Chapter 32

1Now it came to pass in the twelfth year, in the twelfth month, on the first of the month, that the word of the Lord came to me, saying:   אוַֽיְהִי֙ בִּשְׁתֵּ֣י עֶשְׂרֵ֣ה שָׁנָ֔ה בִּשְׁנֵֽי־עָשָׂ֥ר חֹ֖דֶשׁ בְּאֶחָ֣ד לַחֹ֑דֶשׁ הָיָ֥ה דְבַר־יְהֹוָ֖ה אֵלַ֥י לֵאמֹֽר:
2"Son of man, lift up a lamentation over Pharaoh the king of Egypt, and you shall say to him: You resembled a young lion among the nations but you are like a crocodile in the seas, and you went out with your rivers, and you sullied the water with your feet, and you trod their rivers.   בבֶּן־אָדָ֗ם שָׂ֚א קִינָה֙ עַל־פַּרְעֹ֣ה מֶֽלֶךְ־מִצְרַ֔יִם וְאָֽמַרְתָּ֣ אֵלָ֔יו כְּפִ֥יר גּוֹיִ֖ם נִדְמֵ֑יתָ וְאַתָּה֙ כַּתַּנִּ֣ים בַּיַּמִּ֔ים וַתָּ֣גַח בְּנַֽהֲרוֹתֶ֗יךָ וַתִּדְלַח־מַ֙יִם֙ בְּרַגְלֶ֔יךָ וַתִּרְפֹּ֖ס נַֽהֲרֹתָֽם:
You resembled a young lion among the nations, but you are like a crocodile in the seas: You should have lain in the midst of your rivers, as is the custom of the fish, and not gone out to the dry land; but you were haughty in your heart, and you compared yourself to a young lion, which dominates the dry land and goes forth to tear prey.  
and you went out with your rivers: [Heb. וַתָּגַח,] and you went out with your rivers, the same meaning as in (Ps. 22: 10): “You drew me (גֹחִי) from the womb” ; (Job 40:23), “he will draw (יָגִיחַ) the Jordan into his mouth” ; Jud. 20:33), “And the liers in wait of Israel drew forth (מֵגִיחַ).” [This is] an expression for something flowing and going out of a hidden place.  
and you sullied: [Heb. וַתִּדְלַח,] an expression of making something murky.  
with your feet: You had no feet, but I made for you feet like the beasts of the earth, to cross the waters of the lands and to tread their rivers. The symbolism is like Targum Jonathan: and you waged war with your camps and you caused the peoples to quake with your supporters, and you destroyed their countries.  
3So said the Lord God: I shall spread My net over you in the congregation of many peoples, and they will draw you up with My net.   גכֹּ֚ה אָמַר֙ אֲדֹנָ֣י יֱהֹוִ֔ה וּפָֽרַשְׂתִּ֚י עָלֶ֙יךָ֙ אֶת־רִשְׁתִּ֔י בִּקְהַ֖ל עַמִּ֣ים רַבִּ֑ים וְהֶֽעֱל֖וּךָ בְּחֶרְמִֽי:
with My net: [Heb. בְּחֶרְמִי,] a word for a net, and there are many in Scriptures, [e.g.,] (Hab. 1:15): “he catches them in his net (בְּחֶרְמוֹ) ” ; (Ecc. 7: 26), “snares and nets (וַחֲרָמִים).”  
4And I shall scatter you on the earth; upon the face of the field I shall cast you, and I shall cause all the fowl of the heavens to rest upon you, and I shall sate the beasts of all the earth with you.   דוּנְטַשְׁתִּ֣יךָ בָאָ֔רֶץ עַל־פְּנֵ֥י הַשָּׂדֶ֖ה אֲטִילֶ֑ךָ וְהִשְׁכַּנְתִּ֚י עָלֶ֙יךָ֙ כָּל־ע֣וֹף הַשָּׁמַ֔יִם וְהִשְׂבַּעְתִּ֥י מִמְּךָ֖ חַיַּ֥ת כָּל־הָאָֽרֶץ:
5And I shall lay your flesh upon the mountains, and I shall fill the valleys with what is cast off from you.   הוְנָֽתַתִּ֥י אֶת־בְּשָֽׂרְךָ֖ עַל־הֶֽהָרִ֑ים וּמִלֵּאתִ֥י הַגֵּֽאָי֖וֹת רָֽמוּתֶֽךָ:
and I shall fill the valleys with what is cast off from you: [Heb. רָמוּתֶ] your casting, like (Exod. 15:1): “He cast (רָמָה) into the sea.” Others say that רָמוּתֶ is meant as a form of the word for worm (רִמָה) , like (ibid. 16:20): “and it became alive with worms (וַיָרֻם).”  
