1

These are the required measurements of a sukkah: Its height should not be less than ten handbreadths nor more than twenty cubits. Its area should not be less than seven handbreadths by seven handbreadths. [There is no maximum limit to] its area, and one may increase it [to include] a number of millim.

A sukkah which is less than ten handbreadths high, smaller than seven handbreadths by seven handbreadths [in area], or taller than twenty cubits - even [if the increase or decrease] is of the slightest amount - is invalid.

א

שִׁעוּר הַסֻּכָּה גָּבְהָהּ אֵין פָּחוֹת מֵעֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים וְלֹא יָתֵר עַל עֶשְׂרִים אַמָּה. וְרָחְבָּהּ אֵין פָּחוֹת מִשִּׁבְעָה טְפָחִים עַל שִׁבְעָה טְפָחִים. וְיֵשׁ לוֹ לְהוֹסִיף בְּרָחְבָּהּ אֲפִלּוּ כַּמָּה מִילִין. הָיְתָה פְּחוּתָה מֵעֲשָׂרָה אוֹ מִשִּׁבְעָה עַל שִׁבְעָה אוֹ גְּבוֹהָה מֵעֶשְׂרִים אַמָּה כָּל שֶׁהוּא הֲרֵי זוֹ פְּסוּלָה:

2

A Sukkah With Two Perpendicular Walls

A) A Wall At Least Ten Handbreadths High And Seven Handbreadths Long
B) An Empty Space Less Than Three Handbreadths Wide
C) A "Wall" At Least One Handbreadth Wide
D) The "Likeness Of An Entrance
A sukkah which does not possess three walls is invalid. However, if it has two complete walls perpendicular to each other in the shape of [the Greek letter] gamma,
it is sufficient to construct a third wall that is [only] slightly more than a handbreadth wide and place it within three handbreadths of one of the two walls. Also, one must construct the likeness of an entrance, since it does not possess three complete walls.
A Sukkah With Three Full Walls

A) The Minimum Length Of A Sukkah; 7 Handbreadths
B) The Minimum Height Of A Sukkah; 10 Handbreadths
C) The Minimum Width Of A Sukkah; 7 Handbreadth

We have already explained in Hilchot Shabbat that wherever the term "a likeness of an entrance" is used, it may be a rod on one side, another rod on the opposite side, and a third above, even though it does not touch them.

ב

סֻכָּה שֶׁאֵין לָהּ שָׁלֹשׁ דְּפָנוֹת פְּסוּלָה. הָיוּ לָהּ שְׁתֵּי דְּפָנוֹת גְּמוּרוֹת זוֹ בְּצַד זוֹ כְּמִין גַּ''ם עוֹשֶׂה דֹּפֶן שֶׁיֵּשׁ בְּרָחְבּוֹ יֶתֶר עַל טֶפַח וּמַעֲמִידוֹ בְּפָחוֹת מִשְּׁלֹשָׁה סָמוּךְ לְאֶחָד מִשְּׁתֵּי הַדְּפָנוֹת וְדַיּוֹ. וְצָרִיךְ לַעֲשׂוֹת לָהּ צוּרַת פֶּתַח מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין לָהּ שָׁלֹשׁ דָּפְנוֹת גְּמוּרוֹת. וּכְבָר בֵּאַרְנוּ בְּהִלְכוֹת שַׁבָּת שֶׁצּוּרַת פֶּתַח הָאָמוּר בְּכָל מָקוֹם אֲפִלּוּ קָנֶה מִכָּאן וְקָנֶה מִכָּאן וְקָנֶה עַל גַּבֵּיהֶן אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מַגִּיעַ לָהֶן:

3

A Sukkah With Two Parallel Walls

A) A Wall At Least Ten Handbreadths High And Seven Handbreadths Long
B) An Empty Space Less Than Three Handbreadths Wide
C) The Third Wall, At Least Four Handbreadths Wide
D) The "Likeness Of An Entrance
If the two walls were parallel to each other and there was an open space between them, one should construct a wall slightly more than four handbreadths wide and place it within three handbreadths of one of the two walls; then, [the sukkah] is kosher. However, it is necessary to construct "the likeness of an entrance."

A Sukkah With The Third Wall Extending Outward

A) The Height Of The Sukkah; At Least Ten Handbreadths
B) One Wall; Seven Cubits Long
C) A Parallel Wall Of A Greater Length
If the rods of the s'chach of the sukkah extend beyond the sukkah and one wall extends with them, they are considered to be [part of] the sukkah.

ג

הָיוּ לָהּ שְׁתֵּי דְּפָנוֹת זוֹ כְּנֶגֶד זוֹ וּבֵינֵיהֶן מְפֻלָּשׁ. עוֹשֶׂה דֹּפֶן שֶׁיֵּשׁ בְּרָחְבּוֹ אַרְבָּעָה טְפָחִים וּמַשֶּׁהוּ וּמַעֲמִידוֹ בְּפָחוֹת מִשְּׁלֹשָׁה סָמוּךְ לְאַחַת מִשְּׁתֵּי הַדְּפָנוֹת וּכְשֵׁרָה. וְצָרִיךְ לַעֲשׂוֹת לָהּ צוּרַת פֶּתַח. קָנִים הַיּוֹצְאִים מִסְּכַךְ הַסֻּכָּה לִפְנֵי הַסֻּכָּה וְדֹפֶן אַחַת נִמְשֶׁכֶת עִמָּהֶן הֲרֵי הֵן כְּסֻכָּה:

4

A Sukkah Whose Walls Do Not Reach The Ground

A) The Width Of The Sukkah; At Least Seven Hand breadths
B) The Length Of The Sukkah; At Least Seven Handbreadths
C) The Total Height Of The Sukkah; At Least Ten Handbreadths
D) The Space Between The Wall And The Ground, Less Than Three Handbreadths
Walls which are connected to the roof of the sukkah, but do not reach the earth: If they are more than three handbreadths above the earth, they are invalid; if the distance is less than that, they are kosher.

[The following rules apply] should the walls be connected to the earth, without reaching the s'chach: If they are ten handbreadths high, they are kosher even though are removed several cubits from the roof, provided they are positioned below the end of the roof. If the roof was separated from the wall by more than three handbreadths, it is invalid; less than this amount is kosher.

A Sukkah Whose Walls Do Not Reach The S'chach

A) The Width Of The Sukkah; At Least Seven Handbreadths
B) The Length Of The Sukkah; At Least Seven Hand breadths
C) The Total Height Of The Sukkah; More Than Ten Handbreadths
D) The Minimum Height Of The Walls. Ten Handbreadths
E) The Space Between The Wall And The S'chach
If one suspended a partition which is slightly more than four handbreadths high at a distance of less than three handbreadths from the earth and a distance of less than three handbreadths from the roof, it is kosher.
S'chach Which Is Separated from The Walls

A) The Separation Must Be Less Than Three Handbreadths
A Sukkah Whose Walls Are Separated From Both The S'chach And The Ground

A) An Empty Space, Less Than Three Handbreadths High
B) A Partition More Than Four Handbreadths High
C) An Empty Space, Less Than Three Handbreadths High

ד

דְּפָנוֹת שֶׁהָיוּ דְּבוּקוֹת בְּגַג הַסֻּכָּה וְלֹא הָיוּ מַגִּיעוֹת לָאָרֶץ אִם הָיוּ גְּבוֹהוֹת מִן הָאָרֶץ שְׁלֹשָׁה טְפָחִים פְּסוּלָה. פָּחוֹת מִכֵּן כְּשֵׁרָה. הָיוּ הַדְּפָנוֹת דְּבוּקוֹת לָאָרֶץ וְלֹא הָיוּ מַגִּיעוֹת לַסְּכָךְ אִם גְּבוֹהוֹת עֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵן רְחוֹקִין מִן הַגַּג כַּמָּה אַמּוֹת כְּשֵׁרָה וּבִלְבַד שֶׁיִּהְיוּ הַדְּפָנוֹת מְכֻוָּנוֹת תַּחַת שְׂפַת הַגַּג. הִרְחִיק אֶת הַגַּג מִן הַדֹּפֶן שְׁלֹשָׁה טְפָחִים פְּסוּלָה. פָּחוֹת מִכֵּן כְּשֵׁרָה. תָּלָה מְחִצָּה שֶׁגְּבוֹהָה אַרְבָּעָה וּמַשֶּׁהוּ בְּאֶמְצַע בְּפָחוֹת מִשְּׁלֹשָׁה סָמוּךְ לָאָרֶץ וּבְפָחוֹת מִשְּׁלֹשָׁה סָמוּךְ לַגַּג הֲרֵי זוֹ כְּשֵׁרָה:

5

When a person constructs his sukkah among the trees, using the trees as walls, it is kosher if:

a) they are strong enough - or he tied them and reinforced them so that they would be strong enough - that they would not be shaken by the wind at all times; and

b) he filled [the space] between the branches with hay and straw, tying them so that they will not be shaken by the wind.

[This is necessary,] for any partition that cannot stand before a normal land wind is not considered to be a partition.

ה

הָעוֹשֶׂה סֻכָּתוֹ בֵּין הָאִילָנוֹת וְהָאִילָנוֹת דְּפָנוֹת לָהּ. אִם הָיוּ חֲזָקִים אוֹ שֶׁקָּשַׁר אוֹתָם וְחִזֵּק אוֹתָם עַד שֶׁלֹּא תִּהְיֶה הָרוּחַ הַמְּצוּיָה מְנִידָה אוֹתָם תָּמִיד וּמִלֵּא בֵּין הָאֲמִירִים בְּתֶבֶן וּבְקַשׁ כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא תָּנִיד אוֹתָם הָרוּחַ וְקָשַׁר אוֹתָם הֲרֵי זוֹ כְּשֵׁרָה. שֶׁכָּל מְחִצָּה שֶׁאֵינָהּ יְכוֹלָה לַעֲמֹד בְּרוּחַ מְצוּיָה שֶׁל יַבָּשָׁה אֵינָהּ מְחִצָּה:

6

If a person constructs his sukkah on top of a wagon or on the deck of a ship, it is kosher, and one may ascend to it on the festival. If one constructs it on the treetops or on a camel's back, it is kosher, but one may not ascend to it on the festival, because climbing on a tree or animal is forbidden on a festival.

If some of the walls were the result of human activity and some were trees, we consider [its structure]. We may ascend to any [sukkah] where, if the trees were taken away, it would be able to stand with the walls that were built by man alone.

ו

הָעוֹשֶׂה סֻכָּתוֹ בְּרֹאשׁ הָעֲגָלָה אוֹ בְּרֹאשׁ הַסְּפִינָה כְּשֵׁרָה וְעוֹלִין לָהּ בְּיוֹם טוֹב. בְּרֹאשׁ הָאִילָן אוֹ עַל גַּבֵּי הַגָּמָל כְּשֵׁרָה וְאֵין עוֹלִין לָהּ בְּיוֹם טוֹב. לְפִי שֶׁאָסוּר לַעֲלוֹת בְּיוֹם טוֹב בָּאִילָן אוֹ עַל גַּבֵּי בְּהֵמָה. הָיוּ מִקְצָת הַדְּפָנוֹת עֲשׂוּיוֹת בִּידֵי אָדָם וּמִקְצָתָן אִילָנוֹת רוֹאִין כָּל שֶׁאִלּוּ נִטְּלוּ הָאִילָנוֹת הִיא יְכוֹלָה לַעֲמֹד בַּדְּפָנוֹת שֶׁבִּידֵי אָדָם עוֹלִין לָהּ בְּיוֹם טוֹב:

7

Diagram A
A sukkah that does not possess a roof is invalid. To what does this refer? A sukkah whose walls are joined to each other like a hut; alternatively, when the side of the sukkah is placed against the wall. However, if it has a roof, even only a handbreadth in width, or if one lifted the side of the sukkah close to the wall a handbreadth above the ground, it is kosher.
Diagram B
Diagram C

A Sukkah With A Roof One Hand breadth Wide

A) The Roof Of The Sukkah, At Least One Handbreadth In Width
B) The Height Of The Sukkah, At Least Ten Handbreadths
C) The S'chach
D) The Length Of The Area Covered By The S'chach; At Least Seven Handbreadths
E) The Width Of The Area Covered By The S'chach; At Least Seven Handbreadths

A round sukkah - if its circumference is large enough to contain a square seven handbreadths by seven handbreadths, it is kosher even though it has no corners.

A Sukkah Whose Roof Is Lifted At Least One Handbreadth From The Ground

A) The Height Of The Sukkah, At Least Ten Hand breadths
B) The Length Of The Sukkah; At Least Seven Handbreadths
C) The Width Of The Sukkah; At Least Seven Handbreadths
D) The Space Between The S'chach And The Ground; At Least One Handbreadth
E) The S'chach
A Round Sukkah

A) The Length Of The Area Covered By The S'chach; At Least Seven Handbreadths
B) The Width Of The Area Covered By The S'chach; At Least Seven Handbreadths

ז

סֻכָּה שֶׁאֵין לָהּ גַּג פְּסוּלָה. כֵּיצַד. כְּגוֹן שֶׁהָיוּ רָאשֵׁי הַדְּפָנוֹת דְּבוּקוֹת זוֹ בָּזוֹ כְּמִין צְרִיף. אוֹ שֶׁסָּמַךְ רֹאשׁ הַדֹּפֶן שֶׁל סֻכָּה לַכֹּתֶל. אִם הָיָה לָהּ גַּג אֲפִלּוּ טֶפַח. אוֹ שֶׁהִגְבִּיהַּ הַדֹּפֶן הַסָּמוּךְ לַכֹּתֶל מִן הַקַּרְקַע טֶפַח הֲרֵי זוֹ כְּשֵׁרָה. סֻכָּה עֲגֻלָּה אִם יֵשׁ בְּהֶקֵּפָהּ כְּדֵי לְרַבֵּעַ בָּהּ שִׁבְעָה טְפָחִים עַל שִׁבְעָה טְפָחִים אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין לָהּ זָוִיּוֹת הֲרֵי זוֹ כְּשֵׁרָה:

8

Diagram A

An Exedra That Is Transformed Into A Sukkah

A) The S'chach
B) The Pillars With The Protrusions Seen On The Inside
C) The Walls Of The Adjoining Homes
D) The Roof Of The Exedra
Should one place s'chach over an exedrah which has projections [extending from its pillars], it is kosher, regardless of whether the projections can be seen from the inside - although they cannot be seen from the outside - or whether they can be seen from the outside - although they cannot be seen from the inside.
Diagram B

A Column Whose Protrusions Are Seen On The Outside
Diagram C

A Column Whose Protrusions Are Seen On The Inside

ח

סִכֵּךְ עַל גַּבֵּי אַכְסַדְרָה שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהּ פְּצִימִין בֵּין שֶׁהָיוּ נִרְאִין מִבִּפְנִים וְאֵין נִרְאִין מִבַּחוּץ בֵּין שֶׁהָיוּ נִרְאִין מִבַּחוּץ וְאֵין נִרְאִין מִבִּפְנִים כְּשֵׁרָה:

9

If it does not have projections [extending from its pillars] it is not valid, because it resembles a sukkah constructed in an alley, because it has [walls on] only the two sides of the exedrah. The middle of the exedrah does not have a wall and there are no projections opposite it.

ט

לֹא הָיוּ לָהּ פְּצִימִין פְּסוּלָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִיא סֻכָּה הָעֲשׂוּיָה כְּמָבוֹי שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵין לָהּ אֶלָּא שְׁנֵי צִדֵּי הָאַכְסַדְרָה וְאֶמְצַע הָאַכְסַדְרָה אֵין בּוֹ כֹּתֶל וְשֶׁכְּנֶגְדּוֹ אֵין בּוֹ פְּצִימִין:

10

S'chach Placed Over An Alley

A) The Lechi
Should a person place s'chach over an alleyway which possesses a lechi or a well which possesses pasim, it is considered a kosher sukkah only on the Sabbath of the festival. Since this lechi and these pasim are considered to be partitions with regard to the Sabbath laws, they are also considered to be partitions with regard to the laws of sukkah.
Top View

A) The Lechi
B) The S'chach
C) The Alley
S'chach Placed Over The Partitions Around A Well

A) Two Perpendicular Partitions, Each At Least 4 Handbreadths Long
B) An Empty Space
C) The Well

י

סִכֵּךְ עַל גַּבֵּי מָבוֹי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ לֶחִי אוֹ עַל גַּבֵּי בְּאֵר שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהּ פַּסִּין הֲרֵי זוֹ סֻכָּה כְּשֵׁרָה לְאוֹתָהּ שַׁבָּת שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הֶחָג בִּלְבַד. מִתּוֹךְ שֶׁלֶּחִי זֶה וּפַסִּין אֵלּוּ מְחִצּוֹת לְעִנְיַן שַׁבָּת נַחְשֹׁב אוֹתָן כִּמְחִצּוֹת לְעִנְיַן סֻכָּה:

11

S'Chach Placed Over Poles Erected At The Corners Of A Roof
Should a person implant four poles in the four corners of the roof and place s'chach upon them, it is kosher. Since he placed the s'chach [above] the edge of the roof, we consider that the lower walls ascend to the edge of the s'chach.

יא

נָעַץ אַרְבָּעָה קֻנְדִּיסִין עַל אַרְבַּע זָוִיּוֹת הַגַּג וְסִכֵּךְ עַל גַּבָּן הוֹאִיל וְהַסִּכּוּךְ עַל שְׂפַת הַגַּג כָּשֵׁר וְרוֹאִין אֶת הַמְּחִצּוֹת הַתַּחְתּוֹנוֹת כְּאִלּוּ הֵן עוֹלוֹת לְמַעְלָה עַל שְׂפַת הַסִּכּוּךְ:

12

A sukkah which has many entrances and many windows in its walls is kosher even though the open portion exceeds the closed portion, provided there is no opening larger than ten cubits.

If there is an opening larger than ten cubits, it is necessary that the closed portion exceed the open portion, even though [the opening] is constructed in the form of an entrance.

יב

סֻכָּה שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהּ פְּתָחִים רַבִּים וְיֵשׁ בִּכְתָלֶיהָ חַלּוֹנוֹת הַרְבֵּה הֲרֵי זוֹ כְּשֵׁרָה. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁפָּרוּץ מְרֻבֶּה עַל הָעוֹמֵד. וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיֶה שָׁם פֶּתַח יֶתֶר עַל עֶשֶׂר. אֲבָל אִם הָיָה שָׁם פֶּתַח יֶתֶר עַל עֶשֶׂר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהּ צוּרַת פֶּתַח צָרִיךְ שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיֶה הַפָּרוּץ מְרֻבֶּה עַל הָעוֹמֵד:

13

A sukkah whose inner space exceeds twenty cubits [is not acceptable]. Should one reduce it [by placing] pillows and coverings [on the floor], it is not considered to be reduced. [This applies even if] one considered them a permanent part of the sukkah. If one reduced the space using straw and considered it as a permanent part of the sukkah, [the space] is considered to be reduced.

Needless to say, the above applies if one used earth and considered it to be a permanent part of the sukkah. However, if one [merely brought in] earth with no specific intention, [its space] is not considered to be reduced.

If it was twenty cubits high, but branches [from the s'chach descend within the twenty cubits, [the following principle applies:] If its shade would be greater than its open portion because of these branches alone, it is considered as having thick s'chach and is kosher.

יג

סֻכָּה שֶׁאֲוִירָהּ גָּבוֹהַּ מֵעֶשְׂרִים אַמָּה וּמִעֲטָהּ בְּכָרִים וּכְסָתוֹת אֵינוֹ מִעוּט וַאֲפִלּוּ בִּטְּלָם. מִעֲטָהּ בְּתֶבֶן וּבִטְּלוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה מִעוּט. וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר עָפָר וּבִטְּלוֹ. אֲבָל בֶּעָפָר סְתָם אֵינוֹ מִעוּט. הָיְתָה גְּבוֹהָה מֵעֶשְׂרִים אַמָּה וְהוּצִין יוֹרְדִין לְתוֹךְ עֶשְׂרִים אִם הָיְתָה צִלָּתָן מְרֻבָּה מֵחֲמָתָן יֵחָשְׁבוּ כְּגַג עָבֶה וּכְשֵׁרָה:

14

Diagram A

The Top View Of A Bench Which Reduces The Height Of A Sukkah Placed Along The Entire Length Of The Sukkah's Middle Wall

A) The Total Length Of The Sukkah
B) The Length Of The Bench; At Least Seven Handbreadths
C) The Width Of The Bench; At Least Seven Handbreadths
When [a sukkah is more than twenty cubits high, but] one builds a bench next to the middle wall extending across its entire span - if the width of the bench is equal to the minimum width of a sukkah, it is kosher.
Diagram B

The Top View. Of A Bench Which Reduces The Height Of A Sukkah Extending Over Only A Portion Of The Sukkah's Middle Wall

A) The Total Length Of The Sukkah
B) The Length Of The Bench; At Least Seven Handbreadths
C) The Width Of The Bench; At Least Seven Handbreadths

Should one build the bench next to the middle wall along [one] side, if there are four cubits between the bench and the [opposite] wall, it is unacceptable. If there are fewer than four cubits, it is kosher.

The Top View Of A Bench Which Reduces The Height Of A Sukkah Placed In The Center Of The Sukkah

A) The Length Of The Bench; At Least Seven Handbreadths
B) The Width Of The Bench; At Least Seven Handbreadths
C) The Distance Between The Bench And The Sukkah's Walls; Less Than Four Cubits

The Front View Of A Bench Which Reduces The Height Of A Sukkah Extending Over Only A Portion Of The Sukkah's Middle Wall

A) The Total Height Of The Sukkah, More Than Twenty Cubits
B) The Distance Between The Bench And The Sukkah's Wall; Less Than Four Cubits
C) The Length Of The Bench; At Least Seven Handbreadths
D) The Width Of The Bench; At Least Seven Handbreadths
E) The Height Of The Bench, Sufficient To Reduce The Height Of The Sukkah To Less Than Twenty Cubits
F) The Height Of The Area Above The Bench, Less Than Twenty Cubits
Should one build the bench in the middle [of the sukkah], if there are more than four cubits from the edge of the bench to any of the sides [of the sukkah], it is not acceptable. If there are fewer than four cubits, it is kosher. It is considered as if the walls touch the bench, and the distance from the bench to the s'chach is less than twenty cubits.

If one constructs a pillar [within a sukkah whose s'chach is more than twenty cubits high, the following rule applies]: Even though it is of the minimum size required of a sukkah, it is unacceptable, because its walls are not discernible. Thus, it is as if there is kosher s'chach above the pillar without any walls.

A Pillar In The Midst Of The Sukkah

A) The Total Height Of The Sukkah, More Than Twenty Cubits
B) The Height Of The Area Above The Pillar, Less Than Twenty Cubits
C) The Length Of The Pillar; At Least Seven Handbreadths
D) The Width Of The Pillar; At Least Seven Handbreadths
E) The Height Of The Pillar; At Least Ten Handbreadths

יד

בָּנָה אִצְטַבָּה בָּהּ כְּנֶגֶד דֹּפֶן הָאֶמְצָעִית עַל פְּנֵי כֻּלָּהּ אִם יֵשׁ בָּאִצְטַבָּה שִׁעוּר רֹחַב הַסֻּכָּה כְּשֵׁרָה. בָּנָה אִצְטַבָּה כְּנֶגֶד דֹּפֶן הָאֶמְצָעִית מִן הַצַּד אִם יֵשׁ מִשְּׂפַת אִצְטַבָּה וְלַכֹּתֶל אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת פְּסוּלָה פָּחוֹת מֵאַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת כְּשֵׁרָה. בָּנָה אִצְטַבָּה בְּאֶמְצָעָהּ אִם יֵשׁ מִשְּׂפַת אִצְטַבָּה וְלַכֹּתֶל אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת לְכָל רוּחַ פְּסוּלָה. פָּחוֹת מֵאַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת כְּשֵׁרָה. וּכְאִלּוּ הַמְּחִצּוֹת נוֹגְעוֹת בָּאִצְטַבָּה וַהֲרֵי מִן הָאִצְטַבָּה וְעַד הַסִּכּוּךְ פָּחוֹת מֵעֶשְׂרִים אַמָּה. בָּנָה בָּהּ עַמּוּד וְיֵשׁ בּוֹ הֶכְשֵׁר סֻכָּה פְּסוּלָה. שֶׁאֵין אֵלּוּ מְחִצּוֹת הַנִּכָּרוֹת וְנִמְצָא עַל גַּב הָעַמּוּד סְכָךְ כָּשֵׁר בְּלֹא דְּפָנוֹת:

15

A Sukkah That Was Hollowed Out From The Ground

A) Ground Level
B) The Depth Of The Area Hollowed Out; For Example, Two Handbreadths
C) The Height Of The Wall Above The Ground, Eight Handbreadths
D) The Distance Between The Hollowed Out Area And The Wall, Less Than Three Handbreadths
E) The Length Of The Hollowed Out Portion; At Least Seven Handbreadths
F) The Width Of The Hollowed Out Portion; At Least Seven Handbreadths
[The following rule applies] when [the inner space of the sukkah] was less than ten [handbreadths high] and one dug [into the ground of the sukkah] to create an [inner space] of ten [handbreadths]: If there are three handbreadths from the edge of the pit until the wall [of the sukkah], it is not acceptable. If there is less than that [amount], it is kosher, because any [distance] less than three [handbreadths] is considered to be [insignificant, and the two entities are considered to be] adjacent [to each other], as explained in Hilchot Shabbat.

טו

הָיְתָה פְּחוּתָה מֵעֲשָׂרָה וְחָקַק בָּהּ לְהַשְׁלִימָהּ לַעֲשָׂרָה. אִם יֵשׁ מִשְּׂפַת חֲקָק וְלַכֹּתֶל שְׁלֹשָׁה טְפָחִים פְּסוּלָה. פָּחוֹת מִכֵּן כְּשֵׁרָה. שֶׁכָּל פָּחוֹת מִשְּׁלֹשָׁה הֲרֵי הוּא כְּדָבוּק כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ בְּהִלְכוֹת שַׁבָּת:

16

The walls of the sukkah are kosher [although made] from all [substances]. All that is necessary is a barrier of any kind. Even living beings [may serve that purpose. Thus,] a person can create a wall [of the sukkah] by using a colleague so that he can eat, drink, and sleep in the sukkah, for which his colleague is serving as a wall [even] on the holiday.

The above applies when one employs the person as a wall without his conscious knowledge. However, it is forbidden to create [a wall by using a person] when the latter is conscious of the fact on the holiday. Nevertheless, it is permitted during the other days of the festival.

Similarly, a person may create a fourth wall from utensils on the holiday. However, he should not create a third wall using utensils on the holiday, because, [by doing so], he is making the sukkah fit for use, and it is forbidden to create [even] a temporary tent on the holiday.

טז

דָּפְנֵי סֻכָּה כְּשֵׁרִין מִן הַכּל שֶׁאֵין אָנוּ צְרִיכִין אֶלָּא מְחִצָּה מִכָּל מָקוֹם וַאֲפִלּוּ מִבַּעֲלֵי חַיִּים. וְעוֹשֶׂה אָדָם אֶת חֲבֵרוֹ דֹּפֶן בְּיוֹם טוֹב כְּדֵי שֶׁיֹּאכַל וְיִשְׁתֶּה וְיִישַׁן בְּסֻכָּה כְּשֵׁרָה שֶׁחֲבֵרוֹ דֹּפֶן לָהּ. וְהוּא שֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂה אוֹתוֹ שֶׁלֹּא לְדַעַת זֶה שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה דֹּפֶן. אֲבָל אִם עֲשָׂהוּ לְדַעַת אָסוּר בְּיוֹם טוֹב וּמֻתָּר בִּשְׁאָר יְמֵי הֶחָג. וְכֵן עוֹשֶׂה בְּכֵלִים דֹּפֶן רְבִיעִית בְּיוֹם טוֹב. אֲבָל דֹּפֶן שְׁלִישִׁית לֹא יַעֲשֶׂה אוֹתָהּ בְּכֵלִים בְּיוֹם טוֹב לְפִי שֶׁהוּא מַכְשִׁיר הַסֻּכָּה וְאֵין עוֹשִׂין אֹהֶל עֲרַאי בְּיוֹם טוֹב: