Chapter 1

1Adam, Seth, Enosh.   אאָדָ֥ם שֵׁ֖ת אֱנֽוֹשׁ:
Adam, Seth, Enosh: Ezra wrote this book of genealogy through Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi during the eighteen years from the name that Zerubbabel and Joshua the Priest came to Jerusalem in the days of Cyrus I until Cyrus the son of Esther came. All of this [book] is for the [purpose of tracing the] lineage of King David and the Levites for gate sentries, guards, and singers, how David stationed them in their positions, and the priests in their watches. Therefore, he traced their lineage from Adam to Abraham, and since he had to trace Abraham’s lineage, he mentioned also the rest of the nations, his sons and his grandsons, and because of his sons, he had to trace the lineage of the rest of the nations, the sons of Canaan, to let [us] know how Abraham inherited their land. And since he had to mention and trace the lineage of the generations of Canaan, he mentioned together with them (the generations of) the rest of the nations, but he mentions them only briefly and casts them away until he reaches the main ones, as is explained in Genesis Rabbah (39:10) (See also Tanhuma Veyesheb 1). This can be compared to a king who was traveling from place to place and dropped a pearl. The king stood and sifted the sand with a sieve until he found the pearl. So said the Holy One, blessed be He, “Why should I trace the lineage of Shem and Arpachshad and Terach except to find Abraham?” [As it is written] (Neh. 9:8): “… and You found his heart faithful [before You].” And because of the honor of Isaac, he traced the lineage of the sons of Esau and Ishmael and the sons of Keturah, and he cast them away little by little and left them. He mentions the sons of Seir because the sons of Esau inherited them [i.e., their territory]; he also traces the lineage of Timna, who became a concubine to the seed of Abraham, to let us know the praise of Abraham, for she was the daughter of princes and chiefs and wished to be a concubine to the seed of Abraham, as it is written (Gen. 36:22): “… and Lotan’s sister was Timna,” and it is written (ibid. 12): “And Timna was a concubine to Eliphaz the son of Esau,” because she said, “If I am not worthy to marry him, I shall be his concubine.” (Gen. Rabbah 84:14, Sanh. 99b) Moreover, for this reason, he traced the lineage of the sons of Seir because they were chiefs and princes, and Mount Seir belonged to Seir, but out of love for Isaac, the Holy One, blessed be He, gave it to Esau, as it is written (Deut. 2:12): “… and the children of Esau drove them out, etc., and settled in their place,” and to inform us of the fulfillment of the words of the Holy One, blessed be He, Who promised Isaac that He would multiply his seed and give him dominion over all, and because of the honor of Isaac he likewise wrote (verse. 31): “Now these are the kings who reigned in the land of Edom, etc.”  
Adam, Seth, Enosh: This is to be interpreted like: “The sons of Adam: Seth, and the sons of Seth: Enosh,” but since they were not the main part of the genealogy, he states them briefly, and he does not mention Cain and Abel because they did not beget generations, but from Seth emerged the generations of Noah and Abraham, and from Abraham to David.  
2Kenan, Mahalalel, Jered.   בקֵינָ֥ן מַֽהֲלַלְאֵ֖ל יָֽרֶד:
3Hanoch, Methuselah, Lemech.   גחֲנ֥וֹךְ מְתוּשֶׁ֖לַח לָֽמֶךְ:
4Noah, Shem, Ham, and Japheth.   דנֹ֥חַ שֵׁ֖ם חָ֥ם וָיָֽפֶת:
Noah, Shem, Ham: He should have counted the sons of Shem immediately to find the pearl, namely Abraham, etc., until David, but he mentions the unimportant one and treats his lineage briefly and takes hold of the main ones; and so is the method of all this genealogy of Chronicles, and so it is in the section immediately following (verses 28f.): “The sons of Abraham: Isaac and Ishmael. These are their generations: the firstborn of Ishmael was Nebaioth.” And so: (verses 34f.): “And Abraham begot Isaac; the sons of Isaac: Esau and Israel; the sons of Esau: Eliphaz,” where he mentions first the lineage of the unimportant ones and afterwards the main one.  
5The sons of Japheth: Gomer, and Magog, and Madai, and Javan, and Tubal, and Meshech, and Tiras.   הבְּנֵ֣י יֶ֔פֶת גֹּ֣מֶר וּמָג֔וֹג וּמָדַ֖י וְיָוָ֣ן וְתֻבָ֑ל וּמֶ֖שֶׁךְ וְתִירָֽס:
6And the sons of Gomer: Ashkenaz, and Diphath, and Togarmah.   ווּבְנֵ֖י גֹּ֑מֶר אַשְׁכְּנַ֥ז וְדִיפַ֖ת וְתֽוֹגַרְמָֽה:
Ashkenaz and Diphath: (with a “daleth”), but in the Pentateuch it is written (Gen. 10:3): “… and Riphath,” because in the beginning they were weak (רָפִים), and they did not overpower Israel, but at the end they were filled with disgrace (דֹּפִי) and evil.  
7And the sons of Javan: Elisha and Tarshishah, Kittim, and Rodanim.   זוּבְנֵ֥י יָוָ֖ן אֱלִישָׁ֣ה וְתַרְשִׁ֑ישָׁה כִּתִּ֖ים וְרֽוֹדָנִֽים:
And the sons of Javan: Elisha: The reason he did not mention Magog and Madai is that he mentioned only the lineage of these, but he did not mention the sons of Magog or the sons of Madai or the rest because heads of nations did not emerge from them, but all their nations were called by the name of Kittim and Dodanim.  
and Rodanim: And further (Gen. 10:4) Scripture states: “and Dodanim.” When Israel sins, they come and rule over them (רוֹדִים) , but when Israel is in power, they say, “You are the sons of our uncles (דּוֹדֵינוּ).” At first they appeared as friends when it was for their own benefit, but later they subjugated them.  
8The sons of Ham: Cush and Mizraim, Put and Canaan.   חבְּנֵ֖י חָ֑ם כּ֥וּשׁ וּמִצְרַ֖יִם פּ֥וּט וּכְנָֽעַן:
9And the sons of Cush: Seba, and Havilah, and Sabta, and Raama, and Sabtecha; and the sons of Raama: Sheba and Dedan.   טוּבְנֵ֣י כ֔וּשׁ סְבָא֙ וַֽחֲוִילָ֔ה וְסַבְתָּ֥א וְרַעְמָ֖א וְסַבְתְּכָ֑א וּבְנֵ֥י רַעְמָ֖א שְׁבָ֥א וּדְדָֽן:
10And Cush begot Nimrod; he began to be a mighty man on the earth.   יוְכ֖וּשׁ יָלַ֣ד אֶת־נִמְר֑וֹד ה֣וּא הֵחֵ֔ל לִֽהְי֥וֹת גִּבּ֖וֹר בָּאָֽרֶץ:
began to be a mighty man on the earth: He began to make wars and [perform] mighty deeds on the earth.  
11And Mizraim begot Ludim, and Anamim, and Lehabim, and Naphtuhim.   יאוּמִצְרַ֡יִם יָלַ֞ד אֶת־לוּדִ֧ים (כתיב לוּדִ֧יים) וְאֶת־עֲנָמִ֛ים וְאֶת־לְהָבִ֖ים וְאֶת־נַפְתֻּחִֽים:
And Mitzraim begot Ludim: In Genesis Rabbah (37:5) “Said Rabbi Abba bar Kahana: The entire coinage of Mizraim is only in the sea. Said Rabbi Joshua ben Korhah: ‘Ludim’ is written ‘Ludiim’ in chronicles, with two ‘yuds,’ to tell you that ‘Ludiim’ means לוּדֵי יָם, Ludim of the sea; Anamim, Anamim of the sea; Lehabim, Lehabim of the sea; Naphtuhim, Naphtuhim of the sea.”  
12And Pathrusim and Casluhim, from whom the Philistines and the Caphtorim were descended.   יבוְֽאֶת־פַּתְרֻסִ֞ים וְאֶת־כַּסְלֻחִ֗ים אֲשֶׁ֨ר יָֽצְא֥וּ מִשָּׁ֛ם פְּלִשְׁתִּ֖ים וְאֶת־כַּפְתֹּרִֽים:
Pathrusim: Pathrusim of the sea; Casluhim, Casluhim of the sea; Philistines, Philistines of the sea.  
from whom the Philistines and the Caphtorim were descended: The Pathrusim and the Casluhim would switch wives with each other, and from them were descended the Philistines (and the Caphtorim).  
13And Canaan begot Sidon his firstborn and Heth.   יגוּכְנַ֗עַן יָלַ֛ד אֶת־צִיד֥וֹן בְּכֹר֖וֹ וְאֶת־חֵֽת:
And Canaan begot, etc.: They are eleven, and with Canaan they are twelve. This is what is written: “He set up the boundaries of the peoples.” He set up the boundaries of the peoples corresponding to the tribes of Israel, for they too are twelve; corresponding to the tribes of Israel, He set up the boundaries of the peoples, on the pattern of (Gen. 21:29): “… that you set up (הִצַּבְתָּ) by themselves.”  
14And the Jebusite[s], and the Amorite[s], and the Girgashite[s].   ידוְאֶת־הַיְבוּסִי֙ וְאֶת־הָֽאֱמֹרִ֔י וְאֵ֖ת הַגִּרְגָּשִֽׁי:
15And the Hivvite[s], and the Arkite[s], and the Sinite[s].   טווְאֶת־הַֽחִוִּ֥י וְאֶת־הָֽעַרְקִ֖י וְאֶת־הַסִּינִֽי:
16And the Arvadite[s], and the Zemarite[s], and the Hamathite[s].   טזוְאֶת־הָֽאַרְוָדִ֥י וְאֶת־הַצְּמָרִ֖י וְאֶת־הַֽחֲמָתִֽי:
17The sons of Shem: Elam, and Ashur, and Arpachshad, and Lud, and Aram, and Uz, and Hul, and Gether, and Meshech.   יזבְּנֵ֣י שֵׁ֔ם עֵילָ֣ם וְאַשּׁ֔וּר וְאַרְפַּכְשַׁ֖ד וְל֣וּד וַֽאֲרָ֑ם וְע֥וּץ וְח֖וּל וְגֶ֥תֶר וָמֶֽשֶׁךְ:
18And Arpachshad begot Shelah, and Shelah begot Eber.   יחוְאַרְפַּכְשַׁ֖ד יָלַ֣ד אֶת־שָׁ֑לַח וְשֶׁ֖לַח יָלַ֥ד אֶת־עֵֽבֶר:
19And to Eber were born two sons; one was named Peleg, because in his days the earth was parted and his brother's name was Joktan.   יטוּלְעֵ֥בֶר יֻלַּ֖ד שְׁנֵ֣י בָנִ֑ים שֵׁ֣ם הָֽאֶחָ֞ד פֶּ֗לֶג כִּ֚י בְיָמָיו֙ נִפְלְגָ֣ה הָאָ֔רֶץ וְשֵׁ֥ם אָחִ֖יו יָקְטָֽן:
the earth was parted: The days of the people were divided and diminished, for at first people lived nine hundred years or more, and in the days of Arpachshad and thereafter, [they were diminished] to four hundred years or more, and from Peleg and thereafter, they were divided in half, to two hundred years out of those four hundred years.  
20And Joktan begot Almodad, and Shaleph, and Hazarmaveth, and Jorah.   כוְיָקְטָ֣ן יָלַ֔ד אֶת־אַלְמוֹדָ֖ד וְאֶת־שָׁ֑לֶף וְאֶת־חֲצַרְמָ֖וֶת וְאֶת־יָֽרַח:
21And Hadoram, and Uzal, and Diklah.   כאוְאֶת־הֲדוֹרָ֥ם וְאֶת־אוּזָ֖ל וְאֶת־דִּקְלָֽה:
22And Ebal, and Abimael, and Sheba.   כבוְאֶת־עֵיבָ֥ל וְאֶת־אֲבִֽימָאֵ֖ל וְאֶת־שְׁבָֽא:
23And Ophir, and Havilah, and Jobab; all these were the sons of Joktan.   כגוְאֶת־אוֹפִ֥יר וְאֶת־חֲוִילָ֖ה וְאֶת־יוֹבָ֑ב כָּל־אֵ֖לֶּה בְּנֵ֥י יָקְטָֽן:
all these were the sons of Joktan: for he belittled his affairs. Eber was a great prophet (for he named his son for a future event), but the names of the others were not meant to be expounded upon, for they were not inspired by prophetic word.  
24Shem, Arpachshad, Shelah.   כדשֵׁ֥ם אַרְפַּכְשַׁ֖ד שָֽׁלַח:
Shem, Arpachshad, Shelah: He enumerated the sons of Shem above, and he now commences again in Abraham’s honor. This may be compared to a king who lost a pearl, as above.  
25Eber, Peleg, Re'u.   כהעֵ֥בֶר פֶּ֖לֶג רְעֽוּ:
26Serug, Nahor, Terah.   כושְׂר֥וּג נָח֖וֹר תָּֽרַח:
27Abram, he is Abraham.   כזאַבְרָ֖ם ה֥וּא אַבְרָהָֽם:
Abram; he is Abraham: Now he traced the lineage from Shem to Abraham, and who is this Abram? He is the one who was called Abraham.  
28The sons of Abraham: Isaac and Ishmael.   כחבְּנֵי֙ אַבְרָהָ֔ם יִצְחָ֖ק וְיִשְׁמָעֵֽאל:
29These are their generations: the firstborn of Ishmael was Nebaioth, and Kedar, and Adbeal, and Mibsam.   כטאֵ֖לֶּה תֹּֽלְדוֹתָ֑ם בְּכ֚וֹר יִשְׁמָעֵאל֙ נְבָי֔וֹת וְקֵדָ֥ר וְאַדְבְּאֵ֖ל וּמִבְשָֽׂם:
30Mishma, and Dumah, Massa, Hadad, and Tema.   למִשְׁמָ֣ע וְדוּמָ֔ה מַשָּׂ֖א חֲדַ֥ד וְתֵימָֽא:
31Jetur, Naphish, and Kedmah; all these were the sons of Ishmael.   לאיְט֥וּר נָפִ֖ישׁ וָקֵ֑דְמָה אֵ֥לֶּה הֵ֖ם בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׁמָעֵֽאל:
32And the sons of Keturah, Abraham's concubine; she bore Zimran, and Jokshan, and Medan, and Midian, and Jishbak, and Shuah; and the sons of Jokshan: Sheba and Dedan.   לבוּבְנֵ֨י קְטוּרָ֜ה פִּילֶ֣גֶשׁ אַבְרָהָ֗ם יָֽלְדָ֞ה אֶת־זִמְרָ֧ן וְיָקְשָׁ֛ן וּמְדָ֥ן וּמִדְיָ֖ן וְיִשְׁבָּ֣ק וְשׁ֑וּחַ וּבְנֵ֥י יָקְשָׁ֖ן שְׁבָ֥א וּדְדָֽן:
And the sons of Keturah, Abraham’s concubine: Anything disgraceful that he could tell about them he tells to enhance Isaac’s honor, i.e., they were all the children of a concubine, but he was the mainstay and the master of the household.  
33And the sons of Midian: Ephah, and Epher, and Hanoch, and Abida, and Eldaah; all these were the sons of Keturah.   לגוּבְנֵ֣י מִדְיָ֗ן עֵיפָ֚ה וָעֵ֙פֶר֙ וַֽחֲנ֔וֹךְ וַֽאֲבִידָ֖ע וְאֶלְדָּעָ֑ה כָּל־אֵ֖לֶּה בְּנֵ֥י קְטוּרָֽה:
And the sons of Midian: Ephah and Epher, etc.: five heads of nations. Therefore, they appointed five kings, each one its king, as it is written (Num. 31:8): “Evi, and Rekem, and Zur, and Hur, etc., the five kings of Midian.”  
all these were the sons of Keturah: [These were mentioned] because of Abraham’s honor.  
34And Abraham begot Isaac; the sons of Isaac: Esau and Israel.   לדוַיּ֥וֹלֶד אַבְרָהָ֖ם אֶת־יִצְחָ֑ק בְּנֵ֣י יִצְחָ֔ק עֵשָׂ֖ו וְיִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
Esau and Israel: Because of David’s honor, he says, “Israel,” not “Jacob.”  
35The sons of Esau: Eliphaz, Reuel, and Jeush, and Jaalam, and Korah.   להבְּנֵ֖י עֵשָׂ֑ו אֱלִיפָ֛ז רְעוּאֵ֥ל וִיע֖וּשׁ וְיַעְלָ֥ם וְקֹֽרַח:
The sons of Esau: Eliphaz: in order to deal with him briefly and to cast him away; he only mentioned him in honor of Isaac.  
36The sons of Eliphaz: Teman, and Omar, Zephi, and Gaatam, Kenaz, and Timna, and Amalek.   לובְּנֵ֖י אֱלִיפָ֑ז תֵּימָ֚ן וְאוֹמָר֙ צְפִ֣י וְגַעְתָּ֔ם קְנַ֥ז וְתִמְנַ֖ע וַֽעֲמָלֵֽק:
37The sons of Reuel: Nahath, Zerah, Shammah, and Mizzah.   לזבְּנֵ֖י רְעוּאֵ֑ל נַ֥חַת זֶ֖רַח שַׁמָּ֥ה וּמִזָּֽה:
38And the sons of Seir: Lotan, and Shobal, and Zibeon, and Anah, and Dishon, and Ezer, and Dishan.   לחוּבְנֵ֣י שֵׂעִ֔יר לוֹטָ֥ן וְשׁוֹבָ֖ל וְצִבְע֣וֹן וַֽעֲנָ֑ה וְדִישֹׁ֥ן וְאֵ֖צֶר וְדִישָֽׁן:
39And the sons of Lotan: Hori and Homam, and Lotan's sister was Timna.   לטוּבְנֵ֥י לוֹטָ֖ן חֹרִ֣י וְהוֹמָ֑ם וַֽאֲח֥וֹת לוֹטָ֖ן תִּמְנָֽע:
40The sons of Shobal: Alian, and Manahath, and Ebal, Shephi, and Onam, and the sons of Zibeon: Aiah and Anah.   מבְּנֵ֣י שׁוֹבָ֔ל עַלְיָ֧ן וּמָנַ֛חַת וְעֵיבָ֖ל שְׁפִ֣י וְאוֹנָ֑ם וּבְנֵ֥י צִבְע֖וֹן אַיָּ֥ה וַֽעֲנָֽה:
41The sons of Anah: Dishon, and the sons of Dishon: Hamran, and Eshban, and Jithran, and Cheran.   מאבְּנֵ֥י עֲנָ֖ה דִּישׁ֑וֹן וּבְנֵ֣י דִישׁ֔וֹן חַמְרָ֥ן וְאֶשְׁבָּ֖ן וְיִתְרָ֥ן וּכְרָֽן:
Hamran and Eshban: But in the Pentateuch (Gen. 36:26) it is written, “Hemdan.” At first, they were precious and desirable (חֲמוּדִין וְנֶחֱמָדִין) as righteous men, but at the end they were as ugly as a donkey. So is the way of a donkey: at first it is pretty and at the end it becomes ugly, but a horse is at first ugly and later pretty.  
42The sons of Ezer: Bilhan, and Zaavan, Jaakan; the sons of Dishon: Uz and Aran.   מבבְּֽנֵי־אֵ֔צֶר בִּלְהָ֥ן וְזַֽעֲוָ֖ן יַֽעֲקָ֖ן בְּנֵ֥י דִישׁ֖וֹן ע֥וּץ וַֽאֲרָֽן:
43Now these are the kings who reigned in the land of Edom before any king reigned over the Children of Israel: Bela the son of Beor, and the name of his city was Dinhabah.   מגוְאֵ֣לֶּה הַמְּלָכִ֗ים אֲשֶׁ֚ר מָֽלְכוּ֙ בְּאֶ֣רֶץ אֱד֔וֹם לִפְנֵ֥י מְלָךְ־מֶ֖לֶךְ לִבְנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל בֶּלַע בֶּן־בְּע֔וֹר וְשֵׁ֥ם עִיר֖וֹ דִּנְהָֽבָה:
Now these are the kings: It is explained (Gen. Rab. 83:2): Rabbi Aibu said: This was before a king reigned in Israel, but since a king reigned in Israel, a governor reigned in Edom. Rabbi Jose the son of Hanina says: When this one [Edom] appoints kings, this one [Israel] appoints judges; when this one appoints chiefs, this one appoints princes. Said Rabbi Joshua the son of Levi: This one [Edom] appointed eight [kings] and this one: [Israel] appointed eight [kings], and I heard [people ask]: Did Edom have only these eight kings, and did Israel have only eight? Were there not more? Joram, Ahaziah, Joash, etc. Rather, the statement that this one appointed eight kings means that when they [Edom] appointed those eight kings of Edom, they [Israel] did not appoint the kings of Israel, because they were before David.  
44And Bela died, and Jobab the son of Zerah from Bozrah reigned in his stead.   מדוַיָּ֖מָת בָּ֑לַע וַיִּמְלֹ֣ךְ תַּחְתָּ֔יו יוֹבָ֥ב בֶּן־זֶ֖רַח מִבָּצְרָֽה:
45And Jobab died, and Husham from the land of the Temanite[s] reigned in his stead.   מהוַיָּ֖מָת יוֹבָ֑ב וַיִּמְלֹ֣ךְ תַּחְתָּ֔יו חוּשָׁ֖ם מֵאֶ֥רֶץ הַתֵּֽימָנִֽי:
46And Husham died, and Hadad the son of Bedad, who smote Midian in the field of Moab, reigned in his stead, and the name of his city was Avith.   מווַיָּ֖מָת חוּשָׁ֑ם וַיִּמְלֹ֨ךְ תַּחְתָּ֜יו הֲדַ֣ד בֶּן־בְּדַ֗ד הַמַּכֶּ֚ה אֶת־מִדְיָן֙ בִּשְׂדֵ֣ה מוֹאָ֔ב וְשֵׁ֥ם עִיר֖וֹ עֲוִֽית (כתיב עֲיִֽות) :
47And Hadad died and Samlah of Masrekah reigned in his stead.   מזוַיָּ֖מָת הֲדָ֑ד וַיִּמְלֹ֣ךְ תַּחְתָּ֔יו שַׂמְלָ֖ה מִמַּשְׂרֵקָֽה:
48And Samlah died, and Saul of Rehoboth by the river reigned in his stead.   מחוַיָּ֖מָת שַׂמְלָ֑ה וַיִּמְלֹ֣ךְ תַּחְתָּ֔יו שָׁא֖וּל מֵֽרְחֹב֥וֹת הַנָּהָֽר:
49And Saul died, and Baal Hanan the son of Achbor reigned in his stead.   מטוַיָּ֖מָת שָׁא֑וּל וַיִּמְלֹ֣ךְ תַּחְתָּ֔יו בַּ֥עַל חָנָ֖ן בֶּן־עַכְבּֽוֹר:
50And Baal Hanan died, and Hadad reigned in his stead. Now the name of his city was Pai, and his wife's name was Mehetabel the daughter of Matred, the daughter of Mezahab.   נוַיָּ֙מָת֙ בַּ֣עַל חָנָ֔ן וַיִּמְלֹ֚ךְ תַּחְתָּיו֙ הֲדַ֔ד וְשֵׁ֥ם עִיר֖וֹ פָּ֑עִי וְשֵׁ֨ם אִשְׁתּ֚וֹ מְהֵֽיטַבְאֵל֙ בַּת־מַטְרֵ֔ד בַּ֖ת מֵ֥י זָהָֽב:
51And Hadad died, and the chiefs of Edom were: Chief Timna, Chief Alvah, Chief Jetheth.   נאוַיָּ֖מָת הֲדָ֑ד וַיִּֽהְיוּ֙ אַלּוּפֵ֣י אֱד֔וֹם אַלּ֥וּף תִּמְנָ֛ע אַלּ֥וּף עַלְוָ֖ה (כתיב עַלְיָ֖ה) אַלּ֥וּף יְתֵֽת:
the chiefs of: the heads of his fathers’ houses.  
52Chief Oholibamah, Chief Elah, Chief Pinnon.   נבאַלּ֧וּף אָֽהֳלִֽיבָמָ֛ה אַלּ֥וּף אֵלָ֖ה אַלּ֥וּף פִּינֹֽן:
53Chief Kenaz, Chief Teman, Chief Mibzar.   נגאַלּ֥וּף קְנַ֛ז אַלּ֥וּף תֵּימָ֖ן אַלּ֥וּף מִבְצָֽר:
54Chief Magdiel, Chief Iram; these were the chiefs of Edom.   נדאַלּ֥וּף מַגְדִּיאֵ֖ל אַלּ֣וּף עִירָ֑ם אֵ֖לֶּה אַלּוּפֵ֥י אֱדֽוֹם: