Chapter 10

1Request rain from the Lord at the time of the latter rain; the Lord makes rain-clouds, and He shall give them rain; for each person, grass in the field.   אשַֽׁאֲל֨וּ מֵֽיְהֹוָ֚ה מָטָר֙ בְּעֵ֣ת מַלְק֔וֹשׁ יְהֹוָ֖ה עֹשֶׂ֣ה חֲזִיזִ֑ים וּמְטַר־גֶּ֙שֶׁם֙ יִתֵּ֣ן לָהֶ֔ם לְאִ֖ישׁ עֵ֥שֶׂב בַּשָּׂדֶֽה:
Request rain from the Lord: if you need it.  
rain-clouds: Clouds that bring rain  
for each person, grass in the field: For one man and for one grass that requires rain.  
2For the teraphim spoke futility, and the soothsayers envisioned lies, and dreamers speak lies; they console with vanity. Therefore, they traveled like sheep; they were humbled, for there is no shepherd.   בכִּ֧י הַתְּרָפִ֣ים דִּבְּרוּ־אָ֗וֶן וְהַקּֽוֹסְמִים֙ חָ֣זוּ שֶׁ֔קֶר וַֽחֲלֹמוֹת֙ הַשָּׁ֣וְא יְדַבֵּ֔רוּ הֶ֖בֶל יְנַֽחֵמ֑וּן עַל־כֵּן֙ נָֽסְע֣וּ כְמוֹ־צֹ֔אן יַֽעֲנ֖וּ כִּי־אֵ֥ין רֹעֶֽה:
For the teraphim, etc., and the soothsayers envisioned lies, and dreamers: who misled your forefathers, saying, “I dreamt.” They would encourage [your forefathers] to rebel against the Holy One, blessed be He. They spoke futility, and they spoke vanity, saying “peace” - but there was no peace. Therefore, they traveled. I, however, am a true prophet for them.  
they were humbled: “to humble yourself before Me.” An expression of humility.  
3My wrath is kindled against the shepherds, and I will visit upon the goats, for the Lord of Hosts has remembered His flock, the house of Judah, and He has made it as His majestic horse in battle.   געַל־הָֽרֹעִים֙ חָרָ֣ה אַפִּ֔י וְעַל־הָֽעַתּוּדִ֖ים אֶפְק֑וֹד כִּֽי־פָקַד֩ יְהֹוָ֨ה צְבָא֚וֹת אֶת־עֶדְרוֹ֙ אֶת־בֵּ֣ית יְהוּדָ֔ה וְשָׂ֣ם אוֹתָ֔ם כְּס֥וּס הוֹד֖וֹ בַּמִּלְחָמָֽה:
My wrath is kindled against the shepherds: Against the kings of Greece.  
upon the goats: Against their princes, and so did Jonathan render it: My wrath was against the kings and upon the rulers I visit. The Greeks were likened to goats in (Dan. 8:21), “And the rough he-goat is the king of Greece.” Whoever wishes to explain the matter [otherwise] (not as referring to the kings of Greece) will say that הָעַתּוּדִים is an expression of princes, as in (Isa. 14:9), “It aroused the giants for you, all the chiefs of the earth.”  
as His majestic horse in battle: As the horse whose majesty is recognized in battle.  
4Out of them shall come the cornerstone; out of them, the stake; out of them, the bow of war. Out of them shall come every oppressor together.   דמִמֶּ֚נּוּ פִנָּה֙ מִמֶּ֣נּוּ יָתֵ֔ד מִמֶּ֖נּוּ קֶ֣שֶׁת מִלְחָמָ֑ה מִמֶּ֛נּוּ יֵצֵ֥א כָל־נוֹגֵ֖שׂ יַחְדָּֽו:
Out of them shall come the cornerstone: Out of them shall come their kings; out of them shall come their princes, and out of them shall come those who wage their wars.  
5And they shall be like mighty men, treading the mire of the streets in battle. And they shall wage war, for the Lord is with them. And they shall shame the riders of horses.   הוְהָי֨וּ כְגִבֹּרִ֜ים בּוֹסִ֨ים בְּטִ֚יט חוּצוֹת֙ בַּמִּלְחָמָ֔ה וְנִ֨לְחֲמ֔וּ כִּ֥י יְהֹוָ֖ה עִמָּ֑ם וְהֹבִ֖ישׁוּ רֹֽכְבֵ֥י סוּסִֽים:
And they shall be like mighty men, treading the mire of the streets in battle: This verse is inverted. It should be understood: And they shall be in battle, walking and treading people as mighty men tread the mire of the streets.  
treading: as in (Ps. 60:14), “And He shall tread down our enemies,” and (Jer. 12:10) “They have trampled My field.”  
and they shall shame the riders of horses: The house of Judah shall shame the riders of horses who come to wage war with them.  
6And I will strengthen the house of Judah, and the house of Joseph I will save. And I will cause them to settle, for I have bestowed mercy upon them. And they shall be as though I had not forsaken them, for I am the Lord their God, and I will answer them.   ווְגִבַּרְתִּ֣י | אֶת־בֵּ֣ית יְהוּדָ֗ה וְאֶת־בֵּ֚ית יוֹסֵף֙ אוֹשִׁ֔יעַ וְהֽוֹשְׁבוֹתִים֙ כִּ֣י רִֽחַמְתִּ֔ים וְהָי֖וּ כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֣ר לֹֽא־זְנַחְתִּ֑ים כִּ֗י אֲנִ֛י יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹֽהֵיהֶ֖ם וְאֶֽעֱנֵֽם:
And I will strengthen the house of Judah: in the war against the Greeks.  
and the house of Joseph I will save: in the place where they were exiled - in Halah and in Habor in the days of Sennacherib.  
And I will cause them to settle: Like וְהוֹשַּׁבְתִּים, an expression of settling.  
And they shall be as though I had not forsaken them: As though I had never forsaken them.  
7And Ephraim shall be like a mighty man, and their heart shall rejoice as if [with] wine. And their children shall see and rejoice; their heart shall be joyful with the Lord.   זוְהָי֚וּ כְגִבּוֹר֙ אֶפְרַ֔יִם וְשָׂמַ֥ח לִבָּ֖ם כְּמוֹ־יָ֑יִן וּבְנֵיהֶם֙ יִרְא֣וּ וְשָׂמֵ֔חוּ יָגֵ֥ל לִבָּ֖ם בַּֽיהֹוָֽה:
8I will whistle to them, and I will gather them, for I have redeemed them. And they shall multiply as they multiplied.   חאֶשְׁרְקָ֥ה לָהֶ֛ם וַֽאֲקַבְּצֵ֖ם כִּ֣י פְדִיתִ֑ים וְרָב֖וּ כְּמ֥וֹ רָֽבוּ:
I will whistle to them: in the manner of those who whistle as a sign and a signal for those straying on their way to him.  
and I will gather them: at the time of the end in the future.  
for I have redeemed them: When I will redeem them.  
And they shall multiply: in exile as they multiplied in Egypt.  
9And I will sow them among the peoples, and in the distant places they shall remember Me. And they shall live with their children and return.   טוְאֶזְרָעֵם֙ בָּ֣עַמִּ֔ים וּבַמֶּרְחַקִּ֖ים יִזְכְּר֑וּנִי וְחָי֥וּ אֶת־בְּנֵיהֶ֖ם וָשָֽׁבוּ:
And I will sow them: first among the peoples, as a person sows a seah to bring in many korim.  
And they shall live with their children: אֶת-בְנֵיהֶם  
10And I will return them from the land of Egypt, and from Assyria I will gather them. And to the land of Gilead and Lebanon I will bring them, and it shall not suffice for them.   יוַֽהֲשִֽׁבוֹתִים֙ מֵאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרַ֔יִם וּמֵֽאַשּׁ֖וּר אֲקַבְּצֵ֑ם וְאֶל־אֶ֨רֶץ גִּלְעָ֚ד וּלְבָנוֹן֙ אֲבִיאֵ֔ם וְלֹ֥א יִמָּצֵ֖א לָהֶֽם:
and the Lebanon: This is the Temple.  
and it shall not suffice for them: Heb. וְלֹא יִמָּצֵא לָהֶם  
11And trouble shall pass through the sea, and He shall strike the waves of the sea and dry all the depths of the river. And the pride of Assyria shall be brought down, and the rod of Egypt shall turn away.   יאוְעָבַ֨ר בַּיָּ֜ם צָרָ֗ה וְהִכָּ֚ה בַיָּם֙ גַּלִּ֔ים וְהֹבִ֕ישׁוּ כֹּ֖ל מְצוּל֣וֹת יְא֑וֹר וְהוּרַד֙ גְּא֣וֹן אַשּׁ֔וּר וְשֵׁ֥בֶט מִצְרַ֖יִם יָסֽוּר:
And trouble shall pass through the sea: And the trouble shall pass through Tyre, which is situated in the midst of the sea, it is the head of Edom.  
and He shall strike: The Holy One, blessed be He, Who is the One Who strikes.  
the waves of the sea: to sink Tyre.  
all the depths of the river: That is, Egypt.  
12And I will strengthen them by the Lord, and by His Name they shall walk, says the Lord.   יבוְגִבַּרְתִּים֙ בַּֽיהֹוָ֔ה וּבִשְׁמ֖וֹ יִתְהַלָּ֑כוּ נְאֻ֖ם יְהֹוָֽה: