Chapter 18

1And the word of the Lord came to me, saying:   אוַיְהִ֥י דְבַר־יְהֹוָ֖ה אֵלַ֥י לֵאמֹֽר:
2"What do you mean that you use this parable over the land of Israel, saying, 'The fathers have eaten sour grapes and the children's teeth are set on edge'?   במַה־לָּכֶ֗ם אַתֶּ֚ם מֹֽשְׁלִים֙ אֶת־הַמָּשָׁ֣ל הַזֶּ֔ה עַל־אַדְמַ֥ת יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל לֵאמֹ֑ר אָבוֹת֙ יֹ֣אכְלוּ בֹ֔סֶר וְשִׁנֵּ֥י הַבָּנִ֖ים תִּקְהֶֽינָה:
What do you mean that you use this parable: Asanplanz in Old French, comparison, parable.  
The fathers have eaten sour grapes: Heb. בוֹסֶר, fruit before it has ripened. Verjus inFrench, verjuice.  
and the children’s teeth are set on edge: Heb. תִּקְהֶינָה, agazeront in Old French, will be set on edge. So is the way of the Holy One, blessed be He: the fathers sin and the children are punished, for the kings of Israel sinned for many years before they were exiled, and we too need not be concerned that we shall be punished for our iniquities.  
3As truly as I live, says the Lord God, you shall no longer use this parable in Israel.   גחַי־אָ֕נִי נְאֻ֖ם אֲדֹנָ֣י יֱהֹוִ֑ה אִם־יִֽהְיֶ֨ה לָכֶ֜ם ע֗וֹד מְשֹׁ֛ל הַמָּשָׁ֥ל הַזֶּ֖ה בְּיִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
shall no longer use this parable: Heb. מְשֹּׁל, like לִמְשֹּׁל [the infinitive].  
4Behold, all souls are Mine. Like the soul of the father, like the soul of the son they are Mine; the soul that sins, it shall die.   דהֵ֚ן כָּל־הַנְּפָשׁוֹת֙ לִ֣י הֵ֔נָּה כְּנֶ֧פֶשׁ הָאָ֛ב וּכְנֶ֥פֶשׁ הַבֵּ֖ן לִי־הֵ֑נָּה הַנֶּ֥פֶשׁ הַֽחֹטֵ֖את הִ֥יא תָמֽוּת:
Behold, all souls are Mine: So why should the son who did not sin against Me suffer? Is he not Mine?  
5So a man who is righteous and practices justice and righteousness,   הוְאִ֖ישׁ כִּֽי־יִהְיֶ֣ה צַדִּ֑יק וְעָשָׂ֥ה מִשְׁפָּ֖ט וּצְדָקָֽה:
6And does not eat [offerings of meals] on the mountains, and does not lift up his eyes to the idols of the house of Israel; neither defiles his fellow man's wife nor approaches a woman in her period of separation,   ואֶל־הֶֽהָרִים֙ לֹ֣א אָכָ֔ל וְעֵינָיו֙ לֹ֣א נָשָׂ֔א אֶל־גִּלּוּלֵ֖י בֵּ֣ית יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וְאֶת־אֵ֚שֶׁת רֵעֵ֙הוּ֙ לֹ֣א טִמֵּ֔א וְאֶל־אִשָּׁ֥ה נִדָּ֖ה לֹ֥א יִקְרָֽב:
And does not eat on the mountains: “On the mountains, he did not worship pagan deities” [Targum Jonathan] by eating “sacrifices of the dead.”  
to the idols: Referring to other idolatry, e.g., Baal in Samaria and the calves in Bethel and Dan.  
7And wrongs no man; what has been pledged for a debt he returns; [he] has committed no robbery, gives his bread to the hungry, and clothes the naked with garments,   זוְאִישׁ֙ לֹ֣א יוֹנֶ֔ה חֲבֹֽלָת֥וֹ חוֹב֙ יָשִׁ֔יב גְּזֵלָ֖ה לֹ֣א יִגְזֹ֑ל לַחְמוֹ֙ לְרָעֵ֣ב יִתֵּ֔ן וְעֵירֹ֖ם יְכַסֶּה־בָּֽגֶד:
wrongs: Heb. יוֹנֶה, an expression of wronging (אוֹנָאָה); i.e., he wronged no man.  
what has been pledged for a debt he returns: If he took his friend’s garment as a pledge for a loan, he would return it to him at sunset.  
8Does not lend on interest, nor does he take any increase on a loan, keeps his hand back from wrong, executes true judgment between man and man,   חבַּנֶּ֣שֶׁךְ לֹֽא־יִתֵּ֗ן וְתַרְבִּית֙ לֹ֣א יִקָּ֔ח מֵעָ֖וֶל יָשִׁ֣יב יָד֑וֹ מִשְׁפַּ֚ט אֱמֶת֙ יַֽעֲשֶׂ֔ה בֵּ֥ין אִ֖ישׁ לְאִֽישׁ:
9Has walked in My statutes, and has kept My ordinances to deal truly-he is a righteous man; he shall surely live, says the Lord God.   טבְּחֻקּוֹתַ֧י יְהַלֵּ֛ךְ וּמִשְׁפָּטַ֥י שָׁמַ֖ר לַֽעֲשׂ֣וֹת אֱמֶ֑ת צַדִּ֥יק הוּא֙ חָיֹ֣ה יִֽחְיֶ֔ה נְאֻ֖ם אֲדֹנָ֥י יֱהֹוִֽה:
10If he beget a profligate son, a shedder of blood, and he commits upon his brother any of these [crimes].   יוְהוֹלִ֥יד בֵּן־פָּרִ֖יץ שֹׁפֵ֣ךְ דָּ֑ם וְעָ֣שָׂה אָ֔ח מֵֽאַחַ֖ד מֵאֵֽלֶּה:
and he commits upon his brother any of these: Heb. אָח. Jonathan renders: and he does to his brother any one of these.  
11And he does not do all these [good deeds], but has even eaten [offerings of a meal] to the mountains and defiled his fellow man's wife;   יאוְה֕וּא אֶת־כָּל־אֵ֖לֶּה לֹ֣א עָשָׂ֑ה כִּ֣י גַ֚ם אֶל־הֶֽהָרִים֙ אָכַ֔ל וְאֶת־אֵ֥שֶׁת רֵעֵ֖הוּ טִמֵּֽא:
And he does not do all these: All these good deeds that his father did.  
12Wronged the poor and the needy, committed robberies, did not return pledges, lifted up his eyes to the idols, committed abomination;   יבעָנִ֚י וְאֶבְיוֹן֙ הוֹנָ֔ה גְּזֵל֣וֹת גָּזָ֔ל חֲבֹ֖ל לֹ֣א יָשִׁ֑יב וְאֶל־הַגִּֽלּוּלִים֙ נָשָׂ֣א עֵינָ֔יו תּֽוֹעֵבָ֖ה עָשָֽׂה:
committed abomination: Homosexual relations.  
13Gave out on interest, accepted increase on loans -shall he then live? He shall not live! He has done all these abominations; he shall surely die; his blood falls back on himself!   יגבַּנֶּ֧שֶׁךְ נָתַ֛ן וְתַרְבִּ֥ית לָקַ֖ח וָחָ֑י לֹ֣א יִֽחְיֶ֗ה אֵ֣ת כָּל־הַתּֽוֹעֵב֚וֹת הָאֵ֙לֶּה֙ עָשָׂ֔ה מ֣וֹת יוּמָ֔ת דָּמָ֖יו בּ֥וֹ יִהְיֶֽה:
14And behold, if he beget a son, who sees all the sins of his father which he has done, and sees and does not do likewise;   ידוְהִנֵּה֙ הוֹלִ֣יד בֵּ֔ן וַיַּ֕רְא אֶת־כָּל־חַטֹּ֥את אָבִ֖יו אֲשֶׁ֣ר עָשָׂ֑ה וַיִּרְאֶ֕ה (כתיב וַיִּרְאֶ֕) וְלֹ֥א יַֽעֲשֶׂ֖ה כָּהֵֽן:
and sees and does not do likewise: He sees with his heart that it is not good to do so, et il apercut in French, he realized.  
15He did not eat on the mountains and did not lift up his eyes to the idols of the house of Israel, did not defile his fellow man's wife,   טועַל־הֶֽהָרִים֙ לֹ֣א אָכָ֔ל וְעֵינָיו֙ לֹ֣א נָשָׂ֔א אֶל־גִּלּוּלֵ֖י בֵּ֣ית יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל אֶת־אֵ֥שֶׁת רֵעֵ֖הוּ לֹ֥א טִמֵּֽא:
16Wronged no man; did not retain any pledge, and committed no robbery; his bread he gave to the hungry and the naked he covered with clothes;   טזוְאִישׁ֙ לֹ֣א הוֹנָ֔ה חֲבֹל֙ לֹ֣א חָבָ֔ל וּגְזֵלָ֖ה לֹ֣א גָזָ֑ל לַחְמוֹ֙ לְרָעֵ֣ב נָתָ֔ן וְעֵר֖וֹם כִּסָּה־בָֽגֶד:
17From the poor he kept his hand back, interest and increase he did not take; My ordinances he kept, in My laws did he walk-he shall not die for the sins of his father, he shall surely live.   יזמֵעָנִ֞י הֵשִׁ֣יב יָד֗וֹ נֶ֚שֶׁךְ וְתַרְבִּית֙ לֹ֣א לָקָ֔ח מִשְׁפָּטַ֣י עָשָׂ֔ה בְּחֻקּוֹתַ֖י הָלָ֑ךְ ה֗וּא לֹ֥א יָמ֛וּת בַּֽעֲו‍ֹ֥ן אָבִ֖יו חָיֹ֥ה יִחְיֶֽה:
From the poor he kept his hand back: from harming him.  
18[But] his father, because he illegally suppressed, committed robbery against his brother and did what is not good among his people, behold, he shall die for his iniquity.   יחאָבִ֞יו כִּֽי־עָ֣שַׁק עֹ֗שֶׁק גָּזַל֙ גֵּ֣זֶל אָ֔ח וַֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר לֹא־ט֛וֹב עָשָׂ֖ה בְּת֣וֹךְ עַמָּ֑יו וְהִנֵּה־מֵ֖ת בַּֽעֲו‍ֹנֽוֹ:
19Yet you say, "Why does the son not bear with the sin of the father?" But the son has practiced justice and righteousness, he has kept all My laws and he carries them out; he shall surely live.   יטוַֽאֲמַרְתֶּ֕ם מַדֻּ֛עַ לֹֽא־נָשָׂ֥א הַבֵּ֖ן בַּֽעֲו‍ֹ֣ן הָאָ֑ב וְהַבֵּ֞ן מִשְׁפָּ֧ט וּצְדָקָ֣ה עָשָׂ֗ה אֵ֣ת כָּל־חֻקּוֹתַ֥י שָׁמַ֛ר וַיַּֽעֲשֶׂ֥ה אֹתָ֖ם חָיֹ֥ה יִחְיֶֽה:
20The soul that sins, it shall die; a son shall not bear the iniquity of the father, and a father shall not bear the iniquity of the son; the righteousness of the righteous shall be upon himself, and the wickedness of the wicked shall be upon himself.   כהַנֶּ֥פֶשׁ הַֽחֹטֵ֖את הִ֣יא תָמ֑וּת בֵּ֞ן לֹֽא־יִשָּׂ֣א | בַּֽעֲו‍ֹ֣ן הָאָ֗ב וְאָב֙ לֹ֚א יִשָּׂא֙ בַּֽעֲו‍ֹ֣ן הַבֵּ֔ן צִדְקַ֚ת הַצַּדִּיק֙ עָלָ֣יו תִּֽהְיֶ֔ה וְרִשְׁעַ֥ת הָֽרָשָׁ֖ע (כתיב רָשָׁ֖ע) עָלָ֥יו תִּֽהְיֶֽה:
21And if the wicked man repent of all his sins that he has committed and keeps all My laws and executes justice and righteousness, he shall surely live, he shall not die.   כאוְהָֽרָשָׁ֗ע כִּ֚י יָשׁוּב֙ מִכָּל־חַטֹּאתָיו֙ (כתיב חַטֹּאתָו֙) אֲשֶׁ֣ר עָשָׂ֔ה וְשָׁמַר֙ אֶת־כָּל־חֻקּוֹתַ֔י וְעָשָׂ֥ה מִשְׁפָּ֖ט וּצְדָקָ֑ה חָיֹ֥ה יִחְיֶ֖ה לֹ֥א יָמֽוּת:
22All his transgressions that he has committed shall not be remembered regarding him: through his righteousness that he has done he shall live.   כבכָּל־פְּשָׁעָיו֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר עָשָׂ֔ה לֹ֥א יִזָּֽכְר֖וּ ל֑וֹ בְּצִדְקָת֥וֹ אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂ֖ה יִֽחְיֶֽה:
23Do I desire the death of the wicked? says the Lord God. Is it not rather in his repenting of his ways that he may live?   כגהֶֽחָפֹ֚ץ אֶחְפֹּץ֙ מ֣וֹת רָשָׁ֔ע נְאֻ֖ם אֲדֹנָ֣י יֱהֹוִ֑ה הֲל֛וֹא בְּשׁוּב֥וֹ מִדְּרָכָ֖יו (כתיב מִדְּרָכָ֖ו) וְחָיָֽה:
24And when the righteous repents of his righteousness and does wrong and does like all the abominations that the wicked man did, shall he live? All his righteous deeds that he has done shall not be remembered; in his treachery that he has perpetrated and in his sin that he has sinned, in them shall he die.   כדוּבְשׁ֨וּב צַדִּ֚יק מִצִּדְקָתוֹ֙ וְעָ֣שָׂה עָ֔וֶל כְּכֹ֨ל הַתּוֹעֵב֜וֹת אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂ֧ה הָֽרָשָׁ֛ע יַֽעֲשֶׂ֖ה וָחָ֑י כָּל־צִדְקֹתָ֚יו (כתיב צִדְקֹתָ֚ו) אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂה֙ לֹ֣א תִזָּכַ֔רְנָה בְּמַֽעֲל֧וֹ אֲשֶׁר־מָעַ֛ל וּבְחַטָּאת֥וֹ אֲשֶׁר־חָטָ֖א בָּ֥ם יָמֽוּת:
All his righteous deeds, etc., shall not be remembered: Our Sages qualified this as referring to one who regrets them.  
25Yet you say, 'The way of the Lord is not right!' Hear now, O house of Israel: Is it My way that is not right? Is it not rather your ways that are not right?   כהוַֽאֲמַרְתֶּ֕ם לֹ֥א יִתָּכֵ֖ן דֶּ֣רֶךְ אֲדֹנָ֑י שִׁמְעוּ־נָא֙ בֵּ֣ית יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל הֲדַרְכִּי֙ לֹ֣א יִתָּכֵ֔ן הֲלֹ֥א דַרְכֵיכֶ֖ם לֹ֥א יִתָּכֵֽנוּ:
26When a righteous man repents of his righteousness and does wrong and dies on that account; for the wrong that he has done he should die.   כובְּשֽׁוּב־צַדִּ֧יק מִצִּדְקָת֛וֹ וְעָ֥שָׂה עָ֖וֶל וּמֵ֣ת עֲלֵיהֶ֑ם בְּעַוְל֥וֹ אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂ֖ה יָמֽוּת:
27And when a wicked man repents of his wickedness that he has done, and does justice and righteousness, he will keep his soul alive.   כזוּבְשׁ֣וּב רָשָׁ֗ע מֵֽרִשְׁעָתוֹ֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר עָשָׂ֔ה וַיַּ֥עַשׂ מִשְׁפָּ֖ט וּצְדָקָ֑ה ה֖וּא אֶת־נַפְשׁ֥וֹ יְחַיֶּֽה:
28He will see and repent of all his transgressions that he has committed-he shall surely live; he shall not die.   כחוַיִּרְאֶ֣ה וַיָּ֔שָׁב (כתיב וַיָּ֔שָׁוב) מִכָּל־פְּשָׁעָ֖יו אֲשֶׁ֣ר עָשָׂ֑ה חָי֥וֹ יִחְיֶ֖ה לֹ֥א יָמֽוּת:
29And yet the house of Israel say, 'The way of the Lord is not right!' Is it My ways that are not right, O house of Israel? Is it not rather your ways that are not right?   כטוְאָֽמְרוּ֙ בֵּ֣ית יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל לֹ֥א יִתָּכֵ֖ן דֶּ֣רֶךְ אֲדֹנָ֑י הַדְּרָכַ֞י לֹ֚א יִתָּֽכְנוּ֙ בֵּ֣ית יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל הֲלֹ֥א דַרְכֵיכֶ֖ם לֹ֥א יִתָּכֵֽן:
is not right: Heb. יִתָּכֵן, like יִתָּקֵן, afetes in Old French; just, correct, right.  
30Therefore, every man according to his ways I will judge you, O house of Israel, says the Lord God: repent and cause others to repent of all your transgressions, and it will not be a stumbling block of iniquity for you.   ללָכֵן֩ אִ֨ישׁ כִּדְרָכָ֜יו אֶשְׁפֹּ֚ט אֶתְכֶם֙ בֵּ֣ית יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל נְאֻ֖ם אֲדֹנָ֣י יֱהֹוִ֑ה שׁ֚וּבוּ וְהָשִׁ֙יבוּ֙ מִכָּל־פִּשְׁעֵיכֶ֔ם וְלֹא־יִֽהְיֶ֥ה לָכֶ֛ם לְמִכְשׁ֖וֹל עָו‍ֹֽן:
repent and cause others to repent: Heb. שּׁוּבוּ וְהָשִּׁיבוּ, you repent and you cause others to repent (tourner, retourner in French), turn [others], return.  
31Cast away from yourselves all your transgressions whereby you have transgressed, and make yourselves a new heart and a new spirit, and why should you die, O house of Israel!   לאהַשְׁלִ֣יכוּ מֵֽעֲלֵיכֶ֗ם אֶת־כָּל־פִּשְׁעֵיכֶם֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר פְּשַׁעְתֶּ֣ם בָּ֔ם וַֽעֲשׂ֥וּ לָכֶ֛ם לֵ֥ב חָדָ֖שׁ וְר֣וּחַ חֲדָשָׁ֑ה וְלָ֥מָּה תָמֻ֖תוּ בֵּ֥ית יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
32For I do not desire the death of him who dies, says the Lord God: so turn away and live!"   לבכִּ֣י לֹ֚א אֶחְפֹּץ֙ בְּמ֣וֹת הַמֵּ֔ת נְאֻ֖ם אֲדֹנָ֣י יֱהֹוִ֑ה וְהָשִׁ֖יבוּ וִֽחְיֽוּ: