Chapter 41

1Be silent to Me, you islands, and kingdoms shall renew [their] strength; they shall approach, then they shall speak, together to judgment let us draw near.   אהַֽחֲרִ֚ישׁוּ אֵלַי֙ אִיִּ֔ים וּלְאֻמִּ֖ים יַֽחֲלִ֣יפוּ כֹ֑חַ יִגְּשׁוּ֙ אָ֣ז יְדַבֵּ֔רוּ יַחְדָּ֖ו לַמִּשְׁפָּ֥ט נִקְרָֽבָה:
Be silent to Me: in order to hear My words.  
islands: Heathens ([mss. Kli Paz:] nations).  
shall renew [their] strength: They shall adorn themselves and strengthen themselves with all their might perhaps they will succeed in their judgment by force.  
they shall approach: here, and then, when they approach, they shall speak.  
to judgment let us draw near: to reprove them to their faces.  
2Who aroused from the East, [the one] whom righteousness accompanied? He placed nations before him and over kings He gave him dominion; He made his sword like dust, his bow like wind-blown stubble.   במִ֚י הֵעִיר֙ מִמִּזְרָ֔ח צֶ֖דֶק יִקְרָאֵ֣הוּ לְרַגְל֑וֹ יִתֵּ֨ן לְפָנָ֚יו גּוֹיִם֙ וּמְלָכִ֣ים יַ֔רְדְּ יִתֵּ֚ן כֶּֽעָפָר֙ חַרְבּ֔וֹ כְּקַ֥שׁ נִדָּ֖ף קַשְׁתּֽוֹ:
Who aroused from the East: one whom righteousness accompanied? Who aroused Abraham to bring him from Aram which is in the East and the righteousness that he would perform that was opposite his feet wherever he went.  
He placed nations before him: He, Who aroused him to leave his place to cause him to move, He placed before him four kings and their hosts.  
He gave him dominion: Heb. יַרְדְּ, like יַרָדֶּה.  
He made his sword like dust: [Jonathan paraphrases:] He cast slain ones before his sword like dust. He suffered his sword to take its toll of casualties as [numerous as] grains of dust, and his bow He suffered to take its toll of casualties who would fall like wind blown stubble.  
3He pursued them and passed on safely, on a path upon which he had not come with his feet.   גיִרְדְּפֵ֖ם יַֽעֲב֣וֹר שָׁל֑וֹם אֹ֥רַח בְּרַגְלָ֖יו לֹ֥א יָבֽוֹא:
He pursued them and passed on safely: He traversed all his fords safely; he did not stumble when he pursued them.  
a path upon which he had not come with his feet: A road upon which he had not come previously with his feet. [The future tense of] יָבוֹא means that he was not accustomed to come.  
4Who worked and did, Who calls the generations from the beginning; I, the Lord, am first, and with the last ones I am He.   דמִֽי־פָעַ֣ל וְעָשָׂ֔ה קֹרֵ֥א הַדֹּר֖וֹת מֵרֹ֑אשׁ אֲנִ֚י יְהֹוָה֙ רִאשׁ֔וֹן וְאֶת־אַֽחֲרֹנִ֖ים אֲנִי־הֽוּא:
Who worked and did: for him all this? He Who called the generations from the beginning, to Adam, He did this also for Abraham.  
I, the Lord, am first: to perform wonders and to aid.  
and with the last ones I am He: Also with you, the last sons, I will be, and I will aid you.  
5The islands shall see and fear; the ends of the earth shall quake; they have approached and come.   הרָא֚וּ אִיִּים֙ וְיִירָ֔אוּ קְצ֥וֹת הָאָ֖רֶץ יֶֽחֱרָ֑דוּ קָֽרְב֖וּ וַיֶּֽאֱתָיֽוּן:
The islands shall see: [lit. saw.] The heathens shall see the mighty deeds that I will perform, and they shall fear.  
they have approached and come: One to another they will gather to war when they see the redemption.  
6Each one shall aid his fellow, and to his brother he shall say, "Strengthen yourself."   ואִ֥ישׁ אֶת־רֵעֵ֖הוּ יַעְזֹ֑רוּ וּלְאָחִ֖יו יֹאמַ֥ר חֲזָֽק:
Each one… his fellow etc.: He shall say, “Strengthen yourself” for war, perhaps their gods will protect them [lit. stand up for them].  
7And the craftsman strengthened the smith, the one who smooths with the hammer [strengthened] the one who wields the sledge hammer; he says of the cement, "It is good," and he strengthened it with nails that it should not move.   זוַיְחַזֵּ֚ק חָרָשׁ֙ אֶת־צֹרֵ֔ף מַֽחֲלִ֥יק פַּטִּ֖ישׁ אֶת־ה֣וֹלֶם פָּ֑עַם אֹמֵ֚ר לַדֶּ֙בֶק֙ ט֣וֹב ה֔וּא וַיְחַזְּקֵ֥הוּ בְמַסְמְרִ֖ים לֹ֥א יִמּֽוֹט:
And the craftsman strengthened: [i.e.,] the one who molds the idol.  
the smith: who plates it with gold.  
the one who smoothes with the hammer: The final stage, when he taps lightly to flatten out the work.  
the one who wields the sledge hammer: He is the one who commences on it when it is a block, and beats it with all his might.  
he says of the cement, “It is good,”: Heb. דֶּבֶק. He alludes to those who seek suitable ground upon which to adhere iron plates. דֶּבֶק is soudure in French, weld.  
and he strengthened it: The idol.  
with nails that it should not move: All of them will strengthen each other.  
8But you, Israel My servant, Jacob whom I have chosen, the seed of Abraham, who loved Me,   חוְאַתָּה֙ יִשְׂרָאֵ֣ל עַבְדִּ֔י יַֽעֲקֹ֖ב אֲשֶׁ֣ר בְּחַרְתִּ֑יךָ זֶ֖רַע אַבְרָהָ֥ם אֹֽהֲבִֽי:
But you, Israel My servant: and I am obliged to help you. The end of this sentence is (infra 10): “Do not fear.” This appears to me to be the sequence of the section according to its simple meaning. But the Midrash Aggadah in Gen. Rabbah 44:7 expounds the entire section as alluding to Malchizedek and Abraham.  
[5] Islands saw: the war and feared. Shem [Malchizedek] feared Abraham, lest he say to him, You begot these wicked men in the world. And Abraham feared Shem, since he slew his sons, the people of Elam, who was descended from Shem.  
islands: Just as the islands of the sea are distinguished and recognized in the sea, so were Abraham and Shem distinguished in the world.  
[6] Each one aided his fellow: This one [Shem] aided this one [Abraham] with blessings, “Blessed be Abram” (Gen. 14:19), and this one [Abraham] aided this one [Shem] with gifts, “And he gave him tithe from everything” (ibid. verse 20).  
[7] And the craftsman strengthened: This is Shem, who was a blacksmith, to make nails and bars for the ark.  
the smith: This is Abraham, who purified (צוֹרֵף) the people, to bring them near to God [lit. to Heaven].  
the sledge hammer: This is Abraham, who smote (הָלַם) all these kings at one time.  
He says of the cement: Heb. דֶּבֶק. The nations said, It is good to cleave to this one’s God [rather than to Nimrod’s idols].  
And he strengthened him: Shem strengthened Abraham to cleave to the Holy One, blessed be He, and not to move.  
[8] And you, Israel My servant: Abraham, who was not descended from righteous men, I did all this for him, and you, Israel My servant, who belong to Me by dint of two forefathers.  
the seed of Abraham, who loved Me: who did not recognize Me because of the admonition and the teaching of his fathers, but out of love.  
9Whom I grasped from the ends of the earth, and from its nobles I called you, and I said to you, "You are My servant"; I chose you and I did not despise you.   טאֲשֶׁ֚ר הֶֽחֱזַקְתִּ֙יךָ֙ מִקְצ֣וֹת הָאָ֔רֶץ וּמֵֽאֲצִילֶ֖יהָ קְרָאתִ֑יךָ וָֽאֹ֚מַר לְךָ֙ עַבְדִּי־אַ֔תָּה בְּחַרְתִּ֖יךָ וְלֹ֥א מְאַסְתִּֽיךָ:
whom I grasped: Heb. הֶחֱזַקְתִּי. I took you for My share. Comp. (Ex. 4:4) “And he stretched out his hand and grasped (וַיְּחֲזֵק) it.”  
from the ends of the earth: from the other nations.  
and from its nobles: from the greatest of them.  
I called you: by name for My share, “My firstborn son, Israel” (ibid. v. 22).  
and I did not despise you: like Esau, as it is said (Malachi 1:3), “And Esau I hated.”  
10Do not fear for I am with you; be not discouraged for I am your God: I encouraged you, I also helped you, I also supported you with My righteous hand.   יאַל־תִּירָא֙ כִּֽי עִמְּךָ֣־אָ֔נִי אַל־תִּשְׁתָּ֖ע כִּֽי־אֲנִ֣י אֱלֹהֶ֑יךָ אִמַּצְתִּ֙יךָ֙ אַף־עֲזַרְתִּ֔יךָ אַף־תְּמַכְתִּ֖יךָ בִּימִ֥ין צִדְקִֽי:
be not discouraged: Heb. אַל תִּשְׁתָּע. Let your heart not melt like wax (שַׁעֲוָה). This is the rule: Every word whose first radical is ‘shin,’ when it is used in the reflexive present, past, or future, the ‘tav’ separates it and enters between the first two radicals. Comp. (infra 49:16) “And He was astounded (וַיַּשְׁתּוֹמֵם);” (Micah 6:16) “For the statutes of Omri shall be observed (וְיִשְׁתַּמֵּר);” (I Sam. 1:14) “will you be drunk (תִּשְׁתַּכָּרִין)?;” (Job 30:16) “My soul is poured out (תִּשְׁתַּפֵּךְ).”  
11Behold all those incensed against you shall be ashamed and confounded; those who quarreled with you shall be as nought and be lost.   יאהֵ֚ן יֵבֹ֙שׁוּ֙ וְיִכָּ֣לְמ֔וּ כֹּ֖ל הַנֶּֽחֱרִ֣ים בָּ֑ךְ יִֽהְי֥וּ כְאַ֛יִן וְיֹֽאבְד֖וּ אַנְשֵׁ֥י רִיבֶֽךָ:
12You may seek them but not find them, those who quarrel with you; those who war with you shall be as nought and as nothing.   יבתְּבַקְשֵׁם֙ וְלֹ֣א תִמְצָאֵ֔ם אַנְשֵׁ֖י מַצֻּתֶ֑ךָ יִהְי֥וּ כְאַ֛יִן וּכְאֶ֖פֶס אַנְשֵׁ֥י מִלְחַמְתֶּֽךָ:
13For I, the Lord your God, grasp your right hand; Who says to you, "Fear not, I help you."   יגכִּ֗י אֲנִ֛י יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ מַֽחֲזִ֣יק יְמִינֶ֑ךָ הָֽאֹמֵ֥ר לְךָ֛ אַל־תִּירָ֖א אֲנִ֥י עֲזַרְתִּֽיךָ:
14Fear not, O worm of Jacob, the number of Israel; "I have helped you," says the Lord, and your redeemer, the Holy One of Israel.   ידאַל־תִּֽירְאִי֙ תּוֹלַ֣עַת יַֽעֲקֹ֔ב מְתֵ֖י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל אֲנִ֚י עֲזַרְתִּיךְ֙ נְאֻם־יְהֹוָ֔ה וְגֹֽאֲלֵ֖ךְ קְד֥וֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
O worm of Jacob: Heb. תּוֹלַעַת. The family of Jacob, which is weak like a worm, which has no strength except in its mouth. תּוֹלַעַת is vermener in O.F., [vermisseau in Modern French, a worm].  
the number of Israel: Heb. מְתֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל, the number of Israel.  
15Behold I have made you a new grooved threshing-sledge, with sharp points; you shall thresh the mountains and crush them fine, and you shall make hills like chaff.   טוהִנֵּ֣ה שַׂמְתִּ֗יךְ לְמוֹרָג֙ חָר֣וּץ חָדָ֔שׁ בַּ֖עַל פִּֽיפִיּ֑וֹת תָּד֚וּשׁ הָרִים֙ וְתָדֹ֔ק וּגְבָע֖וֹת כַּמֹּ֥ץ תָּשִֽׂים:
a… grooved threshing sledge: It is a heavy wooden implement made with many grooves, similar to the ironsmiths’ tool known as ‘lime’ in French, a file, and they drag it over the straw of the ears of grain and it cuts them until they become fine straw.  
new: When it is new, before the points of its grooves are smoothed off, it cuts very much, but when it becomes old, the points of the grooves are smoothed off.  
with sharp points: Heb. פִּיפִיוֹת. Those are the points of the grooves.  
you shall thresh the mountains: kings and princes.  
16You shall winnow them, and a wind shall carry them off, and a tempest shall scatter them, and you shall rejoice with the Lord, with the Holy One of Israel shall you praise yourself.   טזתִּזְרֵם֙ וְר֣וּחַ תִּשָּׂאֵ֔ם וּסְעָרָ֖ה תָּפִ֣יץ אֹתָ֑ם וְאַתָּה֙ תָּגִ֣יל בַּֽיהֹוָ֔ה בִּקְד֥וֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל תִּתְהַלָּֽל:
You shall winnow them: You shall scatter them, as with a pitchfork, to the wind.  
and a wind shall carry them off: by themselves to Gehinnom.  
17The poor and the needy seek water, but there is none; their tongue is parched with thirst; I, the Lord, will answer them, I, the God of Israel, will not forsake them.   יזהָֽעֲנִיִּ֨ים וְהָֽאֶבְיוֹנִ֜ים מְבַקְשִׁ֥ים מַ֙יִם֙ וָאַ֔יִן לְשׁוֹנָ֖ם בַּצָּמָ֣א נָשָׁ֑תָּה אֲנִ֚י יְהֹוָה֙ אֶֽעֱנֵ֔ם אֱלֹהֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל לֹ֥א אֶֽעֶזְבֵֽם:
seek water: The prophet prophesied concerning the end of days (Amos 8:11), “Not a famine for bread nor a thirst for water, but to hear the words of the Lord… They shall wander to seek the word of the Lord, but they shall not find it.” And when His wrath subsides, He shall prepare for them bread and water and cause His Shechinah and His spirit to rest in the mouth of their prophets.  
is parched: Heb. נָשָׁתָּה. An expression similar to (supra 19:5) “And water from the sea shall dry up (וְנִשְּׁתּוּ).” An expression similar to (Lam. 3:45) “The destruction (הַשֵּׁאת) and the breach.” And all of them are an expression of destruction and dryness. Therefore, a ‘dagesh’ appears in the ‘tav,’ since it comes instead of two, for there is no שֵׁאת without a ‘tav,’ and he should have said for the feminine וְנָשָׁתְתָה, since for the masculine singular he says נשתה and for the plural ונשתו.  
18I will open rivers on the high places, and springs in the midst of valleys; I will make a desert into a pool of water and a wasteland into sources of water.   יחאֶפְתַּ֚ח עַל־שְׁפָיִים֙ נְהָר֔וֹת וּבְת֥וֹךְ בְּקָע֖וֹת מַעְיָנ֑וֹת אָשִׂ֚ים מִדְבָּר֙ לַֽאֲגַם־מַ֔יִם וְאֶ֥רֶץ צִיָּ֖ה לְמֽוֹצָ֥אֵי מָֽיִם:
rivers: an understanding heart for Torah and prophecy.  
a desert: A place where there was no Torah wisdom.  
19I will give in the desert cedars, acacia trees, myrtles, and pines; I will place in the wilderness boxtrees, firs, and cypresses together.   יטאֶתֵּ֚ן בַּמִּדְבָּר֙ אֶ֣רֶז שִׁטָּ֔ה וַֽהֲדַ֖ס וְעֵ֣ץ שָׁ֑מֶן אָשִׂ֣ים בָּֽעֲרָבָ֗ה בְּר֛וֹשׁ תִּדְהָ֥ר וּתְאַשּׁ֖וּר יַחְדָּֽו:
I will give in the desert cedars, acacia trees: all kinds of civilization. Even in them will I give all kinds of wisdom, goodness, and peace.  
firs and cypresses: Names of trees that do not produce fruit, used for building.  
20In order that they see and know, and pay attention and understand together that the hand of the Lord did this and the Holy One of Israel created it.   כלְמַ֧עַן יִרְא֣וּ וְיֵֽדְע֗וּ וְיָשִׂ֚ימוּ וְיַשְׂכִּ֙ילוּ֙ יַחְדָּ֔ו כִּ֥י יַד־יְהֹוָ֖ה עָ֣שְׂתָה זֹּ֑את וּקְד֥וֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל בְּרָאָֽהּ:
21"Present your plea," says the Lord; "present your strong points," says the King of Jacob.   כאקָרְב֥וּ רִֽיבְכֶ֖ם יֹאמַ֣ר יְהֹוָ֑ה הַגִּ֙ישׁוּ֙ עֲצֻמ֣וֹתֵיכֶ֔ם יֹאמַ֖ר מֶ֥לֶךְ יַֽעֲקֹֽב:
Present your plea: All the heathens ([mss. K’li Paz:] nations), come and contend and debate with My children.  
your strong points: Heb. עַצֻּמוֹתֵיכֶם, Your sturdy and strong arguments. This is an expression of a dispute in Mishnaic Hebrew: “Two who were engaged in a legal dispute (מִתְעַצְּמִין),” in Tractate Sanhedrin (31b).  
22Let them present and tell us what will happen; the first things what were they? Tell, and we will take it to heart, and we will know their end, or the coming events let us hear.   כביַגִּ֙ישׁוּ֙ וְיַגִּ֣ידוּ לָ֔נוּ אֵ֖ת אֲשֶׁ֣ר תִּקְרֶ֑ינָה הָרִֽאשֹׁנ֣וֹת | מָ֣ה הֵ֗נָּה הַגִּ֙ידוּ וְנָשִׂ֚ימָה לִבֵּ֙נוּ֙ וְנֵֽדְעָ֣ה אַֽחֲרִיתָ֔ן א֥וֹ הַבָּא֖וֹת הַשְׁמִיעֻֽנוּ:
Let them present: Let those who deny the Torah ([mss., K’li Paz:] the nations) present their prophets and their soothsayers.  
and tell us what will happen: in the future.  
the first things: that were before the Creation of the world, and concerning what was created and what they are. (Other editions: The incidents that have already begun, what will be their end.)  
or the coming events: in the future, let us hear, and we will see if there is any substance to them, that their words will come true.  
23Tell the signs coming later, and we will know, for you are gods; you will even benefit and harm; let us talk and let us see together.   כגהַגִּ֙ידוּ֙ הָאֹֽתִיּ֣וֹת לְאָח֔וֹר וְנֵ֣דְעָ֔ה כִּ֥י אֱלֹהִ֖ים אַתֶּ֑ם אַף־תֵּיטִ֣יבוּ וְתָרֵ֔עוּ וְנִשְׁתָּ֖עָה וְנִרְאֶ֥ה (כתיב וְנִרְאֶ֥) יַחְדָּֽו:
Tell the signs coming later: Heb. הָאוֹתִיוֹתלְאָחוֹר, the wonders coming at the end.  
let us talk: Heb. וְנִשְׁתָּעָה. Let us tell your words. (Gen. 24:66) “And he told (וַיְּסַפֵּר),” the Targum renders וְאִשְׁתָּעֵי.  
24Behold you are of nought, and your deed is one of shouting; the abominable one will select you.   כדהֵֽן־אַתֶּ֣ם מֵאַ֔יִן וּפָֽעָלְכֶ֖ם מֵאָ֑פַע תּֽוֹעֵבָ֖ה יִבְחַ֥ר בָּכֶֽם:
Behold you are of naught: and how will your words be fulfilled.  
and your deed is one of shouting: Heb. מֵאָפַע. You shout and raise your voice only to mislead the people with lies.  
the abominable one: Heb. תּוֹעֵבָה [lit. an abomination.] The abominable ones select you, and not the Holy One, blessed be He, or His servants or His ministers.  
25I have aroused from the north and he came; from the rising of the sun he shall call in My name. And he shall come [upon] princes like mortar and as the potter treads clay.   כההַעִיר֚וֹתִי מִצָּפוֹן֙ וַיַּ֔את מִמִּזְרַח־שֶׁ֖מֶשׁ יִקְרָ֣א בִשְׁמִ֑י וְיָבֹ֚א סְגָנִים֙ כְּמוֹ־חֹ֔מֶר וּכְמ֥וֹ יוֹצֵ֖ר יִרְמָס־טִֽיט:
I have aroused from the north and he came: I tell the future events. Behold I arouse Cyrus from the north to build the ruins of Jerusalem, and he came upon Babylon to destroy it.  
from the rising of the sun he shall call in My name: (Ezra 1:2) “All the kingdoms of the earth has the Lord God of the heavens given me.” And it appears that Persia is northeast of Eretz Israel. Another explanation is: I aroused Nebuchadnezzar from the north to destroy My city, and he came, and I aroused Cyrus from the east, that he call in My name to build My city, for the kingdom of Persia is east of Eretz Israel, as it is stated (Dan. 8:4): “I saw the ram butting etc.” [This verse in Daniel proves it. “I saw the ram butting to the west and to the north and to the south.” We deduce that he came from the east.] Jonathan paraphrases: I brought speedily a king, strong as the north wind, and he will come as the sun comes out with its might from the east; I will strengthen him with My name.  
and he shall come [upon] princes: And he shall come upon the king of Babylon and upon his princes as he would come to trample upon mire, and as a potter tramples clay for earthenware vessels, so will he trample the princes.  
26Who told from the beginning that we may know, and from before, that we may say, "He is just"? Not one told; not one let us hear; not one hears your statements.   כומִֽי־הִגִּ֚יד מֵרֹאשׁ֙ וְנֵדָ֔עָה וּמִלְּפָנִ֖ים וְנֹאמַ֣ר צַדִּ֑יק אַ֣ף אֵֽין־מַגִּ֗יד אַף אֵ֣ין מַשְׁמִ֔יעַ אַ֥ף אֵין־שֹׁמֵ֖עַ אִמְרֵיכֶֽם:
Who: of the prophets of Baal told, like me, a thing destined to come, and who told it from before, that when it comes we will say that he is just, that his prophecy is just?  
Not one told: But there is none among you who will foretell the future and that it will come true.  
not one hears your statements: Who will testify when the future comes, that so and so the prophet of the Baal prophesied this from before.  
27The first one to Zion, behold, behold them, and for Jerusalem I will give a herald.   כזרִאשׁ֥וֹן לְצִיּ֖וֹן הִנֵּ֣ה הִנָּ֑ם וְלִירֽוּשָׁלִַ֖ם מְבַשֵּׂ֥ר אֶתֵּֽן:
The first to Zion, behold, behold them: The first king who will give heart to Zion, behold he is the one I mentioned, and even though the redemption will not be completed through him, he will be the one to initiate it. (Ezra 1:3) “Whoever of you from all His people…”  
behold them: The elders of Israel will be ready, according to his statement, to go up from the exile and to begin.  
and for Jerusalem I will give a herald: in those days, [viz.] Haggai and Zechariah, who will encourage them to build it in the days of Darius III of Persia.  
28And I look, and there is no man, and of these, and there is no counselor, and I ask them that they reply with a word.   כחוְאֵ֙רֶא֙ וְאֵ֣ין אִ֔ישׁ וּמֵאֵ֖לֶּה וְאֵ֣ין יוֹעֵ֑ץ וְאֶשְׁאָלֵ֖ם וְיָשִׁ֥יבוּ דָבָֽר:
And I look and there is no man: [lit. and I will see, in the future tense.] I always look at the prophets of Baal, and there is no man who tells of a future event.  
and of these: of all these destined to come, and none of them is a counselor who stood in God’s counsel and will know them.  
and I ask them that they reply with a word: That they should reply with a word if I should ask them.  
29Behold them all, their deeds are nought, of no substance; wind and nothingness are their molten images.   כטהֵ֣ן כֻּלָּ֔ם אָ֥וֶן אֶ֖פֶס מַֽעֲשֵׂיהֶ֑ם ר֥וּחַ וָתֹ֖הוּ נִסְכֵּיהֶֽם:
Behold them all,… naught: You should know that, as for the prophets of those who deny the Torah ([mss.:] pagan prophets;) ([other mss.:] prophets of Baal), all their deeds are naught and of no substance.  
their molten images: Heb. נִסְכֵּיהֶם. Comp. (supra 40:19) “The graven image the craftsman melted (נָסַךְ).” Jonathan renders this section differently:  
[27] The first one to Zion etc.: The words of consolation that the prophets prophesied concerning Zion, from before, behold they have come. And according to the Targum, the entire section speaks of the King Messiah and of the last redemption, but I see that the prophecy that Isaiah prophesied concerning Cyrus is all in the same language as this section. Comp. (infra 45:13) “I aroused him with righteousness;” (Infra 46:11) “Calling from the east a bird of prey;” (infra 45:11) “The signs ask Me;” (infra 46:10) “Who tells from the beginning the end.” All of this resembles the topic of this section.