1

When a person leaves a city on Friday afternoon and deposits food for two meals at a distance from the city,1 but within its Sabbath limits,2 and by doing so establishes this as his place for the Sabbath, it is considered as if his base for the Sabbath is the place where he deposited the food for two meals, even if he returns to the city [before the commencement of the Sabbath] and spends the night in his home. This is called an eruv t'chumin.3

א

מִי שֶׁיָּצָא מִן הַמְּדִינָה בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת וְהִנִּיחַ מְזוֹן שְׁתֵּי סְעֻדּוֹת רָחוֹק מִן הַמְּדִינָה בְּתוֹךְ הַתְּחוּם וְקָבַע שְׁבִיתָתוֹ שָׁם. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁחָזַר לַמְּדִינָה וְלָן בְּבֵיתוֹ נֶחְשָׁב אוֹתוֹ כְּאִלּוּ שָׁבַת בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁהִנִּיחַ בּוֹ שְׁתֵּי הַסְּעֻדּוֹת. וְזֶה הוּא הַנִּקְרָא עֵרוּבֵי תְּחוּמִין:

2

On the following day, the person may walk two thousand cubits4 from [the place of] his eruv in all directions.5 Accordingly, when a person walks two thousand cubits from his eruv on the following day within his city, he may walk only to the end of his limit. If, however, the entire city is included within his limit, the city is considered as if it were only four cubits, and he may continue to the end of his limit beyond the city.6

ב

וְיֵשׁ לוֹ לְהַלֵּךְ מִמְּקוֹם עֵרוּבוֹ לְמָחָר אַלְפַּיִם אַמָּה לְכָל רוּחַ. לְפִיכָךְ כְּשֶׁהוּא מְהַלֵּךְ מִמְּקוֹם עֵרוּבוֹ לְמָחָר אַלְפַּיִם אַמָּה כְּנֶגֶד הַמְּדִינָה אֵינוֹ מְהַלֵּךְ בַּמְּדִינָה אֶלָּא עַד סוֹף מִדָּתוֹ. וְאִם הָיְתָה הַמְּדִינָה מֻבְלַעַת בְּתוֹךְ מִדָּתוֹ תֵּחָשֵׁב הַמְּדִינָה כֻּלָּהּ כְּאַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת וְיַשְׁלִים מִדָּתוֹ חוּצָה לָהּ:

3

What is implied? When a person places his eruv one thousand cubits to the east of his house in a city, he may walk two thousand cubits eastward from the place of his eruv on the following day. He may also walk two thousand cubits to the west, one thousand from the eruv to his house, and one thousand from his house westward. He may not walk to the end of the city [limits, if they are] beyond the thousand cubits.

If there are less than one thousand cubits from his house to the boundaries of the city7 - even if his Sabbath limits end one cubit outside the city - the entire city is considered to be four cubits, and he may proceed 996 cubits beyond it to complete [his Sabbath limits of] two thousand [cubits].

ג

כֵּיצַד. הֲרֵי שֶׁהִנִּיחַ אֶת עֵרוּבוֹ בְּרִחוּק אֶלֶף אַמָּה מִבֵּיתוֹ שֶׁבַּמְּדִינָה לְרוּחַ מִזְרָח נִמְצָא מְהַלֵּךְ לְמָחָר מִמְּקוֹם עֵרוּבוֹ אַלְפַּיִם אַמָּה לְמִזְרָח. וּמְהַלֵּךְ מִמְּקוֹם עֵרוּבוֹ אַלְפַּיִם אַמָּה לְמַעֲרָב. אֶלֶף שֶׁמִּן הָעֵרוּב עַד בֵּיתוֹ וְאֶלֶף אַמָּה מִבֵּיתוֹ בְּתוֹךְ הַמְּדִינָה. וְאֵינוֹ מְהַלֵּךְ בַּמְּדִינָה אֶלָּא עַד סוֹף הָאֶלֶף. הָיָה מִבֵּיתוֹ עַד סוֹף הַמְּדִינָה פָּחוֹת מֵאֶלֶף אֲפִלּוּ אַמָּה אַחַת שֶׁנִּמְצֵאת מִדָּתוֹ כָּלְתָה חוּץ לַמְּדִינָה תֵּחָשֵׁב הַמְּדִינָה כֻּלָּהּ כְּאַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת וִיהַלֵּךְ חוּצָה לָהּ תְּשַׁע מֵאוֹת שֵׁשׁ וְתִשְׁעִים אַמָּה תַּשְׁלוּם הָאַלְפַּיִם:

4

According [to this principle], if a person placed his eruv two thousand cubits [towards the east] of his house in a city, he would lose [the possibility of walking] throughout the entire [area of] the city [to the west]. Thus, he would be permitted [to walk] two thousand cubits from his house to his eruv and from his eruv two thousand cubits further. He may not walk even one cubit to the west of his house in the city.8

When a person places his eruv in a private domain - even if it is a metropolis like Nineveh, the ruins of a city, or a cave that is fit to be used as a dwelling - he is permitted to walk throughout its entire area and two thousand cubits beyond it in all directions.9

ד

לְפִיכָךְ אִם הִנִּיחַ עֵרוּבוֹ בְּרִחוּק אַלְפַּיִם אַמָּה מִבֵּיתוֹ שֶׁבַּמְּדִינָה הִפְסִיד אֶת כָּל הַמְּדִינָה כֻּלָּהּ. וְנִמְצָא מְהַלֵּךְ מִבֵּיתוֹ עַד עֵרוּבוֹ אַלְפַּיִם אַמָּה וּמֵעֵרוּבוֹ אַלְפַּיִם וְאֵינוֹ מְהַלֵּךְ מִבֵּיתוֹ בַּמְּדִינָה לְרוּחַ מַעֲרָב אֲפִלּוּ אַמָּה אַחַת. הַמַּנִּיחַ עֵרוּבוֹ בִּרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד אֲפִלּוּ הָיְתָה מְדִינָה גְּדוֹלָה כְּנִינְוֵה וַאֲפִלּוּ עִיר חֲרֵבָה אוֹ מְעָרָה הָרְאוּיָה לְדִיּוּרִין מְהַלֵּךְ אֶת כֻּלָּהּ וְחוּצָה לָהּ אַלְפַּיִם אַמָּה לְכָל רוּחַ:

5

If a person deposits his eruv within the city in which he is spending the Sabbath, his actions are of no consequence and his [Sabbath limits] should not be measured from his eruv.10 Instead, he is like the other inhabitants of the city, and may proceed two thousand cubits in all directions outside the city.

If a person deposits his eruv in the outlying areas that are included within the city's boundaries, and the calculation of [the city's] Sabbath limits begins beyond these areas,11 it is as if he had deposited it within the city [proper].

If a person deposits his eruv beyond the city's Sabbath limits, it is not considered to be a [valid] eruv.12

ה

הַמַּנִּיחַ עֵרוּבוֹ בְּתוֹךְ הַמְּדִינָה שֶׁשָּׁבַת בָּהּ לֹא עָשָׂה כְּלוּם וְאֵין מוֹדְדִין לוֹ מִמְּקוֹם עֵרוּבוֹ אֶלָּא הֲרֵי הוּא כִּבְנֵי הַמְּדִינָה כֻּלָּן שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהֶן אַלְפַּיִם אַמָּה לְכָל רוּחַ חוּץ לַמְּדִינָה. וְכֵן אִם נָתַן עֵרוּבוֹ בַּמְּקוֹמוֹת הַמִּצְטָרְפִין לָעִיר שֶׁמּוֹדְדִין הַתְּחוּם חוּץ מֵהֶם הֲרֵי זֶה כְּנוֹתְנוֹ בְּתוֹךְ הָעִיר. נָתַן עֵרוּבוֹ חוּץ לַתְּחוּם אֵינוֹ עֵרוּב:

6

An eruv t'chumin should be established only for a purpose associated with a mitzvah13 - e.g., a person who desires to go to the house of a mourner, to a wedding feast, to greet his teacher or to greet a colleague returning from a journey, or the like.14

[Similarly, one may establish an eruv t'chumin] out of fear - e.g., a person who seeks to flee from gentiles, from thieves or the like. If a person establishes an eruv for other reasons,15 his eruv is still valid.16

ו

אֵין מְעָרְבִין עֵרוּבֵי תְּחוּמִין אֶלָּא לִדְבַר מִצְוָה כְּגוֹן שֶׁהָיָה רוֹצֶה לֵילֵךְ לְבֵית הָאָבֵל אוֹ לְמִשְׁתֶּה שֶׁל נִשּׂוּאִין אוֹ לְהַקְבִּיל פְּנֵי רַבּוֹ אוֹ חֲבֵרוֹ שֶׁבָּא מִן הַדֶּרֶךְ וְכַיּוֹצֵא בְּאֵלּוּ. אוֹ מִפְּנֵי הַיִּרְאָה כְּגוֹן שֶׁהָיָה רוֹצֶה לִבְרֹחַ מִן הָעוֹבְדֵי כּוֹכָבִים אוֹ מִן הַלִּסְטִים וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה. וְאִם עֵרֵב שֶׁלֹּא לְאֶחָד מִכָּל אֵלּוּ אֶלָּא לְדִבְרֵי הָרְשׁוּת הֲרֵי זֶה עֵרוּב:

7

All foods that may be used for a shituf may also be used for an eruv t'chumin.17 Similarly, all foods that may not be used for a shituf are also unacceptable for an eruv t'chumin.

What is the minimum measure of food acceptable for an eruv t'chumin? The [amount of] food [sufficient] for two meals for every individual.18 When the food in question is a side dish,19 the minimum measure is an amount sufficient to accompany two meals - [i.e., it is governed by] the same [laws] as a shituf.

ז

כָּל שֶׁמִּשְׁתַּתְּפִין בּוֹ מְעָרְבִין בּוֹ עֵרוּבֵי תְּחוּמִין. וְכָל שֶׁאֵין מִשְׁתַּתְּפִין בּוֹ אֵין מְעָרְבִין בּוֹ תְּחוּמִין. וְכַמָּה שִׁעוּר עֵרוּבֵי תְּחוּמִין מְזוֹן שְׁתֵּי סְעֻדּוֹת לְכָל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד. וְאִם הָיָה לִפְתָּן כְּדֵי לֶאֱכל בּוֹ שְׁתֵּי סְעֻדּוֹת. כְּמוֹ הַשִּׁתּוּף:

8

It is necessary for [the place where] a person [intends to spend the Sabbath]20 and his eruv to be in the same domain, so that it is possible for him to partake of it beyn hash'mashot.21

Therefore, if the person intends to spend the Sabbath in a public domain and places his eruv in a private domain, or if he [intends to spend the Sabbath in a] private domain and places his eruv in a public domain, the eruv is not valid. For it is impossible to transfer articles from a private domain to a public domain without performing a transgression.

ח

וְצָרִיךְ שֶׁיִּהְיֶה הוּא וְעֵרוּבוֹ בְּמָקוֹם אֶחָד כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיֶה אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לְאָכְלוֹ בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת. לְפִיכָךְ אִם נִתְכַּוֵּן לִשְׁבֹּת בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים וְהִנִּיחַ עֵרוּבוֹ בִּרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד. אוֹ בִּרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד וְהִנִּיחַ עֵרוּבוֹ בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים אֵינוֹ עֵרוּב. שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לְהוֹצִיא מֵרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת אֶלָּא בַּעֲבֵרָה:

9

If, however, a person intends to spend the Sabbath in a private domain or in a public domain, and he places his eruv in a carmelit, or he intends to spend the Sabbath in a carmelit, and he places his eruv in a private domain or in a public domain, the eruv is acceptable. For during beyn hash'mashot, the time when the eruv is established, it is permitted to transfer articles from either of these domains to a carmelit for the sake of a mitzvah.

All the [prohibitions] instituted because of a Rabbinic decree were not applied beyn hash'mashot in a situation involving a mitzvah22 or in a case of urgent need.23

ט

אֲבָל אִם נִתְכַּוֵּן לִשְׁבֹּת בִּרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד אוֹ בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים וְהִנִּיחַ עֵרוּבוֹ בְּכַרְמְלִית. אוֹ שֶׁנִּתְכַּוֵּן לִשְׁבֹּת בְּכַרְמְלִית וְהִנִּיחַ עֵרוּבוֹ בִּרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד אוֹ בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים הֲרֵי זֶה עֵרוּב. שֶׁבִּשְׁעַת קְנִיַּת הָעֵרוּב שֶׁהוּא בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת מֻתָּר לְהוֹצִיא וּלְהַכְנִיס מִכָּל אַחַת מִשְּׁתֵּי הָרְשׁוּיוֹת לְכַרְמְלִית לִדְבַר מִצְוָה. שֶׁכָּל דָּבָר שֶׁהוּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים לֹא גָּזְרוּ עָלָיו בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת בִּמְקוֹם מִצְוָה אוֹ בִּשְׁעַת הַדְּחָק:

10

[The following rule applies when a person] places his eruv in a closet, locks it, and then loses the key: If he can remove his eruv without performing a labor that is forbidden by the Torah, it is valid.24

If a person places his eruv at the top of a reed or a shaft that grows from the earth, it is not valid. This is a decree, lest he break off [the reed].25 If [these articles] were already detached and were implanted [in the ground], the eruv is valid.26

י

נְתָנוֹ בְּמִגְדָּל וְנָעַל וְאָבַד הַמַּפְתֵּחַ אִם יָכוֹל לְהוֹצִיאוֹ בְּלֹא עֲשִׂיַּת מְלָאכָה הֲרֵי זֶה עֵרוּב. שֶׁאֵין אָסוּר לַעֲשׂוֹת בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת בִּמְקוֹם מִצְוָה אֶלָּא מְלָאכָה. נְתָנוֹ בְּרֹאשׁ הַקָּנֶה אוֹ הַקֻּנְדָּס הַצּוֹמְחִין מִן הָאָרֶץ אֵינוֹ עֵרוּב גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִתְלֹשׁ. וְאִם הָיוּ תְּלוּשִׁין וּנְעוּצִין הֲרֵי זֶה עֵרוּב:

11

Whenever a person deposits an eruv, he is granted four cubits [in which to carry] at the place of the eruv. Thus, if a person places an eruv t'chumin at the end of the Sabbath limits, and then the eruv rolled two cubits beyond the Sabbath limits,27 the eruv is valid; it is not considered to have left its [original] place.

If, however, the eruv rolls more than two cubits [beyond the Sabbath limits], it is not valid, for it is beyond the Sabbath limits. And [as stated previously,]28 when an eruv is placed beyond a person's Sabbath limits, it is invalid, since the person is unable to reach his eruv.

יא

כָּל הַמַּנִּיחַ עֵרוּבוֹ יֵשׁ לוֹ בִּמְקוֹם עֵרוּבוֹ אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת. לְפִיכָךְ הַמַּנִּיחַ עֵרוּבֵי תְּחוּמִין שֶׁלּוֹ בְּסוֹף הַתְּחוּם וְנִתְגַּלְגֵּל הָעֵרוּב וְיָצָא חוּץ לַתְּחוּם בְּתוֹךְ שְׁתֵּי אַמּוֹת הֲרֵי זֶה עֵרוּב וּכְאִלּוּ לֹא יָצָא מִמְּקוֹמוֹ. וְאִם יָצָא חוּץ לִשְׁתֵּי אַמּוֹת אֵינוֹ עֵרוּב שֶׁהֲרֵי נַעֲשָׂה חוּץ לַתְּחוּם וְהַמַּנִּיחַ עֵרוּבוֹ חוּץ לַתְּחוּם אֵינוֹ עֵרוּב מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְהַגִּיעַ אֶל עֵרוּבוֹ:

12

The following rules apply when] an eruv rolled [more] than two cubits beyond the Sabbath limits,29 it became lost or burned, or it contained terumah and it became impure:30 If this occurred before the commencement of the Sabbath, the eruv is invalid. If it occurred after nightfall, it is valid. For an eruv is established beyn hash'mashot.31

If one is in doubt [when the above occurred], the eruv is valid, for when there is a doubt [with regard to the validity of] an eruv, it is considered acceptable.32 Therefore, if the eruv was eaten beyn hash'mashot, it is acceptable.

יב

נִתְגַּלְגֵּל הָעֵרוּב וְיָצָא שְׁתֵּי אַמּוֹת חוּץ לַתְּחוּם אוֹ אָבַד אוֹ נִשְׂרַף אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה תְּרוּמָה וְנִטְמֵאת מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם אֵינוֹ עֵרוּב. מִשֶּׁחֲשֵׁכָה הֲרֵי זֶה עֵרוּב. שֶׁקְּנִיַּת הָעֵרוּב בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת. וְאִם סָפֵק הֲרֵי זֶה עֵרוּב שֶׁסְּפֵק הָעֵרוּב כָּשֵׁר. לְפִיכָךְ אִם נֶאֱכַל הָעֵרוּב בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת הֲרֵי זֶה עֵרוּב:

13

[The above rules are relevant in the following situation:] Two individuals told a person,33 "Go and establish an eruv on our behalf." He established an eruv for one before the commencement of the Sabbath, and for the other, beyn hash'mashot. The eruv that was established before the commencement of the Sabbath was eaten beyn hash'mashot, and the eruv that was established beyn hash'mashot was eaten after nightfall.34

[The ruling is that] both eruvin are valid.35 For [the halachic status of] beyn hash'mashot is a matter of doubt,36 and when there is a doubt [with regard to the validity of] an eruv, it is considered acceptable.37 Nevertheless, if there is a question whether or not it is past nightfall, at the outset one should not proceed to establish an eruv.38 [After the fact,] if one established an eruv, it is valid.

יג

אָמְרוּ לוֹ שְׁנַיִם צֵא וְעָרֵב עָלֵינוּ. אֶחָד עֵרֵב עָלָיו מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם וְאֶחָד עֵרֵב עָלָיו בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת. וְזֶה שֶׁעֵרֵב עָלָיו מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם נֶאֱכַל עֵרוּבוֹ בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת וְזֶה שֶׁעֵרֵב עָלָיו בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת נֶאֱכַל עֵרוּבוֹ מִשֶּׁחֲשֵׁכָה שְׁנֵיהֶם קָנוּ עֵרוּב. שֶׁבֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת סָפֵק הוּא וּסְפֵק הָעֵרוּב כָּשֵׁר. אַף עַל פִּי כֵן סָפֵק חֲשֵׁכָה סָפֵק לֹא חֲשֵׁכָה אֵין מְעָרְבִין עֵרוּבֵי תְּחוּמִין לְכַתְּחִלָּה וְאִם עֵרֵב הֲרֵי זֶה עֵרוּב:

14

Although an avalanche falls on an eruv before the commencement of the Sabbath, it remains acceptable provided it can be removed without performing a [forbidden] labor. For it is permissible to remove it beyn hash'mashot,39, which is the time when the eruv is established.

If the avalanche fell on it after nightfall, it is also valid, even if it cannot be removed without performing a [forbidden] labor.40 If there is a doubt whether [the avalanche] fell before the commencement of the Sabbath or after nightfall, it is acceptable, because when there is a doubt [with regard to the validity of] an eruv, it is considered acceptable.

יד

נָפַל עַל הָעֵרוּב גַּל מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם אִם יָכוֹל לְהוֹצִיאוֹ בְּלֹא עֲשִׂיַּת מְלָאכָה הֲרֵי זֶה כָּשֵׁר שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְהוֹצִיאוֹ בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת שֶׁהִיא שְׁעַת קְנִיַּת הָעֵרוּב. וְאִם נָפַל עָלָיו גַּל מִשֶּׁחֲשֵׁכָה הֲרֵי זֶה עֵרוּב וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לְהוֹצִיאוֹ אֶלָּא בַּעֲשִׂיַּת מְלָאכָה. סָפֵק מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם נָפַל אוֹ מִשֶּׁחֲשֵׁכָה הֲרֵי זֶה כָּשֵׁר שֶׁסְּפֵק הָעֵרוּב כָּשֵׁר:

15

If, however, one established an eruv with terumah concerning which there was a doubt about its ritual purity,41 the eruv is invalid, for the meal is not fit to be eaten.42

[Similarly, an eruv is invalid in the following situation]: A person possessed two loaves of bread that were terumah. One of them was pure and one was impure, but he did not know which was pure and which was impure. Although he said, "The [loaf] that is pure, whichever it is, will serve as my eruv," the eruv is invalid, for the meal is not fit to be eaten.43

טו

אֲבָל אִם עֵרֵב בִּתְרוּמָה שֶׁהִיא סָפֵק טְמֵאָה אֵינוֹ עֵרוּב שֶׁאֵינָהּ סְעֵדָּה הָרְאוּיָה. וְכֵן אִם הָיוּ לְפָנָיו שְׁתֵּי כִּכָּרוֹת שֶׁל תְּרוּמָה אַחַת טְהוֹרָה וְאַחַת טְמֵאָה וְאֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ אֵי זוֹ הִיא מִשְּׁתֵּיהֶן וְאָמַר עֵרוּבִי בַּטְּהוֹרָה בְּכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁהוּא אֵינוֹ עֵרוּב. שֶׁאֵין כָּאן סְעֻדָּה הָרְאוּיָה לַאֲכִילָה:

16

If a person said: "This loaf of bread is not consecrated today, but it will be consecrated tomorrow," [and uses the loaf for an eruv,] the eruv is valid. For beyn hash'mashot, it had not as yet become definitely consecrated, and thus it was fit to be eaten before commencement of the Sabbath.

If, however, he said, "Today it is consecrated, and tomorrow it is not consecrated," it may not be used for an eruv, for it is fit [to be eaten] only after nightfall.44

Similarly, if one set aside terumah and made a stipulation that it will not become terumah until nightfall, it may not be used for an eruv. For throughout beyn hash'mashot it is tevel45 [which may not be eaten], and it is necessary for the meal [set aside as the eruv] to be fit to be eaten before the commencement of the Sabbath.46

טז

אָמַר כִּכָּר זֶה הַיּוֹם חֹל וּלְמָחָר קֹדֶשׁ וְעֵרֵב בָּהּ הֲרֵי זֶה עֵרוּב. שֶׁבֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת עֲדַיִן לֹא נִתְקַדְּשָׁה וַדַּאי וּרְאוּיָה הָיְתָה מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם. אֲבָל אִם אָמַר הַיּוֹם קֹדֶשׁ וּלְמָחָר חֹל אֵין מְעָרְבִין בָּהּ שֶׁאֵינָהּ רְאוּיָה עַד שֶׁתֶּחְשַׁךְ. וְכֵן אִם הִפְרִישׁ תְּרוּמָה וְהִתְנָה עָלֶיהָ שֶׁלֹּא תִּהְיֶה תְּרוּמָה עַד שֶׁתֶּחְשַׁךְ אֵין מְעָרְבִין בָּהּ. שֶׁהֲרֵי הִיא טֶבֶל כָּל בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת וְצָרִיךְ שֶׁתִּהְיֶה הַסְּעֻדָּה רְאוּיָה מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם:

17

When an eruv is placed in a cemetery, it is invalid. [The rationale is that] it is forbidden to derive benefit from a cemetery.47 Since the person desires that the eruv be preserved there after it was established, he is deriving benefit [from the cemetery].48

If the eruv is placed in a beit hap'ras,49 it is valid. This applies even to a priest, for he can enter [the beit hap'ras in an elevated [closed] compartment,50 or he may sift through its earth51 [and proceed to his eruv].

יז

הַנּוֹתֵן עֵרוּבוֹ בְּבֵית הַקְּבָרוֹת אֵינוֹ עֵרוּב לְפִי שֶׁבֵּית הַקְּבָרוֹת אָסוּר בַּהֲנָיָה וְכֵיוָן שֶׁרוֹצֶה בְּקִיּוּם הָעֵרוּב שָׁם אַחַר קְנִיָּה הֲרֵי נֶהֱנֶה בּוֹ. נְתָנוֹ בְּבֵית הַפְּרָס הֲרֵי זֶה עֵרוּב וַאֲפִלּוּ הָיָה כֹּהֵן מִפְּנֵי שֶׁיָּכוֹל לִכָּנֵס שָׁם בְּמִגְדָּל הַפּוֹרֵחַ אוֹ שֶׁיְּנַפֵּחַ וְהוֹלֵךְ:

18

[These rules should be followed when] many desire to join together in an eruv t'chumin: They should each contribute enough food for two meals52 and place [the food] in a single container in [whichever] place they choose.53

If one person desires to make an eruv on behalf of many others, he must grant them a share by means of another person54 and notify them. [This is necessary because] an eruv t'chumin may not be established on a person's behalf unless he consents,55 since it is possible that he will not desire to have the eruv made in the direction chosen by the other person.

If the person is notified before the commencement of the Sabbath,56 the eruv is acceptable even though he did not express his consent until after nightfall.57 If he was not notified of the eruv until after nightfall, he may not rely on it, for an eruv may not be established after nightfall.

יח

רַבִּים שֶׁרָצוּ לְהִשְׁתַּתֵּף בְּעֵרוּבֵי תְּחוּמִין מְקַבְּצִין כֻּלָּן עֵרוּבָן שְׁתֵּי סְעֻדּוֹת לְכָל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד וּמַנִּיחִין אוֹתוֹ בִּכְלִי אֶחָד בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁיִּרְצוּ. וְאִם עָשָׂה אֶחָד עֵרוּב עַל יְדֵי כֻּלָּן צָרִיךְ לְזַכּוֹת לָהֶן עַל יְדֵי אַחֵר. וְצָרִיךְ לְהוֹדִיעָם שֶׁאֵין מְעָרְבִין לוֹ לָאָדָם עֵרוּבֵי תְּחוּמִין אֶלָּא לְדַעְתּוֹ שֶׁמָּא אֵינוֹ רוֹצֶה לְעָרֵב בְּאוֹתָהּ הָרוּחַ שֶׁרָצָה זֶה. וְאִם הוֹדִיעוֹ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא רָצָה אֶלָּא מִשֶּׁתֶּחְשַׁךְ הֲרֵי זֶה עֵרוּב. וְאִם לֹא הוֹדִיעוֹ עַד שֶׁחֲשֵׁכָה אֵינוֹ יוֹצֵא בּוֹ שֶׁאֵין מְעָרְבִין מִשֶּׁתֶּחְשַׁךְ:

19

All the individuals entitled to take possession of [a share in an eruv for another person] with regard to an eruv chatzerot58 are also entitled to take possession of [a share in an eruv for another person] with regard to an eruv t'chumin.

Conversely, all the individuals who are not entitled to take possession of [a share in an eruv for another person] with regard to an eruv chatzerot are also not entitled to take possession of [a share in an eruv for another person] with regard to an eruv t'chumin.

יט

כָּל הַזּוֹכֶה בְּעֵרוּבֵי חֲצֵרוֹת מְזַכִּין עַל יָדוֹ בְּעֵרוּבֵי תְּחוּמִין. וְכָל מִי שֶׁאֵין מְזַכִּין עַל יָדוֹ עֵרוּבֵי חֲצֵרוֹת אֵין מְזַכִּין עַל יָדוֹ עֵרוּבֵי תְּחוּמִין:

20

A person may give a ma'ah to a homeowner with the intent that [the latter] buy a loaf of bread for him and establish an eruv t'chumin on his behalf.59 [And we assume that the eruv has been established.] If, however, he gives [money] to a storekeeper or a baker, and tells him: "[Have someone] acquire a share on my behalf," we [do not assume that] an eruv has been established.60

[Even with regard to a storekeeper,] if he tells him: "Establish an eruv for me with this ma'ah," [we assume that the storekeeper] will buy bread or other foodstuffs with the money and establish an eruv on his behalf.61 If the person gave [a storekeeper] a utensil, and told him: "Give me food in exchange for this and establish an eruv [with that food] on my behalf," [we assume that he] will purchase the food and establish the eruv on his behalf.62

כ

נוֹתֵן אָדָם מָעָה לְבַעַל הַבַּיִת כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּקַּח לוֹ פַּת וִיעָרֵב לוֹ בָּהּ עֵרוּבֵי תְּחוּמִין. אֲבָל אִם נָתַן לְחֶנְוָנִי אוֹ לְנַחְתּוֹם וְאָמַר לוֹ זְכֵה לִי בְּמָעָה זוֹ אֵינוֹ עֵרוּב. וְאִם אָמַר לוֹ עַרֵב עָלַי בְּמָעָה זוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה לוֹקֵחַ בָּהּ פַּת אוֹ אֹכֶל מִן הָאֳכָלִין וּמְעָרֵב עָלָיו. וְאִם נָתַן לוֹ כְּלִי וְאָמַר לוֹ תֵּן לִי בָּזֶה אֹכֶל וּזְכֵה לִי בּוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה לוֹקֵחַ אֹכֶל וּמְעָרֵב עָלָיו בּוֹ:

21

A person may establish an eruv t'chumin on behalf of his sons and daughters who are below the age of majority63 and on behalf of his Canaanite servants and maidservants64 - with or without their knowledge.65 Therefore, if he has established an eruv for them and they have established an eruv on their own behalf, they should rely on [the eruv] established by their master.

A person may not, by contrast, establish an eruv for his sons and daughters who have passed majority, for his Hebrew servants and maidservants, or for his wife, without their consent.66 [This applies] even if they eat at his table.

If he established an eruv on their behalf, and they heard and remained silent without objecting, they may rely on the eruv that he established.67 If, however, he established an eruv for one of these people and [that person] established an eruv for himself, there can be no greater objection than this, and [that person] should rely on his own eruv.

A child of six years old or less may be taken out, relying on the eruv established for his mother.68 There is no need to set aside a separate amount of food equivalent to two meals for him.

כא

מְעָרֵב אָדָם עֵרוּבֵי תְּחוּמִין עַל יְדֵי בְּנוֹ וּבִתּוֹ הַקְּטַנִּים וְעַל יְדֵי עַבְדּוֹ וְשִׁפְחָתוֹ הַכְּנַעֲנִים בֵּין מִדַּעְתָּן בֵּין שֶׁלֹּא מִדַּעְתָּן. לְפִיכָךְ אִם עֵרֵב עֲלֵיהֶן וְעֵרְבוּ לְעַצְמָן יוֹצְאִין בְּשֶׁל רַבָּן. אֲבָל אֵינוֹ מְעָרֵב לֹא עַל יְדֵי בְּנוֹ וּבִתּוֹ הַגְּדוֹלִים וְלֹא עַל יְדֵי עַבְדּוֹ וְשִׁפְחָתוֹ הָעִבְרִים וְלֹא עַל יְדֵי אִשְׁתּוֹ אֶלָּא מִדַּעְתָּן. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵן אוֹכְלִין אֶצְלוֹ עַל שֻׁלְחָנוֹ. וְאִם עֵרֵב עֲלֵיהֶן וְשָׁמְעוּ וְשָׁתְקוּ וְלֹא מִחוּ יוֹצְאִין בְּעֵרוּבוֹ. עֵרֵב עַל אֶחָד מֵהֶן וְעֵרְבוּ הֵן לְעַצְמָן אֵין לְךָ מְחָאָה גְּדוֹלָה מִזּוֹ וְיוֹצְאִין בְּעֵרוּב עַצְמָן. קָטָן בֵּן שֵׁשׁ שָׁנִים אוֹ פָּחוֹת יוֹצֵא בְּעֵרוּב אִמּוֹ וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לְהַנִּיחַ עָלָיו מְזוֹן שְׁתֵּי סְעֻדּוֹת לְעַצְמוֹ:

22

A person has the option of sending his eruv with an agent [whom he has instructed to] deposit it in the location that he desires to define as his place for the Sabbath.69 He should not, however, send [the eruv] with a deaf-mute, a mentally incompetent individual, or a child,70 nor with a person who does not accept the mitzvah of eruv.71 If he sends the eruv with one of these individuals, it is not acceptable.

If, however, he sent [the eruv] with one of these individuals [with instructions for them] to bring it to a person who is acceptable [to act as an agent], so that the latter would take it and deposit it in the [desired] location, [the eruv] is acceptable. Indeed, even if he sent [the eruv] via a monkey or an elephant [it would be acceptable]. [There is, however, one stipulation: the person sending the eruv] must watch from afar until he sees the person who is unfit [to serve as an agent or the animal] reach the person who is fit [to serve as an agent], whom he has instructed to deposit the eruv.72

Similarly, many individuals who have joined together in an eruv t'chumin have the option of sending their eruv via an agent if they desire.

כב

הָרוֹצֶה לְשַׁלֵּחַ עֵרוּבוֹ בְּיַד אַחֵר לְהַנִּיחוֹ לוֹ בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁהוּא רוֹצֶה לִקְבֹּעַ שְׁבִיתָתוֹ שָׁם הָרְשׁוּת בְּיָדוֹ. וּכְשֶׁהוּא מְשַׁלְּחוֹ אֵינוֹ מְשַׁלְּחוֹ בְּיַד חֵרֵשׁ שׁוֹטֶה וְקָטָן וְלֹא בְּיַד מִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מוֹדֶה בְּמִצְוַת עֵרוּב. וְאִם שָׁלַח אֵינוֹ עֵרוּב. וְאִם שְׁלָחוֹ בְּיַד אֶחָד מֵאֵלּוּ הַפְּסוּלִין לְהוֹלִיכוֹ לְאָדָם כָּשֵׁר כְּדֵי שֶׁיּוֹלִיכוֹ הַכָּשֵׁר וְיַנִּיחוֹ בִּמְקוֹם הָעֵרוּב הֲרֵי זֶה כָּשֵׁר. וַאֲפִלּוּ שְׁלָחוֹ עַל הַקּוֹף אוֹ עַל הַפִּיל. וְהוּא שֶׁיִּהְיֶה עוֹמֵד מֵרָחוֹק עַד שֶׁיִּרְאֶה זֶה הַפָּסוּל אוֹ הַבְּהֵמָה שֶׁהִגִּיעוּ אֵצֶל הַכָּשֵׁר שֶׁאָמַר לוֹ לְהוֹלִיךְ אֶת הָעֵרוּב. וְכֵן רַבִּים שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּתְּפוּ בְּעֵרוּבֵי תְּחוּמִין וְרָצוּ לִשְׁלֹחַ עֵרוּבָן בְּיַד אַחֵר הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מְשַׁלְּחִין:

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When one person or a group of people tell another person, "Go out and make an eruv on our behalf," and the person does so, choosing the direction in which to make the eruv himself, the eruv is acceptable.73 They may rely on it,74 for they did not specify the direction [they desired].

When a person says, "Establish an eruv for me with dates," and [his agent] establishes with dried figs, or he mentions dried figs, and [the agent] uses dates, the eruv is not acceptable. Similarly, if the person asked that the eruv be placed in a closet and it was placed in a dovecote, or [he asked that it be placed] in a dovecote, and it was placed in a closet, or [he asked that it be placed] in a house, and it was placed in a loft, or [he asked that it be placed] in a loft, and it was placed in a house, the eruv is not acceptable.75

If, however, the person told [the agent], "Establish an eruv for me," without making any specifications, the eruv is acceptable regardless of whether he used dried figs or dates, or deposited it in a house or in a loft.

כג

אֶחָד אוֹ רַבִּים שֶׁאָמְרוּ לְאֶחָד צֵא וַעֲרֵב עָלֵינוּ וְעֵרֵב עֲלֵיהֶן בְּאֵי זֶה רוּחַ שֶׁרָצָה הֲרֵי זֶה עֵרוּב וְיוֹצְאִין בּוֹ שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא יִחֲדוּ לוֹ רוּחַ. הָאוֹמֵר לַחֲבֵרוֹ עָרֵב עָלַי בִּתְמָרִים וְעֵרֵב עָלָיו בִּגְרוֹגָרוֹת. בִּגְרוֹגָרוֹת וְעֵרֵב עָלָיו בִּתְמָרִים. אָמַר לוֹ הַנִּיחַ עֵרוּבִי בְּמִגְדָּל וְהִנִּיחוֹ בְּשׁוֹבָךְ. בְּשׁוֹבָךְ וְהִנִּיחוֹ בְּמִגְדָּל. בַּבַּיִת וְהִנִּיחוֹ בַּעֲלִיָּה בַּעֲלִיָּה וְהִנִּיחוֹ בַּבַּיִת אֵינוֹ עֵרוּב. אֲבָל אִם אָמַר לוֹ עָרֵב עָלַי סְתָם וְעֵרֵב עָלָיו בֵּין בִּגְרוֹגָרוֹת בֵּין בִּתְמָרִים בֵּין בַּבַּיִת בֵּין בַּעֲלִיָּה הֲרֵי זֶה עֵרוּב:

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Just as a blessing is recited [before] establishing an eruv in a courtyard or a shituf in a lane,76 so too, a blessing is recited [before establishing] an eruv t'chumin.77

[After reciting the blessing,] one should say:78 "With this eruv, it will be permissible for me to proceed two thousand cubits in every direction from this location."

If he is establishing the eruv on behalf of many individuals, he should say, "With this eruv, it will be possible for 'so and so'..." or "for the people of this community..." or "for the inhabitants of this city to proceed two thousand cubits in every direction from this location."

כד

כְּשֵׁם שֶׁמְּבָרְכִין עַל עֵרוּבֵי חֲצֵרוֹת וְשִׁתּוּפֵי מְבוֹאוֹת כָּךְ מְבָרְכִין עַל עֵרוּבֵי תְּחוּמִין. וְאוֹמֵר בְּזֶה הָעֵרוּב יִהְיֶה מֻתָּר לִי לְהַלֵּךְ לְמָקוֹם זֶה אַלְפַּיִם אַמָּה לְכָל רוּחַ. וְאִם הָיָה אֶחָד מְעָרֵב עַל יְדֵי רַבִּים אוֹמֵר בְּזֶה הָעֵרוּב יִהְיֶה מֻתָּר לִפְלוֹנִי אוֹ לִבְנֵי מָקוֹם פְּלוֹנִי אוֹ לִבְנֵי עִיר זוֹ לְהַלֵּךְ מִמָּקוֹם זֶה אַלְפַּיִם אַמָּה לְכָל רוּחַ: