Chapter 38

1Then the word of the Lord came to me, saying:   אוַיְהִ֥י דְבַר־יְהֹוָ֖ה אֵלַ֥י לֵאמֹֽר:
2"Son of man, set your face toward Gog, [toward] the land of Magog, the prince, the head of Meshech and Tubal, and prophesy concerning him.   בבֶּן־אָדָ֗ם שִׂ֚ים פָּנֶ֙יךָ֙ אֶל־גּוֹג֙ אֶ֣רֶץ הַמָּג֔וֹג נְשִׂ֕יא רֹ֖אשׁ מֶ֣שֶׁךְ וְתֻבָ֑ל וְהִנָּבֵ֖א עָלָֽיו:
toward Gog: So is the king’s name.  
Magog: The name of the nation, as Scripture states (Gen. 10:2): “Gomer and Magog.”  
3And you shall say; So said the Lord God: Behold, I am against you, Gog, the prince, the head of Meshech and Tubal.   גוְאָ֣מַרְתָּ֔ כֹּ֥ה אָמַ֖ר אֲדֹנָ֣י יֱהֹוִ֑ה הִֽנְנִ֚י אֵלֶ֙יךָ֙ גּ֔וֹג נְשִׂ֕יא רֹ֖אשׁ מֶ֥שֶׁךְ וְתֻבָֽל:
4And I shall unbridle you, and I shall put hooks into your jaws and bring you forth and all your army, horses and riders, all of them clothed in finery, a great assembly, with encompassing shield and buckler, all of them grasping swords.   דוְשׁ֣וֹבַבְתִּ֔יךָ וְנָֽתַתִּ֥י חַחִ֖ים בִּלְחָיֶ֑יךָ וְהֽוֹצֵאתִי֩ אֽוֹתְךָ֙ וְאֶת־כָּל־חֵילֶ֜ךָ סוּסִ֣ים וּפָֽרָשִׁ֗ים לְבֻשֵׁ֚י מִכְלוֹל֙ כֻּלָּ֔ם קָהָ֥ל רָב֙ צִנָּ֣ה וּמָגֵ֔ן תֹּֽפְשֵׂ֥י חֲרָב֖וֹת כֻּלָּֽם:
And I shall unbridle you: [Heb. וְשּׁוֹבַבְתִּי.] I shall make you שׁוֹבָב a unbridled, backsliding, envoyzer in Old French, to unbridle. Whoever follows the dictates of his heart is called שּׁוֹבַב, as (Isa. 57:17): “for he went rebelliously (שּׁוֹבֵב) in the way of his heart.”  
and I shall put hooks into your jaws: It is customary to lead out a beast with the hooks in its jaws because it does not want to go [voluntarily]. I, too, will put thoughts into your heart and an urge that will draw you from your land to come upon Israel.  
5Persia, Cush, and Put are with them; all of them with buckler and helmet.   הפָּרַ֛ס כּ֥וּשׁ וּפ֖וּט אִתָּ֑ם כֻּלָּ֖ם מָגֵ֥ן וְכוֹבָֽע:
6Gomer and all its wings, the house of Togarmah, the utmost parts of the north and all its wings, many peoples with you.   וגֹּמֶר וְכָל־אֲגַפֶּ֔יהָ בֵּית תּֽוֹגַרְמָ֔ה יַרְכְּתֵ֥י צָפ֖וֹן וְאֶת־כָּל־אֲגַפָּ֑יו עַמִּ֥ים רַבִּ֖ים אִתָּֽךְ:
and all its wings: And all those around it.  
7Be prepared and make ready for yourself, you and all your assembly who are gathered about you, and you will be to them for a guardian.   זהִכֹּן֙ וְהָכֵ֣ן לְךָ֔ אַתָּ֕ה וְכָל־קְהָלֶ֖ךָ הַנִּקְהָלִ֣ים עָלֶ֑יךָ וְהָיִ֥יתָ לָהֶ֖ם לְמִשְׁמָֽר:
Be prepared and make ready for yourself: Prepare yourself, and make ready for yourself an army of others.  
be prepared: [as translated,] be prepared.  
and you will be to them for a guardian: It is the custom of kings to pay attention, concerning their armies, to how they will march forth, and to appoint guards so that a destroyer should not come upon his army at night.  
8From many days you will be remembered; at the end of the years you will come to a land [whose inhabitants] returned from the sword, gathered from many peoples, upon the mountains of Israel, which had been continually laid waste, but it was liberated from the nations, and they all dwelt securely.   חמִיָּמִ֣ים רַבִּים֘ תִּפָּקֵד֒ בְּאַֽחֲרִ֨ית הַשָּׁנִ֜ים תָּב֣וֹא | אֶל־אֶ֣רֶץ | מְשׁוֹבֶ֣בֶת מֵחֶ֗רֶב מְקֻבֶּ֙צֶת֙ מֵעַמִּ֣ים רַבִּ֔ים עַל הָרֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל אֲשֶׁר־הָי֥וּ לְחָרְבָּ֖ה תָּמִ֑יד וְהִיא֙ מֵֽעַמִּ֣ים הוּצָ֔אָה וְיָֽשְׁב֥וּ לָבֶ֖טַח כֻּלָּֽם:
From many days past you will be remembered: From the many days past that you sinned against Me, you will now be remembered before Me, for [Me] to remember your iniquities and to pay you your recompense. And I shall entice you at the end of years into coming to the land of Israel, “returned from the sword” whose inhabitants returned from the exile wherein they had been exiled by the enemy’s sword.  
which had been continually laid waste: these many years, and [only] shortly before your coming upon them, they returned.  
but it was liberated from the nations: But you should have taken into consideration that it liberated from the nations, and He Who liberated it from the nations will not leave it in your hands.  
9And you will ascend; like mist you will come; like a cloud to cover the earth you will be; you and all your wings and many peoples with you.   טוְעָלִ֙יתָ֙ כַּשּׁוֹאָ֣ה תָב֔וֹא כֶּֽעָנָ֛ן לְכַסּ֥וֹת הָאָ֖רֶץ תִּֽהְיֶ֑ה אַתָּה֙ וְכָל־אֲגַפֶּ֔יךָ וְעַמִּ֥ים רַבִּ֖ים אוֹתָֽךְ:
like mist: [Heb. כַּשּׁוֹאָה,] like darkness that covers the earth, שּׁוֹאָה is broine, bruine in Old French, fog, mist.  
10So said the Lord God: It will come to pass on that day that words will enter your heart and you will think a thought of evil.   יכֹּ֥ה אָמַ֖ר אֲדֹנָ֣י יֱהֹוִ֑ה וְהָיָ֣ה | בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֗וּא יַֽעֲל֚וּ דְבָרִים֙ עַל־לְבָבֶ֔ךָ וְחָֽשַׁבְתָּ֖ מַֽחֲשֶׁ֥בֶת רָעָֽה:
words will enter: Thoughts will arise.  
a thought of evil: to wage war against Me.  
11And you will say, "I shall ascend upon a land of open cities; I shall come upon the tranquil, who dwell securely; all of them living without a wall, and they have no bars or doors.   יאוְאָמַרְתָּ֗ אֶֽעֱלֶה֙ עַל־אֶ֣רֶץ פְּרָז֔וֹת אָבוֹא֙ הַשֹּׁ֣קְטִ֔ים יֹֽשְׁבֵ֖י לָבֶ֑טַח כֻּלָּ֗ם יֹֽשְׁבִים֙ בְּאֵ֣ין חוֹמָ֔ה וּבְרִ֥יחַ וּדְלָתַ֖יִם אֵ֥ין לָהֶֽם:
upon a land of open cities: [Heb. פְּרָזוֹת,] dwellers in villages without a wall, who trust in their might and are not [so] afraid as to gather into fortified cities. פְּרָזוֹת is like (Deut. 3:5): “in addition to the very many open cities (עָרֵי הַפְרָזִי),” without a wall.  
I shall come: to the tranquil ones and see what they trust in.  
12To take spoil and to plunder loot, to return your hand upon the resettled ruins and to a people gathered from nations, acquiring livestock and possessions, dwelling on the navel of the earth.   יבלִשְׁלֹ֥ל שָׁלָ֖ל וְלָבֹ֣ז בַּ֑ז לְהָשִׁ֨יב יָדְךָ֜ עַל־חֳרָב֣וֹת נֽוֹשָׁב֗וֹת וְאֶל־עַם֙ מְאֻסָּ֣ף מִגּוֹיִ֔ם עֹשֶׂה֙ מִקְנֶ֣ה וְקִנְיָ֔ן יֹֽשְׁבֵ֖י עַל־טַבּ֥וּר הָאָֽרֶץ:
to return your hand upon the resettled ruins: To destroy a second time the cities that were in ruins until now, and now have been settled.  
and to a people gathered: from peoples, who now acquire livestock and possessions.  
on the navel of the earth: In the height and the strength of the earth, like the navel, which is in the center of a person and slopes downward from all its sides.  
13Sheba and Dedan and merchants of Tarshish and all its magnates will say to you, "Are you coming to take spoil? Have you assembled your assembly to plunder loot, to carry off silver and gold, to take livestock and possessions, to take much spoil?"   יגשְׁבָ֡א וּ֠דְדָן וְסֹֽחֲרֵ֨י תַרְשִׁ֚ישׁ וְכָל־כְּפִירֶ֙יהָ֙ יֹֽאמְר֣וּ לְךָ֔ הֲלִשְׁלֹ֚ל שָׁלָל֙ אַתָּ֣ה בָ֔א הֲלָבֹ֥ז בַּ֖ז הִקְהַ֣לְתָּ קְהָלֶ֑ךָ לָשֵׂ֣את | כֶּ֣סֶף וְזָהָ֗ב לָקַ֙חַת֙ מִקְנֶ֣ה וְקִנְיָ֔ן לִשְׁלֹ֖ל שָׁלָ֥ל גָּדֽוֹל:
and all its magnates: [Heb. כְּפִירֶיהָ,] shrewd merchants therein, who are accustomed to roam, like young lions (כְּפִירִים) , in all the countries and who know where the place of riches is.  
Are you coming to take spoil: i.e., who told you the place of the riches? Did you know [for a fact] that you are going to a land full of spoil and loot, and that there you will really find powerful wealth?  
14Therefore, prophesy, O son of man, and say to Gog, So said the Lord God: Surely on that day, when My people dwells securely, you will know.   ידלָכֵן֙ הִנָּבֵ֣א בֶן־אָדָ֔ם וְאָֽמַרְתָּ֣ לְג֔וֹג כֹּ֥ה אָמַ֖ר אֲדֹנָ֣י יֱהֹוִ֑ה הֲל֣וֹא | בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֗וּא בְּשֶׁ֨בֶת עַמִּ֧י יִשְׂרָאֵ֛ל לָבֶ֖טַח תֵּדָֽע:
you will know: Jonathan renders: you will know the retribution of My might, i.e., you will know and recognize Who is their might and their stronghold.  
15And you will come from your place, from the utmost north, you and many peoples with you, all of them riding horses; a great assembly and a mighty army.   טווּבָ֚אתָ מִמְּקֽוֹמְךָ֙ מִיַּרְכְּתֵ֣י צָפ֔וֹן אַתָּ֕ה וְעַמִּ֥ים רַבִּ֖ים אִתָּ֑ךְ רֹֽכְבֵ֚י סוּסִים֙ כֻּלָּ֔ם קָהָ֥ל גָּד֖וֹל וְחַ֥יִל רָֽב:
16And you will ascend upon My people Israel like a cloud to cover the earth; at the end of days it will be, and I shall bring you upon My land in order that the nations recognize Me when I am sanctified through you before their eyes, O Gog.   טזוְעָלִ֙יתָ֙ עַל־עַמִּ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל כֶּֽעָנָ֖ן לְכַסּ֣וֹת הָאָ֑רֶץ בְּאַֽחֲרִ֨ית הַיָּמִ֜ים תִּֽהְיֶ֗ה וַֽהֲבִֽאוֹתִ֙יךָ֙ עַל־אַרְצִ֔י לְמַעַן֩ דַּ֨עַת הַגּוֹיִ֜ם אֹתִ֗י בְּהִקָּֽדְשִׁ֥י בְךָ֛ לְעֵינֵיהֶ֖ם גּֽוֹג:
17So said the Lord God: Are you he about whom I spoke in ancient days through My servants, the prophets of Israel who prophesied in those days many years ago, to bring you upon them.   יזכֹּֽה־אָמַ֞ר אֲדֹנָ֣י יֱהֹוִ֗ה הַֽאַתָּה־ה֨וּא אֲשֶׁר־דִּבַּ֜רְתִּי בְּיָמִ֣ים קַדְמוֹנִ֗ים בְּיַ֥ד עֲבָדַי֙ נְבִיאֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל הַֽנִּבְּאִ֛ים בַּיָּמִ֥ים הָהֵ֖ם שָׁנִ֑ים לְהָבִ֥יא אֹֽתְךָ֖ עֲלֵיהֶֽם:
Are you he: In those days, the Holy One, blessed be He, will say, “Are you the one about whom I spoke in ancient days through My servants, the prophets of Israel, e.g. Ezekiel and Zechariah?” For he [Zechariah] too prophesied about the wars of Gog and Magog (Zech. 14:2): “And I will gather all the nations, etc.” Our Sages said (Sanh. 17a): Eldad and Medad they [also] prophesied about it. That is the שָּׁנִים stated here. Do not read שָּׁנִים, years, but שְּׁנַיִם, two. Two prophets prophesied one prophecy at one time (though not in the same style of expression).  
18And it will come to pass on that day, when Gog comes against the land of Israel, declares the Lord God, that My blazing indignation will flame in My nostrils.   יחוְהָיָ֣ה | בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֗וּא בְּי֨וֹם בּ֥וֹא גוֹג֙ עַל־אַדְמַ֣ת יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל נְאֻ֖ם אֲדֹנָ֣י יֱהֹוִ֑ה תַּֽעֲלֶ֥ה חֲמָתִ֖י בְּאַפִּֽי:
19For in My jealousy and in the fire of My wrath I have spoken; Surely there shall be a great noise on that day in the land of Israel.   יטוּבְקִנְאָתִ֥י בְאֵֽשׁ־עֶבְרָתִ֖י דִּבַּ֑רְתִּי אִם־לֹ֣א | בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֗וּא יִֽהְיֶה֙ רַ֣עַשׁ גָּד֔וֹל עַ֖ל אַדְמַ֥ת יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
a great noise: [Heb. רַעַשּׁ,] through noise and thunder, as he states.  
20And at My presence, the fishes of the sea and the birds of the heaven and the beasts of the field and all the creeping things that creep upon the earth and all the men who are upon the surface of the earth shall quake, and all the mountains shall be thrown down, and the cliffs shall fall to the ground.   כוְרָֽעֲשׁ֣וּ מִפָּנַ֡י דְּגֵ֣י הַיָּם֩ וְע֨וֹף הַשָּׁמַ֜יִם וְחַיַּ֣ת הַשָּׂדֶ֗ה וְכָל־הָרֶ֙מֶשׂ֙ הָֽרֹמֵ֣שׂ עַל־הָֽאֲדָמָ֔ה וְכֹל֙ הָ֣אָדָ֔ם אֲשֶׁ֖ר עַל־פְּנֵ֣י הָֽאֲדָמָ֑ה וְנֶֽהֱרְס֣וּ הֶֽהָרִ֗ים וְנָֽפְלוּ֙ הַמַּדְרֵג֔וֹת וְכָל־חוֹמָ֖ה לָאָ֥רֶץ תִּפּֽוֹל:
and the cliffs shall fall: [Heb. הַמַּדְרִגוֹת.] I heard that they are perpendicular hanging rocks, which appear to be falling, but I say that they are mounds of the towers, for they dig around and cast up the earth in the center to raise the mound, and it is made into steps, eschelons, eschillons in Old French, steps, in order that the earth remain, and after it is pressed down well, they remove the forms that hold up the step.  
21And I will call the sword against him upon all My mountains, says the Lord God: every man's sword shall be against his brother.   כאוְקָרָ֨אתִי עָלָ֚יו לְכָל־הָרַי֙ חֶ֔רֶב נְאֻ֖ם אֲדֹנָ֣י יֱהֹוִ֑ה חֶ֥רֶב אִ֖ישׁ בְּאָחִ֥יו תִּֽהְיֶֽה:
And I will call the sword against him upon all My mountains: for the sword to come upon them, against him. “And I will call” means, I will prepare. And what is the sword that I will call against him? Their own sword: “every man’s sword shall be against his brother.”  
22And I will judge against him with pestilence and with blood, and rain bringing floods, and great hailstones, fire, and brimstone will I rain down upon him and upon his hordes and upon the many peoples that are with him.   כבוְנִשְׁפַּטְתִּ֥י אִתּ֖וֹ בְּדֶ֣בֶר וּבְדָ֑ם וְגֶ֣שֶׁם שׁוֹטֵף֩ וְאַבְנֵ֨י אֶלְגָּבִ֜ישׁ אֵ֣שׁ וְגָפְרִ֗ית אַמְטִ֚יר עָלָיו֙ וְעַל־אֲגַפָּ֔יו וְעַל־עַמִּ֥ים רַבִּ֖ים אֲשֶׁ֥ר אִתּֽוֹ:
and great hailstones: Hailstones that glisten like precious stones named גָּבִישּׁ, crystal, as the matter is stated (Job 28:18): “Coral and crystal (וְגָּבִישּׁ).” Our Sages said (Ber. 54b): עַל גַב אִישּׁ : Hailstones that started to fall on Egypt, and stood in the air over the man (עַל גַב אִישּׁ), Moses, who prayed that they not fall, as the matter that is stated (Exod. 9:33), לֹא נִתַּ אַרְצָה“[it] did not reach the ground.”  
23And I will reveal Myself in My greatness and in My holiness and will be recognized in the eyes of many nations, and they will know that I am the Lord.   כגוְהִתְגַּדִּלְתִּי֙ וְהִתְקַדִּשְׁתִּ֔י וְנ֣וֹדַעְתִּ֔י לְעֵינֵ֖י גּוֹיִ֣ם רַבִּ֑ים וְיָֽדְע֖וּ כִּֽי־אֲנִ֥י יְהֹוָֽה: