Chapter 1

1The words of Amos, who was among the herdsmen from Tekoa, who prophesied concerning Israel in the days of Uzziah king of Judah and in the days of Jeroboam son of Joash, king of Israel, two years before the earthquake.   א דִּבְרֵ֣י עָמ֔וֹס אֲשֶׁר־הָיָ֥ה בַנֹּֽקְדִ֖ים מִתְּק֑וֹעַ אֲשֶׁר֩ חָזָ֨ה עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֜ל בִּימֵ֣י | עֻזִּיָּ֣ה מֶֽלֶךְ־יְהוּדָ֗ה וּבִימֵ֞י יָֽרָבְעָ֚ם בֶּן־יוֹאָשׁ֙ מֶ֣לֶךְ יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל שְׁנָתַ֖יִם לִפְנֵ֥י הָרָֽעַשׁ:
who was among the herdsmen: Heb. בַנֹּקְדִים. Jonathan renders: who was an owner of livestock. Cf. (II Kings 3:4) “Now Mesha the king of Moab was an owner of livestock (נֹקֵד).”  
two years before the earthquake: Two years before Uzziah was plagued, the day Isaiah prophesied, as it is stated: (Isaiah 6:4) “And the doorposts quaked,” and it is stated: (Zechariah 14:5) “As you fled before the earthquake.”  
2And he said: The Lord shall roar from Zion, and He shall give forth His voice from Jerusalem, and the dwellings of the shepherds shall be cut off, and the choice of the fruitful land shall wither.   בוַיֹּאמַ֓ר | יְהֹוָה֙ מִצִּיּ֣וֹן יִשְׁאָ֔ג וּמִירֽוּשָׁלִַ֖ם יִתֵּ֣ן קוֹל֑וֹ וְאָֽבְלוּ֙ נְא֣וֹת הָֽרֹעִ֔ים וְיָבֵ֖שׁ רֹ֥אשׁ הַכַּרְמֶֽל:
shall roar from Zion: From the Holy of Holies the speech emanates.  
and the dwellings of the shepherds shall be cut off: Jonathan renders: And the dwellings of the kings shall become desolate, and the strength of their walled cities shall be destroyed.  
3So said the Lord: For three transgressions of Damascus, yea for four, I will not return them; Because they threshed the Gileadites with sledges of iron.   גכֹּה אָמַ֣ר יְהֹוָ֔ה עַל־שְׁלֹשָׁה֙ פִּשְׁעֵ֣י דַמֶּ֔שֶׂק וְעַל־אַרְבָּעָ֖ה לֹ֣א אֲשִׁיבֶ֑נּוּ עַל־דּוּשָׁ֛ם בַּֽחֲרֻצ֥וֹת הַבַּרְזֶ֖ל אֶת־הַגִּלְעָֽד:
For three transgressions of etc.: As it is stated (Job 33:29) “Lo, all these things does God work, twice, yea, thrice, with a man.” But He does not forgive more (according to Shem Ephraim). And here, it is as follows: I have already behaved toward them according to My standard, to forgive them for three transgressions, and if there are more, surely the smaller number is included in the larger amount.  
yea for four I will not return them: For the fourth transgression, I need no longer return him empty- handed from taking his recompense from Me, and surely since there are many transgressions in their hands; now I will visit upon them the retribution for threshing the inhabitants of Gilead, their neighbors.  
with sledges of iron: Jonathan renders: morigin of iron. Now that is a sort of file called ‘lime,’ which is made with numerous grooves, and with which they chastise people with tortures, and with them they cut the stubble of the grain to make straw.  
4And I will send fire into the house of Hazael, and it shall consume the palaces of Ben-Hadad.   דוְשִׁלַּ֥חְתִּי אֵ֖שׁ בְּבֵ֣ית חֲזָאֵ֑ל וְאָֽכְלָ֖ה אַרְמְנ֥וֹת בֶּן־הֲדָֽד:
Hazael etc. Ben Hadad: The kings of Aram, and the head of Aram is Damascus.  
5And I will break the bolt of Damascus, and I will cut off an inhabitant from Bikath- Aven, and one who holds the scepter from Beth-eden, and the people of Aram shall be exiled to Kir, says the Lord.   הוְשָֽׁבַרְתִּי֙ בְּרִ֣יחַ דַּמֶּ֔שֶׂק וְהִכְרַתִּ֚י יוֹשֵׁב֙ מִבִּקְעַת־אָ֔וֶן וְתוֹמֵ֥ךְ שֵׁ֖בֶט מִבֵּ֣ית עֶ֑דֶן וְגָל֧וּ עַם־אֲרָ֛ם קִ֖ירָה אָמַ֥ר יְהֹוָֽה:
from Bik’ath-Aven: That is a place in Aram.  
and one who holds the scepter: [Jonathan renders:] and one who exercises sovereignty. Cf. (Gen. 49:10) “The scepter shall not turn away from Judah,” since the ruler castigates the people with sticks.  
from Beth-Eden: A place name.  
to Kir: A place name, where Sennacherib exiled them during the time of Ahaz, as it is stated: “And he went up to Damascus and seized it, and exiled Aram to Kir.” [see II Kings 16:9, where the wording differs.] All the retribution that the prophets of Israel prophesied concerning the nations - the prophets who preceded Sennacherib, e.g. Isaiah and Amos, prophesied concerning the sword of Sennacherib, and Jeremiah and Ezekiel prophesied concerning the sword of Nebuchadnezzar.  
6So said the Lord: For three transgressions of Gaza, yea for four, I will not return them; Because they carried away captive a whole captivity, to deliver to Edom.   וכֹּה אָמַ֣ר יְהֹוָ֔ה עַל־שְׁלֹשָׁה֙ פִּשְׁעֵ֣י עַזָּ֔ה וְעַל־אַרְבָּעָ֖ה לֹ֣א אֲשִׁיבֶ֑נּוּ עַל־הַגְלוֹתָ֛ם גָּל֥וּת שְׁלֵמָ֖ה לְהַסְגִּ֥יר לֶֽאֱדֽוֹם:
Gaza: That was a city of the Philistines.  
a whole captivity: I.e, the captivity of Israel, that the captivity be complete, that no one should escape, for they would stand on the roads and seize those fleeing and deliver them. And so did the people of Tyre, and so to the four sides during the destruction of the Second Temple, as is delineated in the Aggadah of Ha’azinu (Sifre 322), Gaza from the south, Tyre from the north, Damascus from the east, the Arabs from the west, as it is stated: (Isaiah 21: 13) “The harsh prophecy concerning Arabia: In the forest in Arabia did you lodge, on the roads of your cousins.”  
7And I will send fire into the wall of Gaza, and it shall consume its palaces.   זוְשִׁלַּ֥חְתִּי אֵ֖שׁ בְּחוֹמַ֣ת עַזָּ֑ה וְאָֽכְלָ֖ה אַרְמְנֹתֶֽיהָ:
8And I will cut off an inhabitant from Ashdod and one who holds the scepter from Ashkelon, and I will return My hand upon Ekron, and the remnant of the Philistines shall be lost, says the Lord God.   חוְהִכְרַתִּ֚י יוֹשֵׁב֙ מֵֽאַשְׁדּ֔וֹד וְתוֹמֵ֥ךְ שֵׁ֖בֶט מֵֽאַשְׁקְל֑וֹן וַֽהֲשִׁיב֨וֹתִי יָדִ֜י עַל־עֶקְר֗וֹן וְאָֽבְדוּ֙ שְׁאֵרִ֣ית פְּלִשְׁתִּ֔ים אָמַ֖ר אֲדֹנָ֥י יֱהֹוִֽה:
Ashdod… Ashkelon… Ekron -They were the lords of the Philistines. and I will return My hand: I will smite them repeatedly.  
9So said the Lord: For three sins of Tyre, yea for four, I will not return them; Because they delivered a whole captivity to Edom and did not remember the brotherly covenant.   טכֹּה אָמַ֣ר יְהֹוָ֔ה עַל־שְׁלֹשָׁה֙ פִּשְׁעֵי־צֹ֔ר וְעַל־אַרְבָּעָ֖ה לֹ֣א אֲשִׁיבֶ֑נּוּ עַל־הַסְגִּירָ֞ם גָּל֚וּת שְׁלֵמָה֙ לֶֽאֱד֔וֹם וְלֹ֥א זָֽכְר֖וּ בְּרִ֥ית אַחִֽים:
and did not remember the brotherly covenant: which existed between Hiram and Solomon, as it is said: (I Kings 5:26) “And they both made a league together.” And they called each other brothers, as it is said: (ibid. 9:13) “And he said: ‘What are these cities that you have given me, my brother?’”  
10And I will send fire into the wall of Tyre, and it shall consume its palaces.   יוְשִׁלַּ֥חְתִּי אֵ֖שׁ בְּח֣וֹמַת צֹ֑ר וְאָֽכְלָ֖ה אַרְמְנוֹתֶֽיהָ:
11So said the Lord: For three sins of Edom, yea for four, I will not return them: For pursuing their brother with a sword, and they destroyed their mercy and grasped forever their anger and kept their fury forever.   יאכֹּה אָמַ֣ר יְהֹוָ֔ה עַל־שְׁלֹשָׁה֙ פִּשְׁעֵ֣י אֱד֔וֹם וְעַל־אַרְבָּעָ֖ה לֹ֣א אֲשִׁיבֶ֑נּוּ עַל־רָדְפ֨וֹ בַחֶ֚רֶב אָחִיו֙ וְשִׁחֵ֣ת רַֽחֲמָ֔יו וַיִּטְרֹ֚ף לָעַד֙ אַפּ֔וֹ וְעֶבְרָת֖וֹ שְׁמָ֥רָה נֶֽצַח:
for pursuing their brother with a sword: As it is said: (Num. 20:18) “Lest I go forth against you with the sword.” And he still clings to his anger, keeps his wrath, and has not retracted it.  
and grasped forever their anger: He clung to it and did not let it go.  
12And I will send fire into Teman, and it shall consume the palaces of Bozrah.   יבוְשִׁלַּ֥חְתִּי אֵ֖שׁ בְּתֵימָ֑ן וְאָֽכְלָ֖ה אַרְמְנ֥וֹת בָּצְרָֽה:
the palaces of Bozrah: It is between Moab and Edom, and it belonged to the land of Moab, but it was attracted to Edom. And it set up a king for them when the first king died, and it is said: (Gen. 36:33) “Jobab the son of Zerah from Bozrah.” [from Gen. Rabbah 83:3]  
13So said the Lord: For three transgressions of the children of Ammon, yea for four, I will not return them: Because they ripped up the pregnant women of Gilead, in order to enlarge their border.   יגכֹּה אָמַ֣ר יְהֹוָ֔ה עַל־שְׁלֹשָׁה֙ פִּשְׁעֵ֣י בְנֵֽי־עַמּ֔וֹן וְעַל־אַרְבָּעָ֖ה לֹ֣א אֲשִׁיבֶ֑נּוּ עַל־בִּקְעָם֙ הָר֣וֹת הַגִּלְעָ֔ד לְמַ֖עַן הַרְחִ֥יב אֶת־גְּבוּלָֽם:
they ripped up the pregnant woman of Gilead: They destroyed it and also ripped up their pregnant women so that no heir would remain who would contest the inheritance. And so does Scripture state: (Jer. 49: 1) “Concerning the children of Ammon. So said the Lord: Has Israel no sons? Has he no heir? Why has Malcam taken possession of Gad?”  
14And I will kindle a fire in the wall of Rabbah, and it shall consume its palaces, with a shout on the day of battle, with a tempest on the day of the whirlwind.   ידוְהִצַּ֚תִּי אֵשׁ֙ בְּחוֹמַ֣ת רַבָּ֔ה וְאָֽכְלָ֖ה אַרְמְנוֹתֶ֑יה בִּתְרוּעָה֙ בְּי֣וֹם מִלְחָמָ֔ה בְּסַ֖עַר בְּי֥וֹם סוּפָֽה:
15And their king shall go into exile, he and his princes together, said the Lord.   טווְהָלַ֥ךְ מַלְכָּ֖ם בַּגּוֹלָ֑ה ה֧וּא וְשָׂרָ֛יו יַחְדָּ֖ו אָמַ֥ר יְהֹוָֽה: