Chapter 2

1Woe to those who plot iniquity and work evil in their beds; when the morning becomes light they perform it, for their hand has the power.   אה֧וֹי חֹֽשְׁבֵי־אָ֛וֶן וּפֹֽ֥עֲלֵי רָ֖ע עַל־מִשְׁכְּבוֹתָ֑ם בְּא֚וֹר הַבֹּ֙קֶר֙ יַֽעֲשׂ֔וּהָ כִּ֥י יֶשׁ־לְאֵ֖ל יָדָֽם:
and work evil on their bed: All night they decide in their hearts how they will perform evil in the morning.  
2And they covet fields, and they rob; and houses, and they take; and they oppress a man and his house, and a man and his heritage.   בוְחָֽמְד֚וּ שָׂדוֹת֙ וְגָזָ֔לוּ וּבָתִּ֖ים וְנָשָׂ֑אוּ וְעָֽשְׁקוּ֙ גֶּ֣בֶר וּבֵית֔וֹ וְאִ֖ישׁ וְנַֽחֲלָתֽוֹ:
and houses, and they take: This refers back to “and they covet.” They covet houses.  
and they take: Heb. וְנָשָׂאוּ, like וְלָקָחוּ, and they take.  
3Therefore, so said the Lord: Behold! I plot evil against this family, from which you shall not remove your necks, nor shall you walk erect, for it is a time of evil.   גלָכֵ֗ן כֹּה אָמַ֣ר יְהֹוָ֔ה הִֽנְנִ֥י חֹשֵׁ֛ב עַל־הַמִּשְׁפָּחָ֥ה הַזֹּ֖את רָעָ֑ה אֲ֠שֶׁר לֹֽא־תָמִ֨ישׁוּ מִשָּׁ֜ם צַוְּארֹֽתֵיכֶ֗ם וְלֹ֚א תֵֽלְכוּ֙ רוֹמָ֔ה כִּ֛י עֵ֥ת רָעָ֖ה הִֽיא:
and you shall not walk erect: You shall not walk with an upright stature.  
4On that day he shall take up a parable against you, and he shall lament, "A lamentation has come about"; and he shall say, "They have robbed us! He changes the portion of my people! How will He turn to me to return our fields, which he divides?"   דבַּיּ֨וֹם הַה֜וּא יִשָּׂ֧א עֲלֵיכֶ֣ם מָשָׁ֗ל וְנָהָ֨ה נְהִ֚י נִֽהְיָה֙ אָמַר֙ שָׁד֣וֹד נְשַׁדֻּ֔נוּ חֵ֥לֶק עַמִּ֖י יָמִ֑יר אֵיךְ יָמִ֣ישׁ לִ֔י לְשׁוֹבֵ֥ב שָׂדֵ֖ינוּ יְחַלֵּֽק:
and he shall lament, “A lamentation has come about…5”: Heb. נְה ִי נִהְיָה וְנָהָה. וְנָהָה is a future tense, like וְעָשָה, and he shall make, and וּפָנָה, and he shall turn. The lamenting one shall lament and say, “A lamentation has come about in the world. Now what is the lamentation that has come about?…”  
They have robbed us!: Heb. שָׁדוֹד נְשַׁדֻּנוּ. Our enemies have robbed us, The prophet uses the expression נְשַׁדֻּנוּ, in which there is a “nun” in the beginning, and does not use שַׁדוּנוּ, because נְשַׁדֻּנוּ serves in two voices, the passive voice and the active voice. Had the prophet written נְשַדֹנוּ, in the passive voice, the expression would refer to the robbed and not to the robbers. Had he written שַדוּנוּ, in the active voice, the expression would refer to the robbers and not to the robbed. This way, it refers to both: we were given into the hand of those who robbed us. In Old French, there is the expression somes degatert nous, we were ravaged. Another explanation: נְשַׁדֻּנוּ means we brought upon ourselves that they robbed us.  
He changes the portion of my people: The inheritance of the portion of my people has been exchanged to the enemy.  
How will He turn to me to return our fields, which he divides: How will He turn again to me, to return our fields to us, which this enemy divides for himself? How is it possible to return them to me anymore? All these are the words of the lamenting one who takes up the parable.  
How will He turn to me: Kome se destornera amois ? As in (Jud. 4:18) “Turn to me…. And he turned to her.”  
5Therefore, you shall not have anyone who casts a line by lot in the congregation of the Lord.   הלָכֵן֙ לֹֽא־יִֽהְיֶ֣ה לְךָ֔ מַשְׁלִ֥יךְ חֶ֖בֶל בְּגוֹרָ֑ל בִּקְהַ֖ל יְהֹוָֽה:
who casts a line: Divides a heritage. It is customary to divide a heritage with a measuring line.  
6"Preach not, those who preach; they shall not preach to these; [then] they shall not take shame."   ואַל־תַּטִּ֖יפוּ יַטִּיפ֑וּן לֹֽא־יַטִּ֣יפוּ לָאֵ֔לֶּה לֹ֥א יִסַּ֖ג כְּלִמּֽוֹת:
“Preach not, those who preach”: Do not prophesy to reprove them. To you, the prophets who constantly preach, I say this.  
they shall not take shame: Lest disgraces from them overtake them, as the matter is stated (Prov. 9:8): “Reprove not a scorner.” Every instance of טִיף is an expression of prophecy, as in (Amos 7:16) “And do not prophesy (תַטִיף) concerning the house of Isaac” and (Ezek. 21:2) “And prophesy (וְהַטֵף) to the south.”  
7Is that what is said by the house of Jacob? Has the Lord's patience grown short? Are these His deeds? Do my words not benefit the one who goes straight?   זהֶֽאָמ֣וּר בֵּֽית־יַֽעֲקֹ֗ב הֲקָצַר֙ ר֣וּחַ יְהֹוָ֔ה אִם־אֵ֖לֶּה מַֽעֲלָלָ֑יו הֲל֚וֹא דְבָרַ֨י יֵיטִ֔יבוּ עִ֖ם הַיָּשָׁ֥ר הֹלֵֽךְ:
Is that what is said by the house of Jacob?: Do (the people of) the house of Jacob say this when they hear the evil that my prophets prophesy for them?  
Has the Lord’s patience grown short?: Is He now unable to do good, or does He not (now) have the patience that He had in the early days to do good?  
Are these His deeds?: I.e., to do evil?  
Do not My words benefit the one who goes straight?: I am not impatient, neither are these My deeds, except to the wicked; but with the one who goes straight, I do good.  
8And the matter for which My people causes [Me] to rise as an enemy, because of the garment and the mantle that you strip from those who pass by confidently, who return from the war.   חוְאֶתְמ֗וּל עַמִּי֙ לְאוֹיֵ֣ב יְקוֹמֵ֔ם מִמּ֣וּל שַׂלְמָ֔ה אֶ֖דֶר תַּפְשִׁט֑וּן מֵעֹֽבְרִ֣ים בֶּ֔טַח שׁוּבֵ֖י מִלְחָמָֽה:
And the matter for which My people causes [Me] to rise as an enemy: Heb. וְאֶתְמוּל. The verse is connected to the one preceding it. I am good and do good, but the matter for which and because of which My people make me rise as an enemy to them…  
because of the garment, and the mantle that you strip: Because you rob the garment, and you strip the glorious raiment from all those who pass you by on the road.  
from those who pass by confidently, who return from war: Instead of passing by confidently, as they expected to, they became like men returning from war without clothing or food, for their enemies took everything they had.  
who return: Heb. שׁוּבִי, as in (Jer. 2:21) “A degenerate (סוּרֵי) wild vine” and (Zeph. 3:18) “Those taken away (נוּגֵי) from the appointed season.”  
9The wives of My people you drive away from the house of her delights, from her infants-you take away My glory forever.   טנְשֵׁ֚י עַמִּי֙ תְּגָ֣רְשׁ֔וּן מִבֵּ֖ית תַּֽעֲנֻגֶ֑יהָ מֵעַל֙ עֹֽלָלֶ֔יהָ תִּקְח֥וּ הֲדָרִ֖י לְעוֹלָֽם:
The wives of My people you drive away from the house of her delights: For you slay their husbands, and they sit as widows. Alternatively: since you take their husband’s money, and they (the husbands) sit and grieve and do not bring joy to their wives.  
10Arise and go, for this is not the tranquility; in order to contaminate it, it forms bands, and the band is clarified.   יק֣וּמוּ וּלְכ֔וּ כִּ֥י לֹא־זֹ֖את הַמְּנוּחָ֑ה בַּֽעֲב֥וּר טָֽמְאָ֛ה תְּחַבֵּ֖ל וְחֶ֥בֶל נִמְרָֽץ:
Arise and go, for this is not the tranquility: Arise and go into exile from the land, for it was not in this manner that I gave it to you for tranquility.  
in order to contaminate it, it forms bands, and the band is clarified: In order to contaminate it [the land], it [the people] forms a band of groups of wicked men.  
it forms bands: Heb. תְּחַבֵּל. This is an expression of companies, as in (I Sam. 10:5) “a band (חֶבֶל) of prophets”; (Ps. 119:61) “Bands of (חֶבְלֵי) wicked men.” And so did Jonathan render: And they band together upon it, an expression of a band.  
and the band is clarified: Heb. וְחֶבֶל נִמְרָץ. And at the time of their banding together, they already took counsel among themselves and explained for what purpose they were banding together.  
clarified: Heb. נִמְרָץ. A thing explained clearly, as in (Job 6:25) “How clear (נִמְרְצוּ) are right words” ; (ibid. 16:3) “What clarifies (יַמְרִיצְ) to you” ; (I Kings 2:8) “A clear (נִמְרֶצֶת) curse.”  
11If a man walking in wind and falsehood lies, "I will preach to you of wine and strong drink," he shall be a preacher for this people.   יאלוּ־אִ֞ישׁ הֹלֵ֥ךְ ר֙וּחַ֙ וָשֶׁ֣קֶר כִּזֵּ֔ב אַטִּ֣ף לְךָ֔ לַיַּ֖יִן וְלַשֵּׁכָ֑ר וְהָיָ֥ה מַטִּ֖יף הָעָ֥ם הַזֶּֽה:
If a man walking in wind: If they (the people) would find a man walking in wind, a false man prophesying to them that they become drunk with wine and strong drink, he would be an acceptable prophet to this people.  
12I will surely assemble, O Jacob, all of you; I will surely gather the remnant of Israel; together I will make them as sheep in a fold, as a flock within its stall shall they stir with people.   יבאָסֹ֨ף אֶֽאֱסֹ֜ף יַֽעֲקֹ֣ב כֻּלָּ֗ךְ קַבֵּ֚ץ אֲקַבֵּץ֙ שְׁאֵרִ֣ית יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל יַ֥חַד אֲשִׂימֶ֖נּוּ כְּצֹ֣אן בָּצְרָ֑ה כְּעֵ֙דֶר֙ בְּת֣וֹךְ הַדָּֽבְר֔וֹ תְּהִימֶ֖נָה מֵֽאָדָֽם:
I will surely assemble: Days will yet come when I will assemble you.  
as sheep in a fold: Like many sheep placed in the fortresses of the sheep folds.  
within its stall: Heb. הַדָּבְרוֹ. Jonathan renders: And as a flock within a stall, the place where they are led; and likewise (Isa. 5:17): “And lambs shall graze as their wont (כְּדָבְרָם).”  
shall stir with people: The cities shall be noisy because of the large number of people in their midst.  
13The breaker has gone up before them; they broke and passed through a gate and went out through it; and their king passed before them, and the Lord was at their head.   יגעָלָ֚ה הַפֹּרֵץ֙ לִפְנֵיהֶ֔ם פָּֽרְצוּ֙ וַיַּֽעֲבֹ֔רוּ שַׁ֖עַר וַיֵּ֣צְאוּ ב֑וֹ וַיַּֽעֲבֹ֚ר מַלְכָּם֙ לִפְנֵיהֶ֔ם וַֽיהֹוָ֖ה בְּרֹאשָֽׁם:
The breaker has gone up: Their savior, who breaks the fences of thorns and the hedges of briers, to straighten the road before them.