Chapter 23

1The harsh prophecy concerning Tyre: Wail, ye ships of Tarshish, for it has been pillaged from within, from coming; from the land of the Kittim he appeared to them.   אמַשָּׂ֖א צֹ֑ר הֵילִ֣ילוּ | אֳנִיּ֣וֹת תַּרְשִׁ֗ישׁ כִּֽי־שֻׁדַּ֚ד מִבַּ֙יִת֙ מִבּ֔וֹא מֵאֶ֥רֶץ כִּתִּ֖ים נִגְלָה־לָֽמוֹ:
Wail, ye ships of Tarshish: who became wealthy through the merchants of Tyre, for the ships of Tarshish would bring merchandise to Tyre. Tarshish is the name of the sea.  
for it has been pillaged from within: For it has been pillaged from within, the place you were wont to lodge, from coming anymore into his midst, and you will no longer have a place in Tyre to lodge there.  
from the land of Kittim: They are the Romans.  
he appeared to them: The marauder appeared to the people of Tyre. Another explanation is that from the land of Kittim, the plunder of Tyre was revealed to the people of Tarshish, for the people of Tyre fled to Kittim and from there the news was heard.  
2Be silent, ye island dwellers; the merchants of Zidon, the seafarers replenished you.   בדֹּ֖מּוּ י֣שְׁבֵי אִ֑י סֹחֵ֥ר צִיד֛וֹן עֹבֵ֥ר יָ֖ם מִלְאֽוּךְ:
Be silent, ye island dwellers: Mourn and sit silently, you dwellers of the island of the sea. Why? The seafaring merchants of Zidon were wont to replenish you with all merchandise. Now, when Tyre falls, Zidon will fall with it, for they were within a day’s journey from one another.  
3And on great waters, the seed of Shihor, the harvest of the Nile was her revenue, and she became the mart of the nations.   גוּבְמַ֚יִם רַבִּים֙ זֶ֣רַע שִׁחֹ֔ר קְצִ֥יר יְא֖וֹר תְּבֽוּאָתָ֑הּ וַתְּהִ֖י סְחַ֥ר גּוֹיִֽם:
And on great waters: the seed would come from Egypt, that is situated on the river Shihor, to Tyre.  
the harvest of the Nile: Egypt was the revenue of Tyre.  
Shihor: This is the Nile, as it is said (Jos. 13:3): “From the Shihor, which is before Egypt.” And they would bring the produce to Tyre in Egyptian ships.  
and she became: (I.e.,) Tyre.  
the mart of the nations: from the multitude of people that were therein. All the nations brought merchandise to her. ([Some editions read:] All the strangers.)  
4Be ashamed, for the sea said, the stronghold of the sea, saying, "I have not travailed, nor have I borne, neither have I reared young men nor have I raised virgins."   דבּ֣וֹשִׁי צִיד֔וֹן כִּֽי־אָמַ֣ר יָ֔ם מָע֥וֹז הַיָּ֖ם לֵאמֹ֑ר לֹֽא־חַ֣לְתִּי וְלֹֽא־יָלַ֗דְתִּי וְלֹ֥א גִדַּ֛לְתִּי בַּֽחוּרִ֖ים רוֹמַ֥מְתִּי בְתוּלֽוֹת:
Be ashamed, Zidon: which was secondary to Tyre.  
for the sea said: For Tyre, that was situated in the stronghold of the sea, who was the main head of the kingdom, said, “I am as though I have not travailed, nor have I borne young men, for they all were slain, and I am as though I have not raised virgins.” And so did Jonathan render it. And our Sages said in the Aggadah: Be ashamed, Zidon, for the sea has spoken, “If I, who have no sons and daughters about whom to worry that they not be seized for my iniquity, do not deviate from the commandment of my Maker, by crossing the boundary of sand which He placed for me, how much more should you be ashamed, Zidon, since you have to worry about all these!”  
5Like the report concerning Egypt, shall they quake at the report of Tyre.   הכַּֽאֲשֶׁר־שֵׁ֖מַע לְמִצְרָ֑יִם יָחִ֖ילוּ כְּשֵׁ֥מַע צֹֽר:
Like the report concerning Egypt: which they heard about the Egyptians, that I had brought ten plagues upon them, and that they finally drowned in the sea.  
shall they quake: They shall be frightened.  
at the report: When the listeners hear that the report concerning Tyre has been announced, for also the plagues of Tyre shall be in the same pattern as those plagues: “Blood and fire” (Joel 3:3); (Isaiah 66:6) “A voice of tumult from the city,” like the croaking of the frogs, (Infra 34:9) “And its brooks shall be turned to pitch and its dust into sulphur,” on the pattern of the plague of lice. (Ibid. 11) “But the pelican and hedgehog shall take possession of it,” after the pattern of the plague of a mixture of noxious beasts. (Ezekiel 38:22) “And I will hold judgment over him with pestilence and with blood,” a pattern of the plague of murrain. (Zechariah 14:12) “His flesh shall consume away,” after the pattern of the plague of boils. (Supra 18: 5) “And he shall cut off the tendrils,” after the pattern of the hail and locusts; (infra 34:6) “And a great massacre in the land of Edom,” corresponding to the plague of the first born. This system is true if his צוֹר is another city (Edom, Rome[Parshandatha]). If it is actually Tyre, because the sea inundated it, the prophet says about it, “Like the report concerning Egypt,” and I say that the entire section, indeed, is talking about Tyre, because Zidon is near it. ([Other editions read:] And I say that the entire section is, indeed, talking about Tyre. Because Zidon is near it, he juxtaposes Zidon to it [Parshandatha].)  
6Proceed to Tarshish, wail, ye island dwellers!   ועִבְר֖וּ תַּרְשִׁ֑ישָׁה הֵילִ֖ילוּ י֥שְׁבֵי אִֽי:
Proceed: you inhabitants of Tyre, to flee to Tarshish.  
7Is this your joyful [city] from ancient times, whose feet carry her afar to sojourn?   זהֲזֹ֥את לָכֶ֖ם עַלִּיזָ֑ה מִֽימֵי־קֶ֚דֶם קַדְמָתָהּ֙ יֹֽבִל֣וּהָ רַגְלֶ֔יהָ מֵֽרָח֖וֹק לָגֽוּר:
Is this your joyful [city]: It has fallen before you, and he will say to you, “Is this the city that was joyful in your eyes, that from ancient times was joyful; whose feet now carry her afar to seek for herself a resting place?”  
8Who planned this on the royal Tyre, whose merchants were princes, whose traffickers were the honored of the earth?   חמִי יָעַ֣ץ זֹ֔את עַל־צֹ֖ר הַמַּֽעֲטִירָ֑ה אֲשֶׁ֚ר סֹֽחֲרֶ֙יהָ֙ שָׂרִ֔ים כִּנְעָנֶ֖יהָ נִכְבַּדֵּי־אָֽרֶץ:
whose traffickers: (כִּנְעָנֶיהָ) traffickers. Comp. (Hosea 12:8) “As for the trafficker (כְּנַעַן) in his hand are the balances of deceit” ; (Zech. 14:21) “And there shall no longer be a trafficker (כְּנַעֲנִי).”  
9The Lord of Hosts planned it, to profane the pride of every position, to bring contempt upon all the honored of the earth.   טיְהֹוָ֥ה צְבָא֖וֹת יְעָצָ֑הּ לְחַלֵּל֙ גְּא֣וֹן כָּל־צְבִ֔י לְהָקֵ֖ל כָּל־נִכְבַּדֵּי־אָֽרֶץ:
every position: every strong position.  
10Cross your land like a river, O daughter of Tarshish; there is no more strength.   יעִבְרִ֥י אַרְצֵ֖ךְ כַּיְאֹ֑ר בַּת־תַּרְשִׁ֕ישׁ אֵ֖ין מֵ֥זַח עֽוֹד:
Cross your land: into exile.  
like a river: Like this river that rises and spreads out.  
O daughter of Tarshish: Tyre, which is situated on the Sea of Tarshish.  
there is no more strength: עוֹד) (אֵין מֵזַח. You have no more strength or girdle to gird your loins. מֵזַח is an expression of a girdle. Comp. (Psalms 109:19) “And for a girdle (וּלְמֵזַח) he shall always gird himself with it.” And every ‘girdle’ is an expression of strength.  
11He stretched His hand over the sea; He aroused kingdoms; the Lord commanded upon Canaan, to destroy its strongholds.   יאיָדוֹ֙ נָטָ֣ה עַל־הַיָּ֔ם הִרְגִּ֖יז מַמְלָכ֑וֹת יְהֹוָה֙ צִוָּ֣ה אֶל־כְּנַ֔עַן לַשְׁמִ֖ד מָֽעֻזְנֶֽיהָ:
He stretched His hand: He Who stretched out.  
the Lord commanded upon Canaan: He commanded His summoned ones upon Canaan.  
to destroy: (לַשְׁמִד), like לְהַשְׁמִיד. Comp. (II Kings 9:15) “To go and tell (לַגִּיד) in Jezreel,” like לְהַגִּיד. And so (Psalms 26:7), “To make heard (לַשְׁמִיעַ) with a voice of thanksgiving,” like לְהַשְׁמִיעַ.  
its strongholds: Tyre and Zidon were of Canaan, as it is stated (Gen. 10:15): “Zidon his first born.”  
12And He said, "You shall no longer continue to rejoice, O plundered one, O virgin daughter of Zidon; arise, cross over to Kittim; even there you shall have no rest.   יבוַיֹּ֕אמֶר לֹֽא־תוֹסִ֥יפִי ע֖וֹד לַֽעֲל֑וֹז הַֽמְעֻשָּׁקָ֞ה בְּתוּלַ֣ת בַּת־צִיד֗וֹן כִּתִּים֙ (כתיב כִּתִּיים֙) ק֣וּמִי עֲבֹ֔רִי גַּם־שָׁ֖ם לֹֽא־יָנ֥וּחַ לָֽךְ:
to Kittim: to the land of Kittim, arise and cross; even there you shall have no rest. Why do I say, “Arise and cross over?” ([According to our reading, that of the printed editions, we find no answer to this question. According to some manuscripts, however, the reading is as follows:]  
to Kittim: to the land of Kittim, arise and cross, even there you shall have no rest. Why?  
Behold the land of the Chaldees: They shall exile you from there.  
13Behold the land of the Chaldees, this people has never been; Assyria established it for fleets; they erected its towers, destroyed its palaces, made it for a ruin.   יגהֵ֣ן | אֶ֣רֶץ כַּשְׂדִּ֗ים זֶ֚ה הָעָם֙ לֹ֣א הָיָ֔ה אַשּׁ֖וּר יְסָדָ֣הּ לְצִיִּ֑ים הֵקִ֣ימוּ בַֽחוּנָ֗יו (כתיב בַֽחיּנָ֗יו) עֽוֹרְרוּ֙ אַרְמְנוֹתֶ֔יהָ שָׂמָ֖הּ לְמַפֵּלָֽה:
Behold the land of the Chaldees, this people has never been: It was not to be a people, for they are called, (Habakkuk 1:6) “bitter, impetuous nation.” They are a foolish nation, of the creatures that the Holy One, blessed be He, (so to speak,) regrets (creating) them. [Tractate Sukkah (52b)].  
Assyria established it: to station his fleets therein, his ships, huge battle ships, as (infra 33:21): “A mighty fleet (צִי).”  
they erected its towers: They shall erect their fortifications (var., their siege towers) upon Tyre. (Heb.) בַּחוּנָיו, an expression similar to (infra 32: 14): “tower and bastion (בֹּחַן),” bajjpred in O.F., which they erect for a siege against walled cities.  
destroyed its palaces: (עוֹרְרוּ). They shall destroy. (This is) an expression like (Psalms 137: 7): “Raze it, raze it (עָרוּ עָרוּ),” an expression of demolition until the very foundation.  
14Wail, O ships of Tarshish for your stronghold has been spoiled.   ידהֵילִ֖ילוּ אֳנִיּ֣וֹת תַּרְשִׁ֑ישׁ כִּ֥י שֻׁדַּ֖ד מָֽעֻזְּכֶֽן:
15And it shall come to pass on that day, that Tyre shall be forgotten for seventy years, like the days of one king; at the end of seventy years, it shall fare with Tyre like the song of the harlot.   טווְהָיָה֙ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֔וּא וְנִשְׁכַּ֚חַת צֹר֙ שִׁבְעִ֣ים שָׁנָ֔ה כִּימֵ֖י מֶ֣לֶךְ אֶחָ֑ד מִקֵּ֞ץ שִׁבְעִ֚ים שָׁנָה֙ יִֽהְיֶ֣ה לְצֹ֔ר כְּשִׁירַ֖ת הַזּוֹנָֽה:
that Tyre shall be forgotten: Since the prophet refers to her with an expression of degradation, with an expression comparing her to a harlot, he says, “shall be forgotten,” like a harlot whose lovers have forgotten her. She, too, shall be forgotten for want of merchants and traffickers turning to her, because she shall be destroyed.  
like the days of one king: The days of David were seventy years, but I do not know why this sign is given here.  
it shall fare with Tyre: a slight remembrance, that she shall shake herself from her humble state and appeal to those who were wont to trade with her, to return to her so that she return to her original state.  
like the song of the harlot: who sees that no one turns to her and raises a sweet and melodious voice in song, perhaps she will please her lovers.  
16Take a harp, go around the city, O forgotten harlot; play well, sing many songs, so that you shall be remembered.   טזקְחִ֥י כִנּ֛וֹר סֹ֥בִּי עִ֖יר זוֹנָ֣ה נִשְׁכָּחָ֑ה הֵיטִ֚יבִי נַגֵּן֙ הַרְבִּי־שִׁ֔יר לְמַ֖עַן תִּזָּכֵֽרִי:
sing many songs: That is to say, also make many supplications and humble your haughtiness.  
17And it shall be at the end of seventy years, that the Lord shall remember Tyre, and she shall return to her hire, and she shall have commerce with all the kingdoms of the earth upon the surface of the earth.   יזוְהָיָ֞ה מִקֵּ֣ץ | שִׁבְעִ֣ים שָׁנָ֗ה יִפְקֹ֚ד יְהֹוָה֙ אֶת־צֹ֔ר וְשָׁבָ֖ה לְאֶתְנַנָּ֑ה וְזָֽנְתָ֛ה אֶת־כָּל־מַמְלְכ֥וֹת הָאָ֖רֶץ עַל־פְּנֵ֥י הָֽאֲדָמָֽה:
to her hire: To her original state and to her wealth through her commerce. He denigrates her with a degrading expression.  
and she shall have commerce: (Lit., and she shall prostitute.) She shall supply merchandise. But he denigrates her with a shameful expression.  
18And her commerce and her hire shall be holy to the Lord, it shall not be stored nor shall it be inherited, but those who sit before the Lord shall have her commerce to eat their fill and for stately clothing.   יחוְהָיָ֨ה סַחְרָ֜הּ וְאֶתְנַנָּ֗ה קֹדֶשׁ לַֽיהֹוָ֔ה לֹ֥א יֵֽאָצֵ֖ר וְלֹ֣א יֵֽחָסֵ֑ן כִּ֣י לַיֹּֽשְׁבִ֞ים לִפְנֵ֚י יְהֹוָה֙ יִֽהְיֶ֣ה סַחְרָ֔הּ לֶֽאֱכֹ֥ל לְשָׂבְעָ֖ה וְלִמְכַסֶּ֥ה עָתִֽיק:
holy to the Lord: The righteous are destined to plunder her when the king Messiah comes.  
it shall not be stored: to be a treasure for her kings.  
and it shall not be inherited: They will not leave it over as an inheritance to their children.  
and for stately clothing: (וְלִמְכַסֶּה עָתִיק) for beautiful clothing means laudable, as (Psalms 94:4): “They speak with haughtiness (עָתָק).”