6And I shall water with your blood the land where you float, even to the mountains, and the streams will fill up from you.   ווְהִשְׁקֵיתִ֨י אֶ֧רֶץ צָפָֽתְךָ֛ מִדָּֽמְךָ֖ אֶל־הֶֽהָרִ֑ים וַֽאֲפִקִ֖ים יִמָּֽלְא֥וּן מִמֶּֽךָּ:
And I shall water… the land where you float: [Heb. צָפָתְ,] the land where you float on the surface of the water of your rivers-like (Lam. 3:54): “Water floated (צָפוּ) over my head” ; (II Kings 6:6): “and the axe blade floated (וַיָצֶף)” - that land I will water with your blood.  
even to the mountains: the highest [mountains] in it. צָפָתְ is ton flottement in French, your floating, swimming.  
and the streams: [Heb. וַאֲפִיקִים,] riveyes in Old French, gullies, gulches; streams.  
7And with your smoke I will cover the heavens, and I will darken their stars; I will cover the sun with a cloud, and the moon will not shine its light.   זוְכִסֵּיתִ֚י בְכַבּֽוֹתְךָ֙ שָׁמַ֔יִם וְהִקְדַּרְתִּ֖י אֶת־כֹּֽכְבֵיהֶ֑ם שֶׁמֶשׁ בֶּֽעָנָ֣ן אֲכַסֶּ֔נּוּ וְיָרֵ֖חַ לֹֽא־יָאִ֥יר אוֹרֽוֹ:
And with your smoke I will cover the heavens: [Heb. בְּכַבּוֹתְ, lit. with you extinguishing.] When your conflagration will be extinguished, the smoke will rise and cover the sky and darken the luminaries; i.e., all who hear the news of what happened to you will mourn and be astonished, because everyone will worry about himself, saying, “The destroyer will stand up over us as well.”  
8All the bright lights in the heavens-I will darken them because of you, and I will cast darkness upon your land, says the Lord God.   חכָּל־מְא֚וֹרֵי אוֹר֙ בַּשָּׁמַ֔יִם אַקְדִּירֵ֖ם עָלֶ֑יךָ וְנָתַ֚תִּי חֹ֙שֶׁךְ֙ עַל־אַרְצְךָ֔ נְאֻ֖ם אֲדֹנָ֥י יֱהֹוִֽה:
All the bright lights in the heavens: the heavenly princes, your intercessors.  
9And I will vex the heart of many peoples, when I bring your ruin among the nations upon lands that you did not know.   טוְהִ֨כְעַסְתִּ֔י לֵ֖ב עַמִּ֣ים רַבִּ֑ים בַּֽהֲבִיאִ֚י שִׁבְרְךָ֙ בַּגּוֹיִ֔ם עַל־אֲרָצ֖וֹת אֲשֶׁ֥ר לֹֽא־יְדַעְתָּֽם:
And I will vex the heart: i.e., their heart will tremble and quake.  
when I bring your ruin: when I bring the ruin of your battles among the peoples.  
10And I will cause many peoples to be appalled by you, and their kings will storm over you when I cause My sword to fly before their faces, and they will quake at their ruin, everyone for himself on the day of your downfall.   יוַֽהֲשִׁמּוֹתִ֨י עָלֶ֜יךָ עַמִּ֣ים רַבִּ֗ים וּמַלְכֵיהֶם֙ יִשְׂעֲר֚וּ עָלֶ֙יךָ֙ שַׂ֔עַר בְּעֽוֹפְפִ֥י חַרְבִּ֖י עַל־פְּנֵיהֶ֑ם וְחָֽרְד֚וּ לִרְגָעִים֙ אִ֣ישׁ לְנַפְשׁ֔וֹ בְּי֖וֹם מַפַּלְתֶּֽךָ:
And I will cause… to be appalled: [Heb. וַהֲשִּׁוֹתִי,] an expression of bewilderment.  
when I cause My sword to fly before their faces: [Heb. בְּעוֹפְפִי,] an expression of a flying bird, when I send upon you the army of My emissaries through their land.  
and they will quake at their ruin: [Heb. לִרְגָעִים,] to ruins, lest ruin come upon them as well. Another explanation: an expression of an actual moment (רֶגַע). In this sense, Menachem (p. 162) connects it.  
everyone for himself: each one concerning himself, soi-meme in French, for himself.  
11For so said the Lord God: The sword of the king of Babylon will come upon you.   יאכִּ֛י כֹּ֥ה אָמַ֖ר אֲדֹנָ֣י יֱהֹוִ֑ה חֶ֥רֶב מֶֽלֶךְ־בָּבֶ֖ל תְּבוֹאֶֽךָ:
12With the swords of the mighty I shall cause your multitude to fall, all of them the strong of the nations, and they will plunder the pride of Egypt, and all its multitude will be destroyed.   יבבְּחַרְב֚וֹת גִּבּוֹרִים֙ אַפִּ֣יל הֲמוֹנֶ֔ךָ עָֽרִיצֵ֥י גוֹיִ֖ם כֻּלָּ֑ם וְשָֽׁדְדוּ֙ אֶת־גְּא֣וֹן מִצְרַ֔יִם וְנִשְׁמַ֖ד כָּל־הֲמוֹנָֽהּ:
13And I shall obliterate all its cattle from beside abundant waters, and the foot of man will no longer sully them, neither will the hoofs of cattle sully them.   יגוְהַֽאֲבַדְתִּי֙ אֶת־כָּל־בְּהֶמְתָּ֔הּ מֵעַ֖ל מַ֣יִם רַבִּ֑ים וְלֹ֨א תִדְלָחֵ֚ם רֶֽגֶל־אָדָם֙ ע֔וֹד וּפַרְס֥וֹת בְּהֵמָ֖ה לֹ֥א תִדְלָחֵֽם:
from beside… waters: of other countries that you used to sully.  
14Then I shall sink their waters, and their rivers I shall cause to flow like oil, says the Lord God.   ידאָז אַשְׁקִ֣יעַ מֵֽימֵיהֶ֔ם וְנַֽהֲרוֹתָ֖ם כַּשֶּׁ֣מֶן אוֹלִ֑יךְ נְאֻ֖ם אֲדֹנָ֥י יֱהֹוִֽה:
I shall sink their waters: The foot of cattle will not make it murky, and the mud will sink, so that the water will be clear and clean like refined oil.  
15When I make the land of Egypt, a land that is full, desolate and waste; when I smite all those who dwell in it, they will know that I am the Lord.   טובְּתִתִּי֩ אֶת־אֶ֨רֶץ מִצְרַ֜יִם שְׁמָמָ֣ה וּנְשַׁמָּ֗ה אֶרֶץ מִמְּלֹאָ֔הּ בְּהַכּוֹתִ֖י אֶת־כָּל־י֣וֹשְׁבֵי בָ֑הּ וְיָֽדְע֖וּ כִּֽי־אֲנִ֥י יְהֹוָֽה:
a land that is full: [Heb. אֶרֶץמִמְלוֹאָה, a land that is now full (מִמְוּלָאָה) of all goodness.  
16It is a lamentation, and lament it; the daughters of the nations will lament it; over Egypt and over all its multitude they will lament it," says the Lord God.   טזקִינָ֥ה הִיא֙ וְק֣וֹנְנ֔וּהָ בְּנ֥וֹת הַגּוֹיִ֖ם תְּקוֹנֵ֣נָּה אוֹתָ֑הּ עַל־מִצְרַ֚יִם וְעַל־כָּל־הֲמוֹנָהּ֙ תְּקוֹנֵ֣נָּה אוֹתָ֔הּ נְאֻ֖ם אֲדֹנָ֥י יֱהֹוִֽה:
17Now it came to pass in the twelfth year, on the fifteenth [day] of the month, that the word of the Lord came to me, saying:   יזוַֽיְהִי֙ בִּשְׁתֵּ֣י עֶשְׂרֵ֣ה שָׁנָ֔ה בַּֽחֲמִשָּׁ֥ה עָשָׂ֖ר לַחֹ֑דֶשׁ הָיָ֥ה דְבַר־יְהֹוָ֖ה אֵלַ֥י לֵאמֹֽר:
18"Son of man, lament over the multitude of Egypt and bring it down, it and the daughters of mighty nations, to the nether part of the earth with those who descend to the Pit.   יחבֶּן־אָדָ֕ם נְהֵ֛ה עַל־הֲמ֥וֹן מִצְרַ֖יִם וְהֽוֹרִדֵ֑הוּ א֠וֹתָהּ וּבְנ֨וֹת גּוֹיִ֧ם אַדִּרִ֛ם אֶל־אֶ֥רֶץ תַּחְתִּיּ֖וֹת אֶת־י֥וֹרְדֵי בֽוֹר:
lament: Weep and lament.  
and bring it down, it and the daughters, etc.: prophesy, about him and about all the heathens, that they will descend into the Pit of Destruction. Here the Holy One, blessed be He, showed Ezekiel that all the heathens descend to Gehinnom.  
19Whom have you surpassed in pleasantness? Descend and lie with the uncircumcised.   יטמִמִּ֖י נָעָ֑מְתָּ רְדָ֥ה וְהָשְׁכְּבָ֖ה אֶת־עֲרֵלִֽים:
Whom have you surpassed in pleasantness: Are you any better than the other uncircumcised ones? You too will descend into the Pit and lie with them.  
20In the midst of those slain by the sword they will fall; it was delivered to the sword; they drew her and all her multitudes.   כבְּת֥וֹךְ חַלְלֵי־חֶ֖רֶב יִפֹּ֑לוּ חֶ֣רֶב נִתָּ֔נָה מָֽשְׁכ֥וּ אוֹתָ֖הּ וְכָל־הֲמוֹנֶֽיהָ:
it was delivered to the sword: Egypt was delivered to the sword.  
21The strongest of the mighty men shall speak of him from the midst of the Grave and with his helpers; the uncircumcised, those slain by the sword, descended and lay down.   כאיְֽדַבְּרוּ־ל֞וֹ אֵלֵ֧י גִבּוֹרִ֛ים מִתּ֥וֹךְ שְׁא֖וֹל אֶת־עֹֽזְרָ֑יו יָֽרְד֛וּ שָֽׁכְב֥וּ הָֽעֲרֵלִ֖ים חַלְלֵי־חָֽרֶב:
shall speak of him: [Heb. יְדַבְּרוּ לוֹ] shall speak of him and of his helpers.  
the strongest of the mighty men… from the midst of the Grave: Transpose the verse and interpret it: They shall speak of him אֶתעֹזרָיו, with his helpers; i.e., concerning all his helpers with him, too, shall the strongest of the mighty men, who are in the Grave, speak, and they will say about them thus:  
the uncircumcised… descended, etc.: Every לָהֶם, לִי, לוֹ, and לְ written next to דִבּוּר, speech, means nothing but “about.”  
22There are Assyria and all its company; around it are its graves; they are all slain, who have fallen by the sword,   כבשָׁ֚ם אַשּׁוּר֙ וְכָל־קְהָלָ֔הּ סְבִֽיבוֹתָ֖יו קִבְרֹתָ֑יו כֻּלָּ֣ם חֲלָלִ֔ים הַנֹּֽפְלִ֖ים בֶּחָֽרֶב:
There are Assyria: in Gehinnom.  
around it [are its graves]: In the midst of the Grave its graves are prepared, for from there it will not emerge to rest in a grave.  
23Whose graves are set in the utmost part of the Pit, and whose company was around its grave; all of them slain, fallen by the sword, who cast destruction in the land of the living.   כגאֲשֶׁ֨ר נִתְּנ֚וּ קִבְרֹתֶ֙יהָ֙ בְּיַרְכְּתֵי־ב֔וֹר וַיְהִ֣י קְהָלָ֔הּ סְבִיב֖וֹת קְבֻֽרָתָ֑הּ כֻּלָּ֚ם חֲלָלִים֙ נֹֽפְלִ֣ים בַּחֶ֔רֶב אֲשֶׁר־נָֽתְנ֥וּ חִתִּ֖ית בְּאֶ֥רֶץ חַיִּֽים:
in the utmost part of the Pit: in the depths of the Pit; in the midst of its depth.  
and whose company was: in the midst of the Grave, “was around its grave.”  
who cast destruction: [Heb. חִתִית,] who cast destruction in the land of Israel.  
24There is Elam and all its company around its grave; all of them slain, fallen by the sword, who descended uncircumcised into the nether parts of the earth, who cast their destruction in the land of the living, and they bore their disgrace with those who descend into the Pit.   כדשָׁ֚ם עֵילָם֙ וְכָל־הֲמוֹנָ֔הּ סְבִיב֖וֹת קְבֻֽרָתָ֑הּ כֻּלָּ֣ם חֲלָלִים֩ הַנֹּֽפְלִ֨ים בַּחֶ֜רֶב אֲשֶׁר־יָֽרְד֥וּ עֲרֵלִ֣ים | אֶל־אֶ֣רֶץ תַּחְתִּיּ֗וֹת אֲשֶׁ֨ר נָֽתְנ֚וּ חִתִּיתָם֙ בְּאֶ֣רֶץ חַיִּ֔ים וַיִּשְׂא֥וּ כְלִמָּתָ֖ם אֶת־י֥וֹרְדֵי בֽוֹר:
25In the midst of the slain they provided a bed for her with all her multitude; around it are her graves; all of them uncircumcised, slain by the sword, for their destruction was cast in the land of the living and they bore their disgrace with those who descend to the Pit. Among the slain it was given.   כהבְּת֣וֹךְ חֲ֠לָלִ֠ים נָתְנ֨וּ מִשְׁכָּ֥ב לָהּ֙ בְּכָל־הֲמוֹנָ֔הּ סְבִֽיבוֹתָ֖יו קִבְרֹתֶ֑הָ כֻּלָּ֣ם עֲרֵלִ֣ים חַלְלֵי־חֶ֡רֶב כִּֽי־נִתַּ֨ן חִתִּיתָ֜ם בְּאֶ֣רֶץ חַיִּ֗ים וַיִּשְׂא֚וּ כְלִמָּתָם֙ אֶת־י֣וֹרְדֵי ב֔וֹר בְּת֥וֹךְ חֲלָלִ֖ים נִתָּֽן:
they provided a bed for her: for Elam.  
26There are Meshech, Tubal, and all its multitude; around it are its graves; all of them uncircumcised, slain by the sword, for they cast their destruction in the land of the living.   כושָׁ֣ם מֶ֚שֶׁךְ תֻּבַל֙ וְכָל־הֲמוֹנָ֔הּ סְבִֽיבוֹתָ֖יו קִבְרוֹתֶ֑יהָ כֻּלָּ֚ם עֲרֵלִים֙ מְחֻ֣לְלֵי חֶ֔רֶב כִּֽי־נָֽתְנ֥וּ חִתִּיתָ֖ם בְּאֶ֥רֶץ חַיִּֽים:
slain by the sword: [Heb. מְחֻלְלֵי,] like הֲרוּגֵי.  
27But they will not lie with the mighty men, [for they are] inferior to the uncircumcised who descended to the Grave with their weapons, and they laid their swords under their heads and their iniquities were upon their bones, for the destruction of the mighty was in the land of the living.   כזוְלֹ֚א יִשְׁכְּבוּ֙ אֶת־גִּבּוֹרִ֔ים נֹֽפְלִ֖ים מֵֽעֲרֵלִ֑ים אֲשֶׁ֣ר יָֽרְדֽוּ־שְׁא֣וֹל בִּכְלֵֽי־מִלְחַמְתָּם֩ וַיִּתְּנ֨וּ אֶת־חַרְבוֹתָ֜ם תַּ֣חַת רָֽאשֵׁיהֶ֗ם וַתְּהִ֚י עֲו‍ֹֽנוֹתָם֙ עַל־עַצְמֹתָ֔ם כִּֽי־חִתִּ֥ית גִּבּוֹרִ֖ים בְּאֶ֥רֶץ חַיִּֽים:
But they will not lie: These who were mentioned [will not lie] with the mighty who died a natural death, for they will be inferior to and worse than the uncircumcised who died a natural death and descended with their weapons into the Grave.  
and they laid: i.e., those who buried them [laid]…  
their swords under their heads: as a sign to make it known that the sword did not prevail over them.  
and their iniquities were upon their bones: Nothing was lacking from their iniquity, for the slaying sword did not expiate it, because they were not slain. Now what is the iniquity? That the destruction wrought by these mighty men was in the land of the living.  
28And you-in the midst of the uncircumcised you shall be broken, and you shall lie with those slain by the sword.   כחוְאַתָּ֗ה בְּת֧וֹךְ עֲרֵלִ֛ים תִּשָּׁבַ֥ר וְתִשְׁכַּ֖ב אֶת־חַלְלֵי־חָֽרֶב:
And you - in the midst of the uncircumcised: He is addressing Pharaoh.  
with those slain by the sword: and not with those who die a natural death.  
29There is Edom, its kings and all its princes, who were laid out despite their might with those slain by the sword. They will lie with the uncircumcised and with those who descend into the Pit.   כטשָׁ֣מָּה אֱד֗וֹם מְלָכֶ֙יהָ֙ וְכָל־נְשִׂיאֶ֔יהָ אֲשֶׁר־נִתְּנ֥וּ בִגְבֽוּרָתָ֖ם אֶת־חַלְלֵי־חָ֑רֶב הֵ֛מָּה אֶת־עֲרֵלִ֥ים יִשְׁכָּ֖בוּ וְאֶת־יֹ֥רְדֵי בֽוֹר:
30There are the nobles of the North and all the Zidonians, who descend with the slain, ashamed when they are destroyed in spite of their might. And the uncircumcised lay with those slain by the sword and they bore their disgrace with those who descend into the Pit.   לשָׁ֣מָּה נְסִיכֵ֥י צָפ֛וֹן כֻּלָּ֖ם וְכָל־צִֽדֹנִ֑י אֲשֶׁר־יָֽרְד֣וּ אֶת־חֲלָלִ֗ים בְּחִתִּיתָ֑ם מִגְבֽוּרָתָם֙ בּוֹשִׁ֔ים וַיִּשְׁכְּב֚וּ עֲרֵלִים֙ אֶת־חַלְלֵי־חֶ֔רֶב וַיִּשְׂא֥וּ כְלִמָּתָ֖ם אֶת־י֥וֹרְדֵי בֽוֹר:
ashamed when they are destroyed in spite of their might: [Jonathan renders:] When they are broken in spite of their might, they are ashamed.  
31Pharaoh will see them and will be consoled for all his multitude slain by the sword, Pharaoh and all his army, says the Lord God.   לאאוֹתָם֙ יִרְאֶ֣ה פַרְעֹ֔ה וְנִחַ֖ם עַל־כָּל־הֲמוֹנ֑וֹ (כתיב הֲמוֹנֹ֑ה) חַלְלֵי־חֶ֙רֶב֙ פַּרְעֹ֣ה וְכָל־חֵיל֔וֹ נְאֻ֖ם אֲדֹנָ֥י יֱהֹוִֽה:
32For I shall cast My fear in the land of the living, and he will be laid in the midst of the uncircumcised, with those slain by the sword, Pharaoh and all his multitude, says the Lord God.   לבכִּֽי־נָתַ֥תִּי אֶת־חִתִּיתִ֖י (כתיב חִתִּיתִ֖ו) בְּאֶ֣רֶץ חַיִּ֑ים וְהֻשְׁכַּב֩ בְּת֨וֹךְ עֲרֵלִ֜ים אֶת־חַלְלֵי־חֶ֗רֶב פַּרְעֹה֙ וְכָל־הֲמוֹנ֔וֹ (כתיב הֲמוֹנֹ֔ה) נְאֻ֖ם אֲדֹנָ֥י יֱהֹוִֽה:
For I shall cast My fear into the land of the living: For I shall cast My fear into the land of the living and the fear of man will no longer be cast therein.