When a holiday falls on Friday, on the holiday that precedes the Sabbath we may not bake or cook the food that will be eaten on the Sabbath. This prohibition is Rabbinic in origin,1 so that one will not prepare food on a holiday for a subsequent weekday.2 For a person will make the deduction: Since he is not [allowed to] cook for the Sabbath [on a holiday], surely, [he may not cook] for a weekday.

Therefore, a person who prepares a portion of food on the day prior to the holiday, and he relies on it, is permitted to cook and bake for the Sabbath on the holiday. The portion of food on which he relies is referred to as an eruv tavshilin.


יוֹם טוֹב שֶׁחָל לִהְיוֹת עֶרֶב שַׁבָּת אֵין אוֹפִין וּמְבַשְּׁלִין בְּיוֹם טוֹב מַה שֶּׁהוּא אוֹכֵל לְמָחָר בְּשַׁבָּת. וְאִסּוּר זֶה מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יָבֹא לְבַשֵּׁל מִיּוֹם טוֹב לְחל. שֶׁקַּל וָחֹמֶר הוּא לְשַׁבָּת אֵינוֹ מְבַשֵּׁל כָּל שֶׁכֵּן לְחל. לְפִיכָךְ אִם עָשָׂה תַּבְשִׁיל מֵעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב שֶׁיִּהְיֶה סוֹמֵךְ עָלָיו וּמְבַשֵּׁל וְאוֹפֶה בְּיוֹם טוֹב לְשַׁבָּת הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר. וְתַבְשִׁיל שֶׁסּוֹמֵךְ עָלָיו הוּא הַנִּקְרָא עֵרוּבֵי תַּבְשִׁילִין:


Why is this called an eruv? [Because it creates a distinction.] The eruv3 that is established in courtyards and lanes on the day before the Sabbath is intended to create a distinction - so that people will not think that it is permitted to transfer articles from one domain to another on the Sabbath.

Similarly, this portion of food creates a distinction and a reminder, so that people do not think that it is permitted to bake food on a holiday that will not be eaten on that day. Therefore, the portion of food is referred to as an eruv tavshilin.4


וְלָמָּה נִקְרָא שְׁמוֹ עֵרוּב. שֶׁכְּשֵׁם שֶׁהָעֵרוּב שֶׁעוֹשִׂין בַּחֲצֵרוֹת וּמְבוֹאוֹת מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת מִשּׁוּם הֶכֵּר כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יַעֲלֶה עַל דַּעְתָּם שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְהוֹצִיא מֵרְשׁוּת לִרְשׁוּת בְּשַׁבָּת. כָּךְ זֶה הַתַּבְשִׁיל מִשּׁוּם הֶכֵּר וְזִכָּרוֹן כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יְדַמּוּ וְיַחְשְׁבוּ שֶׁמֻּתָּר לֶאֱפוֹת בְּיוֹם טוֹב מַה שֶּׁאֵינוֹ נֶאֱכָל בּוֹ בַּיּוֹם. וּלְפִיכָךְ נִקְרָא תַּבְשִׁיל זֶה עֵרוּבֵי תַּבְשִׁילִין:


The [minimum] measure of an eruv tavshilin is a portion of food the size of an olive. This suffices both for a single person and for a thousand.

This eruv may not be established with bread,5 with cereal, or the like.6 Instead, a portion of cooked food that is served together with bread - e.g., meat, fish, eggs, and the like - must be used. [Nevertheless, one need not set aside a portion of choice food.7] Even lentils [left] at the bottom of the pot [are sufficient].8 Moreover, one may even rely on the fat that is left on the knife used to cut roast meat. If an amount the size of an olive is left when one scrapes it off, one may use it for an eruv tavshilin.9


עֵרוּבֵי תַּבְשִׁילִין שִׁעוּרוֹ אֵין פָּחוֹת מִכְּזַיִת בֵּין לְאֶחָד בֵּין לַאֲלָפִים. וְאֵין עוֹשִׂין עֵרוּב זֶה לֹא בְּפַת וְלֹא בְּרִיפוֱֹת וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן אֶלָּא בְּתַבְשִׁיל שֶׁהוּא פַּרְפֶּרֶת כְּגוֹן בָּשָׂר וְדָגִים וּבֵיצִים וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן. וַאֲפִלּוּ עֲדָשִׁים שֶׁבְּשׁוּלֵי קְדֵרָה וַאֲפִלּוּ שַׁמְנוּנִית שֶׁעַל גַּבֵּי הַסַּכִּין שֶׁחוֹתְכִין בָּהּ הַצָּלִי גּוֹרְדוֹ אִם יֵשׁ בּוֹ כְּזַיִת סוֹמֵךְ עָלָיו מִשּׁוּם עֵרוּבֵי תַּבְשִׁילִין:


With regard to such an eruv, the term "cooked food"10 also includes food that was roasted, stewed, pickled, or smoked. Even small fish that are prepared to be eaten by pouring hot water over them11 can be relied upon [for an eruv tavshilin].


תַּבְשִׁיל שֶׁאָמְרוּ לְעִנְיַן עֵרוּב זֶה אֲפִלּוּ צָלִי אֲפִלּוּ שָׁלוּק אֲפִלּוּ כָּבוּשׁ אוֹ מְעֵשָּׁן אֲפִלּוּ דָּגִים קְטַנִּים שֶׁהֵדִיחָן בְּמַיִם חַמִּין וַהֲדָחָתָן הִיא בִּשּׁוּלָן לַאֲכִילָה הֲרֵי זֶה סוֹמֵךְ עֲלֵיהֶן:


This eruv must be accessible until one has baked all that one must bake, cooked all that one must cook, and heated all the water one requires [for the Sabbath].12 If the eruv is eaten, lost, or burned before one has cooked or baked [for the Sabbath], one may no longer bake, cook, or heat water, except what one requires for the holiday.13

If one has already begun [kneading] a dough or [preparing] a portion of food, and the eruv is eaten or lost, one may complete the preparation [of this loaf or portion].14


וְצָרִיךְ שֶׁיִּהְיֶה עֵרוּב זֶה מָצוּי עַד שֶׁיֹּאפֶה כָּל מַה שֶּׁהוּא צָרִיךְ לֶאֱפוֹת וּלְבַשֵּׁל כָּל שֶׁהוּא צָרִיךְ לְבַשֵּׁל. וְיָחֵם חַמִּין כָּל שֶׁהוּא צָרִיךְ. וְאִם נֶאֱכַל הָעֵרוּב אוֹ אָבַד אוֹ נִשְׂרַף קֹדֶם שֶׁיְּבַשֵּׁל אוֹ יֹאפֶה הֲרֵי זֶה אָסוּר לֶאֱפוֹת וּלְבַשֵּׁל אוֹ לְהָחֵם אֶלָּא מַה שֶּׁהוּא אוֹכֵל בְּיוֹם טוֹב בִּלְבַד. הִתְחִיל בְּעִסָּתוֹ אוֹ בְּתַבְשִׁילוֹ וְנֶאֱכַל הָעֵרוּב אוֹ אָבַד הֲרֵי זֶה גּוֹמֵר:

Mishneh Torah (Moznaim)

Featuring a modern English translation and a commentary that presents a digest of the centuries of Torah scholarship which have been devoted to the study of the Mishneh Torah by Maimonides.


When a person sets aside an eruv tavshilin so that he and others may rely on it, he must grant others a portion as one grants them a portion with regard to the eruvin employed on the Sabbath.15

Whoever is allowed to acquire a portion [on behalf of others] with regard to the eruvin of the Sabbath,16 may acquire a portion [on their behalf] with regard to an eruv tavshilin. Conversely, whoever is not allowed to acquire a portion [for others] with regard to those eruvin17 may not acquire a portion [for them] with regard to this [eruv].


הַמֵּנִיחַ עֵרוּבֵי תַּבְשִׁילִין כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּסְמֹךְ עֲלֵיהֶם הוּא וַאֲחֵרִים צָרִיךְ לְזַכּוֹת לָהֶן כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁמְּזַכֶּה בְּעֵרוּבֵי שַׁבָּת. וְכָל שֶׁזּוֹכֶה בְּעֵרוּבֵי שַׁבָּת זוֹכֶה בְּעֵרוּבֵי תַּבְשִׁילִין. וְכָל שֶׁאֵינוֹ זוֹכֶה בְּאוֹתוֹ עֵרוּב אֵינוֹ זוֹכֶה בָּזֶה:


It is not necessary to notify the others whom one grants a portion [in the eruv] before the commencement of the holiday.18 However, they must know that someone has granted them a portion and established an eruv before they rely on it for cooking and baking. Even if they did not receive notification until the holiday itself, they are permitted [to rely on it].

A person may establish an eruv on behalf of all [the inhabitants of] a city,19 and all those within its [holiday] limits.20 On the following day, he may announce, "Whoever did not establish an eruv tavshilin may rely on my eruv."21


וְאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְהוֹדִיעַ לְאֵלּוּ שֶׁזִּכָּה לָהֶן מֵעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב. אֲבָל הֵן צְרִיכִין לֵידַע שֶׁכְּבָר זִכָּה לָהֶן אַחֵר וְעֵרֵב לָהֶן וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִסְמְכוּ עָלָיו וִיבַשְּׁלוּ וְיֹאפוּ. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא יָדְעוּ אֶלָּא בְּיוֹם טוֹב הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מֻתָּרִין. וְיֵשׁ לוֹ לְאָדָם לְעָרֵב עַל כָּל הָעִיר וְעַל כָּל הַקָּרוֹב אֵלֶיהָ בְּתוֹךְ הַתְּחוּם וּלְמָחָר מַכְרִיז וְאוֹמֵר כָּל מִי שֶׁלֹּא הִנִּיחַ עֵרוּבֵי תַּבְשִׁילִין יִסְמֹךְ עַל עֵרוּבִי:


A person who establishes an eruv is required to recite [the following] blessing:22 "Blessed are You, God, our Lord, King of the Universe, who has sanctified us with His commandments and has commanded us concerning the mitzvah of eruv."

[At this time,] he should say: "With this eruv, I will be permitted to bake and to cook tomorrow23 on the holiday24 for the Sabbath." If he includes others in the eruv, he should say "...for me, and for so and so, and so and so...," or "for all the inhabitants of the city to bake and cook on the holiday for the Sabbath."


הַמַּנִּיחַ עֵרוּבֵי תַּבְשִׁילִין חַיָּב לְבָרֵךְ. בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה ה' אֱלֹהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם אֲשֶׁר קִדְּשָׁנוּ בְּמִצְוֹתָיו וְצִוָּנוּ עַל מִצְוַת עֵרוּב. וְאוֹמֵר בְּעֵרוּב זֶה יֻתַּר לִי לֶאֱפוֹת וּלְבַשֵּׁל מִיּוֹם טוֹב שֶׁלְּמָחָר לְשַׁבָּת. וְאִם זָכָה בּוֹ לַאֲחֵרִים יֹאמַר לִי וְלִפְלוֹנִי וְלִפְלוֹנִי אוֹ לְאַנְשֵׁי הָעִיר כֻּלָּם לֶאֱפוֹת וּלְבַשֵּׁל מִיּוֹם טוֹב לְשַׁבָּת:


When a person did not establish an eruv himself, and others did not include him in [their eruvin], just as he is forbidden to cook and bake, his flour and his food are forbidden [to be used on the holiday]. It is thus forbidden for another person who himself established [an eruv] to cook or to bake for the person who did not establish [an eruv, using provisions belonging to the person who did not establish an eruv], unless he transfers ownership25 of his food [to the person who established an eruv].26

[If this transfer is made, such an arrangement is permitted, because the person who established an eruv] is cooking and baking [with] his own [provisions], for their ownership was transferred [to him]. If, afterwards, the person [who established an eruv] desires, he may give [this food] as a present to the person who did not establish [an eruv].


מִי שֶׁלֹּא הִנִּיחַ עֵרוּבֵי תַּבְשִׁילִין וְלֹא הִנִּיחוּ לוֹ אֲחֵרִים. כְּשֵׁם שֶׁאָסוּר לוֹ לְבַשֵּׁל וְלֶאֱפוֹת כָּךְ קִמְחוֹ וּמַאֲכָלוֹ אָסוּר. וְאָסוּר לְאַחֵר שֶׁהִנִּיחַ לְעַצְמוֹ לְבַשֵּׁל וְלֶאֱפוֹת לָזֶה שֶׁלֹּא הִנִּיחַ עַד שֶׁיַּקְנֶה לוֹ שֶׁנִּמְצָא זֶה מְבַשֵּׁל וְאוֹפֶה שֶׁלּוֹ שֶׁהֲרֵי קָנָהוּ. וְאִם רָצָה יִתֵּן אַחַר כָּךְ לָזֶה שֶׁלֹּא הִנִּיחַ בְּמַתָּנָה:


When a person did not establish an eruv tavshilin and cooked and baked [food] to eat on [the holiday], and there was [food] left over, or he invited quests and they did not come, he may eat the remainder on the following day. If, however, he acted with guile27[with regard to this matter], he is forbidden to partake [of this food].

If the person transgressed28 and cooked and baked [on the holiday] for the Sabbath without establishing an eruv tavshilin], it is not forbidden [for him to partake of it]. Why did [our Sages] judge a person with guile more severely than a person who willfully transgresses, [imposing] prohibitions [on the former and not on the latter]? Because if leniency were granted to a person who acts with guile, everyone would act with guile, and the entire concept of eruv tavshilin would be forgotten.29 To violate [Torah law] consciously, by contrast, is a rare phenomenon, and the fact that a person transgresses once does not mean that he will transgress in the future.


מִי שֶׁלֹּא הִנִּיחַ עֵרוּבֵי תַּבְשִׁילִין וּבִשֵּׁל וְאָפָה לֶאֱכל בַּיּוֹם וְהוֹתִיר אוֹ שֶׁזִּמֵּן אוֹרְחִים וְלֹא בָּאוּ הֲרֵי זֶה אוֹכֵל הַמּוֹתָר לְמָחָר. וְאִם הֶעֱרִים הֲרֵי זֶה אָסוּר לְאָכְלוֹ. עָבַר וְאָפָה וּבִשֵּׁל לְשַׁבָּת אֵין אוֹסְרִין עָלָיו. וְלָמָּה הֶחְמִירוּ וְאָסְרוּ עַל הַמַּעֲרִים וְלֹא אָסְרוּ עַל הַמֵּזִיד שֶׁאִם תַּתִּיר לַמַּעֲרִים נִמְצְאוּ הַכּל מַעֲרִימִין וְיִשְׁתַּקֵּעַ שֵׁם עֵרוּבֵי תַּבְשִׁילִין. אֲבָל הַמֵּזִיד אֵינוֹ מָצוּי וְאִם עָבַר הַיּוֹם לֹא יַעֲבֹר פַּעַם אַחֶרֶת:


When the two days of a holiday [celebrated in the diaspora] fall on Thursday and Friday, an eruv tavshilin should be established on Wednesday, the day before the holiday. If a person forgot and did not establish [an eruv before the holiday], he should deposit the eruv on the first day, and make a stipulation.30

What is implied? He should deposit his eruv tavshilin on Thursday and say, "If today is a holiday, and tomorrow is a weekday, I will cook and bake for the Sabbath tomorrow, for there is no requirement. If today is a weekday, and tomorrow is a holiday, with this eruv I will be permitted to bake and to cook tomorrow, on the holiday, for the Sabbath."31


שְׁנֵי יָמִים טוֹבִים שֶׁחָלוּ לִהְיוֹת בַּחֲמִישִׁי וְעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת עוֹשֶׂה עֵרוּבֵי תַּבְשִׁילִין מִיּוֹם רְבִיעִי שֶׁהוּא עֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב. שָׁכַח וְלֹא הִנִּיחַ מַנִּיחוֹ בָּרִאשׁוֹן וּמַתְנֶה. כֵּיצַד. מַנִּיחַ עֵרוּבֵי תַּבְשִׁילִין בְּיוֹם חֲמִישִׁי וְאוֹמֵר אִם הַיּוֹם יוֹם טוֹב וּלְמָחָר חֹל לְמָחָר אֲבַשֵּׁל וְאוֹפֶה לְשַׁבָּת וְאֵינִי צָרִיךְ כְּלוּם וְאִם הַיּוֹם חֹל וּלְמָחָר יוֹם טוֹב בָּעֵרוּב זֶה יֵתַּר לִי לֶאֱפוֹת וּלְבַשֵּׁל לְמָחָר מִיּוֹם טוֹב לְשַׁבָּת:


To cite a similar example: when a person possesses two baskets of produce from which terumah was not separated, on the first day of the holiday he should say,32 "If today is a weekday, may this [basket] be considered terumah for [the other basket]. If today is a holiday, then may my words be of no consequence." He should then designate [the basket as terumah] and leave it.

On the second day [of the holiday], he should return and say, "If today is a holiday, then may my words be of no consequence. If today is a weekday, may this [basket] be considered terumah for [the other basket]." He should then designate [the same basket as terumah] and leave it as he did on the first day. [After] depositing the basket that he designated as terumah, he may partake of the other one.33


כַּיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ הָיוּ לְפָנָיו שְׁתֵּי כַּלְכָּלוֹת שֶׁל טֶבֶל בְּיוֹם טוֹב רִאשׁוֹן אוֹמֵר אִם הַיּוֹם חֹל תִּהְיֶה זוֹ תְּרוּמָה עַל זוֹ וְאִם הַיּוֹם קֹדֶשׁ אֵין בִּדְבָרַי כְּלוּם. וְקוֹרֵא עָלֶיהָ שֵׁם וּמַנִּיחָהּ. וּלְמָחָר בַּשֵּׁנִי חוֹזֵר וְאוֹמֵר אִם הַיּוֹם קֹדֶשׁ אֵין בִּדְבָרַי כְּלוּם וְאִם הַיּוֹם חֹל תִּהְיֶה זוֹ תְּרוּמָה עַל זוֹ וְקוֹרֵא עָלֶיהָ שֵׁם וּמַנִּיחָהּ כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁקָּרָא עָלֶיהָ בָּרִאשׁוֹן. וּמַנִּיחַ אֶת זוֹ שֶׁקָּרָא עָלֶיהָ שֵׁם תְּרוּמָה וְאוֹכֵל אֶת הַשְּׁנִיָּה:


When does the above apply? With regard to the two days observed as holidays in the diaspora. Concerning the two days observed as the holiday of Rosh HaShanah,34 by contrast, a person who forgot and did not establish an eruv on Wednesday does not have another opportunity to establish [an eruv]. He should either rely on the eruv established by others on his behalf, transfer ownership of his flour to someone who established an eruv, or be forbidden to bake and cook for the Sabbath.

Similarly, a person who did not separate terumah on Wednesday may not separate it until Saturday night.


בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בִּשְׁנֵי יָמִים טוֹבִים שֶׁל גָּלֻיּוֹת אֲבָל בִּשְׁנֵי יָמִים טוֹבִים שֶׁל רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה אִם שָׁכַח וְלֹא הִנִּיחַ בְּיוֹם רְבִיעִי שׁוּב אֵינוֹ מַנִּיחַ אֶלָּא סוֹמֵךְ עַל אֲחֵרִים אִם עֵרְבוּ עָלָיו אוֹ מַקְנֶה קִמְחוֹ לְמִי שֶׁעֵרֵב אוֹ יִהְיֶה אָסוּר לֶאֱפוֹת וּלְבַשֵּׁל לְשַׁבָּת. וְכֵן אִם שָׁכַח וְלֹא הִפְרִישׁ תְּרוּמָה מִיּוֹם רְבִיעִי שׁוּב אֵינוֹ מַפְרִישׁ עַד מוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת:


The above concepts applied only when the High Court of Eretz Yisrael would sanctify [the new moon] based on the observation [of witnesses],35 and the Jews in the diaspora would celebrate two days [as a holiday] to avoid the doubt, for they did not know the date on which the inhabitants of Eretz Yisrael sanctified [the new moon]. At present, however, the inhabitants of Eretz Yisrael follow a fixed calendar and sanctify [the months accordingly]. Therefore, the second day of a holiday is [observed], not to avoid a doubt, but [to perpetuate] a custom.36


כָּל הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלּוּ שֶׁאָמַרְנוּ הָיוּ בִּזְמַן שֶׁהָיוּ בֵּית דִּין שֶׁל אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל מְקַדְּשִׁין עַל פִּי הָרְאִיָּה וְהָיוּ בְּנֵי הַגָּלֻיּוֹת עוֹשִׂין שְׁנֵי יָמִים כְּדֵי לְהִסְתַּלֵּק מִן הַסָּפֵק לְפִי שֶׁלֹּא הָיוּ יוֹדְעִין יוֹם שֶׁקִּדְּשׁוּ בְּנֵי אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל. אֲבָל הַיּוֹם שֶׁבְּנֵי אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל סוֹמְכִין עַל הַחֶשְׁבּוֹן וּמְקַדְּשִׁין עָלָיו אֵין יוֹם טוֹב שֵׁנִי לְהִסְתַּלֵּק מִן הַסָּפֵק אֶלָּא מִנְהָג בִּלְבַד:


I therefore maintain that a person may not establish on a conditional basis either an eruv tavshilin, an eruv chatzerot, or a shituf in a lane. Nor may he tithe untithed produce on a conditional basis.37 Instead, he must perform [all such activities] on the day prior to the holiday.


וּלְפִיכָךְ אֲנִי אוֹמֵר שֶׁאֵין מְעָרֵב אָדָם וּמַתְנֶה בַּזְּמַן הַזֶּה לֹא עֵרוּבֵי תַּבְשִׁילִין וְלֹא עֵרוּבֵי חֲצֵרוֹת וְלֹא שִׁתּוּפֵי מְבוֹאוֹת וְאֵינוֹ מְעַשֵּׂר הַטֶּבֶל עַל תְּנַאי אֶלָּא הַכּל מֵעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב בִּלְבַד:


Just as it is a mitzvah to honor the Sabbath and to take delight in it, so too, do [these obligations apply to] all the holidays,38 as [implied by Isaiah 58:13], "...sanctified unto God and honored."39 [This applies to] all the holidays, for they are called, "holy convocations." We have explained the obligation implied by honor and delight in Hilchot Shabbat.40

Similarly, it is proper for a person not to partake of a [significant] meal on the day before a holiday from mid-afternoon onward, as on Friday.41 For this is also an expression of honor.

Everyone who treats the holidays with disrespect is considered as if he became associated with idol worship.42


כְּשֵׁם שֶׁמִּצְוָה לְכַבֵּד שַׁבָּת וּלְעַנְּגָהּ כָּךְ כָּל יָמִים טוֹבִים שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה נח יג) "לִקְדוֹשׁ ה' מְכֻבָּד" וְכָל יָמִים טוֹבִים נֶאֱמַר בָּהֶן (ויקרא כג ז) "מִקְרָא קֹדֶשׁ". וּכְבָר בֵּאַרְנוּ הַכִּבּוּד וְהָעִנּוּג בְּהִלְכוֹת שַׁבָּת. וְכֵן רָאוּי לְאָדָם שֶׁלֹּא יִסְעֹד בְּעַרְבֵי יָמִים טוֹבִים מִן הַמִּנְחָה וּלְמַעְלָה כְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת שֶׁדָּבָר זֶה בִּכְלַל הַכָּבוֹד. וְכָל הַמְבַזֶּה אֶת הַמּוֹעֲדוֹת כְּאִלּוּ נִטְפָּל לַעֲבוֹדַת כּוֹכָבִים:


It is forbidden to fast or recite eulogies43 on the seven days of Pesach, the eight days of Sukkot, and the other holidays.44 On these days, a person is obligated to be happy and in good spirits; he, his children, his wife, the members of his household, and all those who depend on him, as [Deuteronomy 16:14] states: "And you shall rejoice in your festivals."

The "rejoicing" mentioned in the verse refers to sacrificing peace offerings, as will be explained in Hilchot Chaggigah.45 Nevertheless, included in [this charge to] rejoice is that he, his children, and the members of his household should rejoice, each one in a manner appropriate for him.


שִׁבְעַת יְמֵי הַפֶּסַח וּשְׁמוֹנַת יְמֵי הֶחָג עִם שְׁאָר יָמִים טוֹבִים כֻּלָּם אֲסוּרִים בְּהֶסְפֵּד וְתַעֲנִית. וְחַיָּב אָדָם לִהְיוֹת בָּהֶן שָׂמֵחַ וְטוֹב לֵב הוּא וּבָנָיו וְאִשְׁתּוֹ וּבְנֵי בֵּיתוֹ וְכָל הַנִּלְוִים עָלָיו שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים טז יד) "וְשָׂמַחְתָּ בְּחַגֶּךָ" וְגוֹ'. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַשִּׂמְחָה הָאֲמוּרָה כָּאן הִיא קָרְבַּן שְׁלָמִים כְּמוֹ שֶׁאָנוּ מְבָאֲרִין בְּהִלְכוֹת חֲגִיגָה יֵשׁ בִּכְלַל אוֹתָהּ שִׂמְחָה לִשְׂמֹחַ הוּא וּבָנָיו וּבְנֵי בֵּיתוֹ כָּל אֶחָד כָּרָאוּי לוֹ:


What is implied?46 Children should be given roasted seeds, nuts, and sweets. For women, one should buy attractive clothes and jewelry according to one's financial capacity. Men should eat meat and drink wine, for there is no happiness without partaking of meat,47nor is there happiness without partaking of wine.48

When a person eats and drinks [in celebration of a holiday], he is obligated to feed converts, orphans, widows,49 and others who are destitute and poor.50 In contrast, a person who locks the gates of his courtyard and eats and drinks with his children and his wife, without feeding the poor and the embittered, is [not indulging in] rejoicing associated with a mitzvah, but rather the rejoicing of his gut.

And with regard to such a person [the verse, Hoshea 9:4] is applied: "Their sacrifices will be like the bread of mourners, all that partake thereof shall become impure, for they [kept] their bread for themselves alone." This happiness is a disgrace for them, as [implied by Malachi 2:3]: "I will spread dung on your faces, the dung of your festival celebrations."


כֵּיצַד. הַקְּטַנִּים נוֹתֵן לָהֶם קְלָיוֹת וֶאֱגוֹזִים וּמִגְדָּנוֹת. וְהַנָּשִׁים קוֹנֶה לָהֶן בְּגָדִים וְתַכְשִׁיטִין נָאִים כְּפִי מָמוֹנוֹ. וְהָאֲנָשִׁים אוֹכְלִין בָּשָׂר וְשׁוֹתִין יַיִן שֶׁאֵין שִׂמְחָה אֶלָּא בְּבָשָׂר וְאֵין שִׂמְחָה אֶלָּא בְּיַיִן. וּכְשֶׁהוּא אוֹכֵל וְשׁוֹתֶה חַיָּב לְהַאֲכִיל לַגֵּר לַיָּתוֹם וְלָאַלְמָנָה עִם שְׁאָר הָעֲנִיִּים הָאֻמְלָלִים. אֲבָל מִי שֶׁנּוֹעֵל דַּלְתוֹת חֲצֵרוֹ וְאוֹכֵל וְשׁוֹתֶה הוּא וּבָנָיו וְאִשְׁתּוֹ וְאֵינוֹ מַאֲכִיל וּמַשְׁקֶה לַעֲנִיִּים וּלְמָרֵי נֶפֶשׁ אֵין זוֹ שִׂמְחַת מִצְוָה אֶלָּא שִׂמְחַת כְּרֵסוֹ. וְעַל אֵלּוּ נֶאֱמַר (הושע ט ד) "זִבְחֵיהֶם כְּלֶחֶם אוֹנִים לָהֶם כָּל אֹכְלָיו יִטַּמָּאוּ כִּי לַחְמָם לְנַפְשָׁם". וְשִׂמְחָה כָּזוֹ קָלוֹן הִיא לָהֶם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (מלאכי ב ג) "וְזֵרִיתִי פֶרֶשׁ עַל פְּנֵיכֶם פֶּרֶשׁ חַגֵּיכֶם":


Although eating and drinking on the holidays are included in the positive commandment [to rejoice], one should not devote the entire day to food and drink. The following is the desired practice:

In the morning, the entire people should get up and attend the synagogues and the houses of study where they pray and read a portion of the Torah pertaining to the holiday.51 Afterwards, they should return home and eat. Then they should go to the house of study, where they read [from the Written Law] and review [the Oral Law] until noon.

After noon, they should recite the afternoon service and return home to eat and drink for the remainder of the day until nightfall.52


אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֲכִילָה וּשְׁתִיָּה בַּמּוֹעֲדוֹת בִּכְלַל מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה. לֹא יִהְיֶה אוֹכֵל וְשׁוֹתֶה כָּל הַיּוֹם כֻּלּוֹ. אֶלָּא כָּךְ הִיא הַדָּת. בַּבֹּקֶר מַשְׁכִּימִין כָּל הָעָם לְבָתֵּי כְּנֵסִיּוֹת וּלְבָתֵּי מִדְרָשׁוֹת וּמִתְפַּלְּלִין וְקוֹרִין בַּתּוֹרָה בְּעִנְיַן הַיּוֹם וְחוֹזְרִין לְבָתֵּיהֶם וְאוֹכְלִין. וְהוֹלְכִין לְבָתֵּי מִדְרָשׁוֹת קוֹרִין וְשׁוֹנִין עַד חֲצִי הַיּוֹם. וְאַחַר חֲצוֹת הַיּוֹם מִתְפַּלְּלִין תְּפִלַּת הַמִּנְחָה וְחוֹזְרִין לְבָתֵּיהֶן לֶאֱכל וְלִשְׁתּוֹת שְׁאָר הַיּוֹם עַד הַלַּיְלָה:


When a person eats, drinks, and celebrates on a festival, he should not let himself become overly drawn to drinking wine, mirth, and levity, saying, "whoever indulges in these activities more is increasing [his observance of] the mitzvah of rejoicing." For drunkenness,53 profuse mirth, and levity are not rejoicing; they are frivolity and foolishness.

And we were not commanded to indulge in frivolity or foolishness, but rather in rejoicing that involves the service of the Creator of all existence. Thus, [Deuteronomy 28:47] states, "Because you did not serve God, Your Lord, with happiness and a glad heart with an abundance of prosperity." This teaches us that service [of God] involves joy. And it is impossible to serve God while in the midst of levity, frivolity, or drunkenness.54


כְּשֶׁאָדָם אוֹכֵל וְשׁוֹתֶה וְשָׂמֵחַ בָּרֶגֶל לֹא יִמָּשֵׁךְ בְּיַיִן וּבִשְׂחוֹק וְקַלּוּת רֹאשׁ וְיֹאמַר שֶׁכָּל מִי שֶׁיּוֹסִיף בָּזֶה יַרְבֶּה בְּמִצְוַת שִׂמְחָה. שֶׁהַשִּׁכְרוּת וְהַשְּׂחוֹק הָרַבָּה וְקַלּוּת הָרֹאשׁ אֵינָהּ שִׂמְחָה אֶלָּא הוֹלְלוּת וְסִכְלוּת וְלֹא נִצְטַוֵּינוּ עַל הַהוֹלְלוּת וְהַסִּכְלוּת אֶלָּא עַל הַשִּׂמְחָה שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ עֲבוֹדַת יוֹצֵר הַכּל שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כח מז) "תַּחַת אֲשֶׁר לֹא עָבַדְתָּ אֶת ה' אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּשִׂמְחָה וּבְטוּב לֵבָב מֵרֹב כּל". הָא לָמַדְתָּ שֶׁהָעֲבוֹדָה בְּשִׂמְחָה. וְאִי אֶפְשָׁר לַעֲבֹד אֶת הַשֵּׁם לֹא מִתּוֹךְ שְׂחוֹק וְלֹא מִתּוֹךְ קַלּוּת רֹאשׁ וְלֹא מִתּוֹךְ שִׁכְרוּת:


The [Jewish] court is obligated to appoint officers who will circulate [among the people] on the festivals and check the gardens, orchards, and river banks to see that men and women do not gather there to eat or to drink, lest they [conduct themselves immodestly and come to] sin.

Similarly, they must warn the people that men and women should not mix at festive gatherings in homes, nor should they overindulge in wine, lest they be led to sin.


חַיָּבִין בֵּית דִּין לְהַעֲמִיד שׁוֹטְרִים בָּרְגָלִים שֶׁיִּהְיוּ מְסַבְּבִין וּמְחַפְּשִׂין בַּגַּנּוֹת וּבַפַּרְדֵּסִים וְעַל הַנְּהָרוֹת כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִתְקַבְּצוּ לֶאֱכל וְלִשְׁתּוֹת שָׁם אֲנָשִׁים וְנָשִׁים וְיָבוֹאוּ לִידֵי עֲבֵרָה. וְכֵן יַזְהִירוּ בְּדָבָר זֶה לְכָל הָעָם כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִתְעָרְבוּ אֲנָשִׁים וְנָשִׁים בְּבָתֵּיהֶם לְשִׂמְחָה. וְלֹא יִמָּשְׁכוּ בַּיַּיִן שֶׁמָּא יָבוֹאוּ לִידֵי עֲבֵרָה:


The days between the first and the seventh days of Pesach and [the days between] the first and the eighth days of Sukkot are called Chol HaMo'ed55 and are also called mo'ed. In the diaspora,56 there are four days during Pesach and five days during Sukkot.

Although we are obligated to celebrate on these days, and it is forbidden to deliver a eulogy or to fast,57 it is permitted to deliver a eulogy before the corpse of a Torah sage. After he is buried, however, it is forbidden to deliver a eulogy on these days.58

Needless to say that on Rosh Chodesh, on Chanukah, and on Purim we may deliver a eulogy before the corpse of a Torah sage, although it is forbidden to fast or deliver a eulogy on these days.59 After the burial, however, it is forbidden to deliver a eulogy on these days.


יָמִים שֶׁבֵּין רִאשׁוֹן וּשְׁבִיעִי שֶׁל פֶּסַח וְרִאשׁוֹן וּשְׁמִינִי שֶׁל חַג הַסֻּכּוֹת וְהֵן בַּגּוֹלָה אַרְבָּעָה בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח וַחֲמִשָּׁה בְּתוֹךְ הֶחָג הֵם הַנִּקְרָאִין חֻלּוֹ שֶׁל מוֹעֵד וְנִקְרָאִין מוֹעֵד. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵם חַיָּבִין בְּשִׂמְחָה וַאֲסוּרִין בְּהֶסְפֵּד וְתַעֲנִית מֻתָּר לִסְפֹּד בָּהֶן תַּלְמִיד חָכָם בְּפָנָיו. אֲבָל לְאַחַר שֶׁיִּקָּבֵר אָסוּר לְסָפְדוֹ בָּהֶן. וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר בְּרָאשֵׁי חֳדָשִׁים בַּחֲנֻכָּה וּבְפוּרִים שֶׁסּוֹפְדִין בָּהֶן תַּלְמִידֵי חֲכָמִים בְּפָנָיו אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיָּמִים אֵלּוּ אֲסוּרִין בְּהֶסְפֵּד וְתַעֲנִית. אֲבָל לְאַחַר הַקְּבוּרָה אָסוּר לִסְפֹּד בָּהֶן:


The bier of a corpse should not be left in the street during [Chol Ha]Mo'ed, so that [no one] will be prompted to deliver a eulogy. Instead, it should be taken from the home to the grave.60

We do not observe the rites of mourning during [Chol Ha]Mo'ed.61 Nor does one rend his garments, partake of the meal of solace [served after the burial],62 or bare his shoulder because of a deceased during [Chol Ha]Mo'ed,63 with the exception of the relatives who are obligated to mourn because of him.64

If the deceased was a sage or an upright man,65 or one was present at his death,66 one should rend one's clothes because of his [death] during [Chol Ha]Mo'ed even though one is not related [to the deceased]. We may not rend our garments on the second day of a holiday at all;67 this applies even to the relatives of the deceased.


אֵין מַנִּיחִין מִטַּת הַמֵּת בָּרְחוֹב בַּמּוֹעֵד שֶׁלֹּא לְהַרְגִּיל אֶת הַהֶסְפֵּד אֶלָּא מִבֵּיתוֹ לְקִבְרוֹ. וְאֵין מִתְאַבְּלִין בַּמּוֹעֵד. וְכֵן אֵין קוֹרְעִין וְלֹא מַבְרִין וְלֹא חוֹלְצִין הַכָּתֵף בַּמּוֹעֵד עַל הַמֵּת אֶלָּא קְרוֹבָיו שֶׁהֵן חַיָּבִין לְהִתְאַבֵּל עָלָיו. וְאִם הָיָה חָכָם אוֹ אָדָם כָּשֵׁר אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה עוֹמֵד עָלָיו בִּשְׁעַת נְטִילַת נְשָׁמָה הֲרֵי זֶה קוֹרֵעַ עָלָיו בַּמּוֹעֵד אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ קְרוֹבוֹ. וְאֵין קוֹרְעִין בְּיוֹם טוֹב שֵׁנִי כְּלָל וַאֲפִלּוּ קְרוֹבָיו שֶׁל מֵת:


During [Chol Ha]Mo'ed women lament, but they may not pound their hands on each other in grief or mourn. Once the corpse is buried, they may not lament. On Rosh Chodesh, Chanukah and Purim, they may lament and pound their hands on each other in grief before the corpse is buried, but they may not mourn.

What is meant by lamenting? That they all lament in unison. What is meant by mourning? That one recites [a dirge] and the others respond in unison.68

It is forbidden for a person to have a eulogy recited for a deceased person thirty days before the festival,69 so that the festival will not arrive when he is sad, and his heart is grieved and hurting, because of the memory of [his] agony. Instead, he should remove the grieving from his heart and direct his attention toward joy.


נָשִׁים בַּמּוֹעֵד בִּפְנֵי הַמֵּת מְעַנּוֹת אֲבָל לֹא מְטַפְּחוֹת וְלֹא מְקוֹנְנוֹת. נִקְבַּר הַמֵּת אֵינָן מְעַנּוֹת. בְּרָאשֵׁי חֳדָשִׁים וַחֲנֻכָּה וּפוּרִים בִּפְנֵי הַמֵּת מְעַנּוֹת וּמְטַפְּחוֹת אֲבָל לֹא מְקוֹנְנוֹת. אֵי זֶהוּ עִנּוּי שֶׁכֻּלָּן עוֹנוֹת כְּאַחַת. קִינָה אַחַת אוֹמֶרֶת וְכֻלָּן עוֹנוֹת. וְאָסוּר לְאָדָם שֶׁיְּעוֹרֵר עַל מֵתוֹ קֹדֶם לָרֶגֶל שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יָבֹא הָרֶגֶל וְהוּא נֶעֱצָב וְלִבּוֹ דּוֹאֵג וְכוֹאֵב מִזִּכְרוֹן הַצַּעַר אֶלָּא יָסִיר הַדְּאָגָה מִלִּבּוֹ וִיכַוֵּן דַּעְתּוֹ לְשִׂמְחָה: