Chapter 5

1Recall, O Lord, what has befallen us; behold and see our disgrace.   אזְכֹ֤ר יְהֹוָה֙ מֶה־הָ֣יָה לָ֔נוּ הַבִּ֖יטָה (כתיב הַבִּ֖יטָ) וּרְאֵ֥ה אֶת־חֶרְפָּתֵֽנוּ:
2Our heritage has been turned over to strangers, our houses to aliens.   בנַֽחֲלָתֵ֨נוּ֙ נֶֽהֶפְכָ֣ה לְזָרִ֔ים בָּתֵּ֖ינוּ לְנָכְרִֽים:
3We have become orphans and fatherless, our mothers are like widows.   גיְתוֹמִ֤ים הָיִ֨ינוּ֙ וְאֵ֣ין (כתיב אֵ֣ין) אָ֔ב אִמֹּתֵ֖ינוּ כְּאַלְמָנֽוֹת:
4Our water we have drunk for payment; our wood needs must come by purchase.   דמֵימֵ֨ינוּ֙ בְּכֶ֣סֶף שָׁתִ֔ינוּ עֵצֵ֖ינוּ בִּמְחִ֥יר יָבֹֽאוּ:
Our water we have drunk for payment: We were afraid to draw water from the river because of the enemies; we therefore bought [it] from them with money.  
5We are pursued [with a yoke] on our necks; we toil but it does not remain with us.   העַ֤ל צַוָּארֵ֨נוּ֙ נִרְדָּ֔פְנוּ יָגַ֖עְנוּ וְלֹ֥א (כתיב לֹ֥א) הֽוּנַּֽח־לָֽנוּ:
We are pursued [with a yoke] on our necks: because of the yoke of hard labor.  
we toil: to gather money and property.  
but it does not remain with us: [the fruits of] our toil [do not remain] in our hands, because the enemies would collect and seize everything for taxes, head taxes, and property taxes.  
6We have stretched out our hands to Egypt [and to] Assyria to get enough food.   ומִצְרַ֨יִם֙ נָתַ֣נּוּ יָ֔ד אַשּׁ֖וּר לִשְׂבֹּ֥עַ לָֽחֶם:
We have stretched out our hands to Egypt: It is customary for a falling person who wishes to stand up to stretch out a hand to someone nearby to help him. Here too, we stretched out a hand to Egypt that they should help us.  
[and to] Assyria to get enough food: that they sate us with their bread.  
We have stretched out: Heb. נָתַנוּ, like נָתַנְנוּ. The dagesh in the “nun” takes the place of the second “nun,” and so (I Chron. 29:14): “For all is from You, and from Your hand we have given it (נָתַנוּ) to You” ; and so (Gen. 34:16): “and we will give (וְנָתַנוּ) our daughters to you.”  
7Our fathers have sinned and are no more, and we have borne their iniquities.   זאֲבֹתֵ֤ינוּ חָֽטְאוּ֙ וְאֵינָ֔ם (כתיב אֵינָ֔ם) וַאֲנַ֖חְנוּ (כתיב אֲנַ֖חְנוּ) עֲו‍ֹנֹֽתֵיהֶ֥ם סָבָֽלְנוּ:
8Slaves rule over us, [and] there is none to deliver [us] from their hand.   חעֲבָדִים֙ מָ֣שְׁלוּ בָ֔נוּ פֹּרֵ֖ק אֵ֥ין מִיָּדָֽם:
9With our lives we bring our bread, because of the sword of the wilderness.   טבְּנַפְשֵׁ֨נוּ֙ נָבִ֣יא לַחְמֵ֔נוּ מִפְּנֵ֖י חֶ֥רֶב הַמִּדְבָּֽר:
With our lives we bring our bread: with the peril of our soul. We were endangered when we would bring our food from the field because of the sword of the wilderness.  
10Our skin is parched as by a furnace because of the heat of hunger.   יעוֹרֵ֨נוּ֙ כְּתַנּ֣וּר נִכְמָ֔רוּ מִפְּנֵ֖י זַלְעֲפ֥וֹת רָעָֽב:
is parched: Heb. נִכְמַרוּ, became heated, and so (Gen. 43:30): “for his mercies were stirred up (נִכְמְרוּ) ” ; and in the language of the Gemara there are many instances [of the use of this word]: (Yev. 97a): “a heating vessel (כּוֹמֶר) of olives” ; (Pes. 58a): "for the heating (מִכְמָר) of the flesh.  
the heat of hunger: Heb. זַלְעֲפוֹת, “ heat, like (Ps. 11:6): ” and a burning wind (רוּח ַזִלְעָפוֹת) " ; an expression of burning.  
11They have outraged women in Zion [and] maidens in the cities of Judah.   יאנָשִׁים֙ בְּצִיּ֣וֹן עִנּ֔וּ בְּתֻלֹ֖ת בְּעָרֵ֥י יְהוּדָֽה:
12Princes were hanged by their hands, elders were not shown respect.   יבשָׂרִים֙ בְּיָדָ֣ם נִתְל֔וּ פְּנֵ֥י זְקֵנִ֖ים לֹ֥א נֶהְדָּֽרוּ:
13Young men carried the millstones, [and] youths stumbled under [loads of] wood.   יגבַּֽחוּרִים֙ טְח֣וֹן נָשָׂ֔אוּ וּנְעָרִ֖ים בָּעֵ֥ץ כָּשָֽׁלוּ:
Young men carried the millstones: When the enemies led them away in neck irons, they would place millstones and burdens on their shoulders in order to tire them. Similarly: and youths fail under [loads of] wood, meaning that their strength failed. The expression of failing applies to the weakening of the strength, as is stated in Ezra (Neh. 4:4), “And Judea said: The porter’s strength has failed (כָּשַּׁל).” Similarly, (above 1:14) “and caused my strength to fail (הִכְשִּׁיל).”  
14The elders have ceased from the [city] gate, the young men from their music.   ידזְקֵנִים֙ מִשַּׁ֣עַר שָׁבָ֔תוּ בַּֽחוּרִ֖ים מִנְּגִֽינָתָֽם:
15The joy of our heart has ceased, our dancing has turned into mourning.   טושָׁבַת֙ מְשׂ֣וֹשׂ לִבֵּ֔נוּ נֶהְפַּ֥ךְ לְאֵ֖בֶל מְחוֹלֵֽנוּ:
16The crown of our head has fallen, woe to us, for we have sinned.   טזנָֽפְלָה֙ עֲטֶ֣רֶת רֹאשֵׁ֔נוּ אֽוֹי־נָ֥א לָ֖נוּ כִּ֥י חָטָֽאנוּ:
17For this our heart has become faint, for these things our eyes have grown dim.   יזעַל־זֶ֗ה הָיָ֤ה דָוֶה֙ לִבֵּ֔נוּ עַל־אֵ֖לֶּה חָֽשְׁכ֥וּ עֵינֵֽינוּ:
For this our heart has become faint, etc.: because of that which is delineated in the following verse: “For Mount Zion, which lies desolate, and foxes prowl over it.”  
18For Mount Zion, which has become desolate; foxes prowl over it.   יחעַ֤ל הַר־צִיּוֹן֙ שֶׁשָּׁמֵ֔ם שֽׁוּעָלִ֖ים הִלְּכוּ־בֽוֹ:
19[But] You, O Lord, remain forever; Your throne endures throughout the generations.   יטאַתָּ֤ה יְהֹוָה֙ לְעוֹלָ֣ם תֵּשֵׁ֔ב כִּסְאֲךָ֖ לְד֥וֹר וָדֽוֹר:
[But] You, O Lord: we know that You will remain forever. Now since that is so…  
20Why do You forget us forever, forsake us so long?   כלָ֤מָּה לָנֶ֨צַח֙ תִּשְׁכָּחֵ֔נוּ תַּֽעַזְבֵ֖נוּ לְאֹ֥רֶךְ יָמִֽים:
Why do You forget us forever: Have You not sworn to us Yourself that just as You exist, so does Your oath exist?  
21Restore us to You, O Lord, that we may be restored! Renew our days as of old.   כאהֲשִׁיבֵ֨נוּ יְהֹוָ֤ה | אֵלֶ֨יךָ֙ וְֽנָשׁ֔וּבָה (כתיב וְֽנָשׁ֔וּבָ) חַדֵּ֥שׁ יָמֵ֖ינוּ כְּקֶֽדֶם:
22For if You have utterly rejected us, You have [already] been exceedingly wroth against us.   כבכִּי אִם־מָאֹ֣ס מְאַסְתָּ֔נוּ קָצַ֥פְתָּ עָלֵ֖ינוּ עַד־מְאֹֽד:
For if You have utterly rejected us: because we have sinned, You should not have been exceedingly wroth as much as You were wroth.  
Restore us… O Lord: Since he concludes with words of reproof, he had to repeat the preceding verse again, and so it is in Isaiah, the Twelve Prophets, and Ecclesiastes.