Behold at Naioth in Ramah.’” They were engaged in the building of the world. That refers to the Temple. And he taught him at that time what a faithful student cannot learn in many years. (Mid. Sam. 22:4)  
round about, of the treasuries of the House of God and of the treasuries of the hallowed things: but he does not explain which of the hallowed things that David and the chiefs of the fathers’ houses hallowed [he is referring to]; and at that time they were appointed over it until they would build the Temple, but these treasuries were always in existence as long as the Temple existed.  
13And of the divisions of the priests and the Levites, and of all the work of the service of the House of the Lord, and of all the vessels of the service of the House of the Lord.   יגוּלְמַחְלְקוֹת֙ הַכֹּֽהֲנִ֣ים וְהַֽלְוִיִּ֔ם וּלְכָל־מְלֶ֖אכֶת עֲבוֹדַ֣ת בֵּֽית־יְהֹוָ֑ה וּלְכָל־כְּלֵ֖י עֲבוֹדַ֥ת בֵּֽית־יְהֹוָֽה:
And of the divisions of the priests and the Levites: for he divided them into twentyfour watches, as above; all this he gave over to him.  
and of all the vessels of the service of the House of the Lord: the weight of what and how much each vessel is, as is explained.  
14Of gold, in weight for gold, for all the vessels of every service, [of silver] for all the vessels of silver by weight for all vessels of every kind of service.   ידלַזָּהָ֚ב בַּמִּשְׁקָל֙ לַזָּהָ֔ב לְכָל־כְּלֵ֖י עֲבוֹדָ֣ה וַֽעֲבוֹדָ֑ה לְכֹ֨ל כְּלֵ֚י הַכֶּ֙סֶף֙ בְּמִשְׁקָ֔ל לְכָל־כְּלֵ֖י עֲבוֹדָ֥ה וַֽעֲבוֹדָֽה:
Of gold, in weight for gold, for all the vessels of every service: and so for all silver vessels by weight.  
15And the weight of the golden candelabra and their lamps of gold, of the weight of each candelabrum and its lamps, and for the silver candelabra in weight for the candelabrum and its lamps, in the services of every candelabrum.   טווּמִשְׁקָ֞ל לִמְנֹר֣וֹת הַזָּהָ֗ב וְנֵֽרֹתֵיהֶם֙ זָהָ֔ב בְּמִשְׁקַל־מְנוֹרָ֥ה וּמְנוֹרָ֖ה וְנֵֽרֹתֶ֑יהָ וְלִמְנֹר֨וֹת הַכֶּ֚סֶף בְּמִשְׁקָל֙ לִמְנוֹרָ֣ה וְנֵֽרֹתֶ֔יהָ כַּֽעֲבוֹדַ֖ת מְנוֹרָ֥ה וּמְנוֹרָֽה:
and their lamps of gold: the weight of each lamp.  
of the weight of each candelabrum: for he made ten candelabra.  
in the service of every candelabrum: and the weight of the service vessels of the candelabrum, its tongs and its charcoal pans, and also the weight.  
16And the gold in weight for the tables of the showbread, for every table, and silver for the silver tables.   טזוְאֶת־הַזָּהָ֥ב מִשְׁקָ֛ל לְשֻׁלְחֲנ֥וֹת הַמַּֽעֲרֶ֖כֶת לְשֻׁלְחָ֣ן וְשֻׁלְחָ֑ן וְכֶ֖סֶף לְשֻׁלְחֲנ֥וֹת הַכָּֽסֶף:
for the tables of the showbread: upon which to arrange the showbread. [He instructed him] about the weight of each table, for he made ten golden tables in the Heichal and the weight of the silver for the tables in the forecourt, upon which they would flay the sacrifices, and the weight of the forks and the basins.  
17And the forks and the basins and the branches were pure gold, and for the basins of gold in weight for each basin, and for the basins of silver in weight for each basin.   יזוְהַמִּזְלָג֧וֹת וְהַמִּזְרָק֛וֹת וְהַקְּשָׂו‍ֹ֖ת זָהָ֣ב טָה֑וֹר וְלִכְפוֹרֵ֨י הַזָּהָ֚ב בְּמִשְׁקָל֙ לִכְפ֣וֹר וּכְפ֔וֹר וְלִכְפוֹרֵ֥י הַכֶּ֛סֶף בְּמִשְׁקָ֖ל לִכְפ֥וֹר וּכְפֽוֹר:
and for the basins of gold in weight Heb.: כְּפוֹרֵי כְּפוֹרֵי. [They] are service vessels with which to wipe the blood from the vessels, and an example is in the first (sic) chapter of Baba Mezia (24a): “The man who wiped (דְּכָפַר) his hands with his neighbor’s cloak,” and every [expression of] כַּפָּרָה is an expression of wiping and purification.  
18And for the incense altar, refined gold in weight, and for the pattern of the chariot, the cherubim of gold, which spread out [their wings] and covered the Ark of the Covenant of the Lord.   יחוּלְמִזְבַּ֧ח הַקְּטֹ֛רֶת זָהָ֥ב מְזֻקָּ֖ק בַּמִשְׁקָ֑ל וּלְתַבְנִ֣ית הַמֶרְכָּבָ֗ה הַכְּרֻבִ֚ים זָהָב֙ לְפֹ֣רְשִׂ֔ים וְסֹֽכְכִ֖ים עַל־אֲר֥וֹן בְּרִֽית־יְהֹוָֽה:
refined gold: Heb. מְזֻקָּק זָהָב, like refined silver (כֶּסֶף מְזֻקָּק).  
and for the pattern of the chariot: They are the cherubim upon which the Shechinah “rides.”  
which spread out [their wings] and covered: Heb. לְפרְשִׂים. i.e., which were spreading and covering over the Ark, as is stated (Ex. 25:20): “The cherubim shall spread their wings, etc.”  
19All was in writing, from the hand of the Lord, which He gave me to understand, all the works of the pattern.   יטהַכֹּ֥ל בִּכְתָ֛ב מִיַּ֥ד יְהֹוָ֖ה עָלַ֣י הִשְׂכִּ֑יל כֹּ֖ל מַלְאֲכ֥וֹת הַתַּבְנִֽית:
All was in writing: The meaning is: He arranged everything in writing for him: the sum of every weight of every vessel, from Samuel the Seer.  
all the works of the pattern: He endowed me with the wisdom and the understanding of the pattern of the House, e.g., the pattern of the length, the width, and the height, and Samuel derived everything from the Torah with the holy spirit, as we learned (Middoth 2:1): “The Temple Mount was five hundred cubits by five hundred cubits.” He expounded (Ex. 27: 18): “The length of the forecourt was one hundred cubits; the free width: fifty by fifty.” Fifty times fifty are twentyfive hundred cubits. It appears to me that he cut them into five strips to be five hundred by five hundred cubits. This was set down in the final liturgical poem for the Sabbath of Hanukkah, which commences: “Manasseh, etc.” Samuel derived all this with the holy spirit and taught it to David.  
20And David said to Solomon his son, "Be strong and of good courage and do; do not fear and be not dismayed, for the Lord God, my God, is with you. He will neither forsake you nor abandon you, until the completion of all the work of the service of the House of the Lord.   כוַיֹּ֨אמֶר דָּוִ֜יד לִשְׁלֹמֹ֣ה בְנ֗וֹ חֲזַ֚ק וֶֽאֱמַץ֙ וַֽעֲשֵׂ֔ה אַל־תִּירָ֖א וְאַל־תֵּחָ֑ת כִּי֩ יְהֹוָ֨ה אֱלֹהִ֚ים אֱלֹהַי֙ עִמָּ֔ךְ לֹ֚א יַרְפְּךָ֙ וְלֹ֣א יַֽעַזְבֶ֔ךָּ עַד־לִכְל֕וֹת כָּל־מְלֶ֖אכֶת עֲבוֹדַ֥ת בֵּֽית־יְהֹוָֽה:
Be strong and of good courage: in order that your kingdom endure as the Holy One, blessed be He, has promised you, (verse 7): “… and I shall prepare his kingdom to eternity if he strengthens himself to perform My commandments, etc.”  
21And behold the divisions of the priests and the Levites for all the service of the House of God, and with you in all the work for every volunteer with wisdom for every service, and the leaders and all the people for all your words."   כאוְהִנֵּ֗ה מַחְלְקוֹת֙ הַכֹּֽהֲנִ֣ים וְהַֽלְוִיִּ֔ם לְכָל־עֲבוֹדַ֖ת בֵּ֣ית הָֽאֱלֹהִ֑ים וְעִמְּךָ֙ בְכָל־מְלָאכָ֜ה לְכָל־נָדִ֚יב בַּֽחָכְמָה֙ לְכָל־עֲבוֹדָ֔ה וְהַשָּׂרִ֥ים וְכָל־הָעָ֖ם לְכָל־דְּבָרֶֽיךָ:
And behold the divisions of the priests and the Levites for all the service of, etc.: That is to say: I arranged and set everything up, and I prepared for you the divisions and the laborers, and you have not to delay it but to build the House immediately.  
and the leaders: who are appointed over the laborers and their officers.  
and all the people for all your words: to perform your command.