1

A person who plows even the slightest amount [of earth] is liable.1 One who weeds around the roots of trees, cuts off grasses, or prunes shoots to beautify the land2 - these are derivatives of plowing. One is liable for performing even the slightest amount of these activities.

Similarly, one who levels the surface of a field - e.g., one who lowers a mound and flattens it or fills a vale - is liable for [performing a derivative of] plowing.3 [One is liable for performing] the slightest amount of these activities. Similarly, one who levels cavities [in the ground] to even the slightest degree is liable.

א

הַחוֹרֵשׁ כָּל שֶׁהוּא חַיָּב. הַמְנַכֵּשׁ בְּעִקְּרֵי הָאִילָנוֹת וְהַמְקַרְסֵם עֲשָׂבִים אוֹ הַמְזָרֵד אֶת הַשָּׂרִיגִים כְּדֵי לְיַפּוֹת אֶת הַקַּרְקַע הֲרֵי זֶה תּוֹלֶדֶת חוֹרֵשׁ וּמִשֶּׁיַּעֲשֶׂה כָּל שֶׁהוּא חַיָּב. וְכֵן הַמַּשְׁוֶה פְּנֵי הַשָּׂדֶה כְּגוֹן שֶׁהִשְׁפִּיל הַתֵּל וְרִדְּדוֹ אוֹ מִלֵּא הַגַּיְא חַיָּב מִשּׁוּם חוֹרֵשׁ. וְשִׁעוּרוֹ כָּל שֶׁהוּא. וְכֵן כָּל הַמַּשְׁוֶה גֻּמּוֹת שִׁעוּרוֹ כָּל שֶׁהוּא:

2

A person who sows even the slightest amount is liable.4 A person who prunes a tree so that it grows performs an activity resembling sowing.5 In contrast, watering plants and trees on the Sabbath is considered merely a derivative of sowing.6 One is liable for even the slightest amount. Similarly, one who soaks the seeds of wheat, barley, and the like in water [performs] a derivative of sowing7 and is liable for even the slightest amount.

ב

הַזּוֹרֵעַ כָּל שֶׁהוּא חַיָּב. הַזּוֹמֵר אֶת הָאִילָן כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּצְמַח הֲרֵי זֶה מֵעֵין זוֹרֵעַ. אֲבָל הַמַּשְׁקֶה צְמָחִין וְאִילָנוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת הֲרֵי זֶה תּוֹלֶדֶת זוֹרֵעַ וְחַיָּב בְּכָל שֶׁהוּא. וְכֵן הַשּׁוֹרֶה חִטִּין וּשְׂעוֹרִין וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן בַּמַּיִם הֲרֵי זֶה תּוֹלֶדֶת זוֹרֵעַ וְחַיָּב בְּכָל שֶׁהוּא:

3

One who reaps an amount the size of a dried fig is liable.8 Plucking [fruit] is considered a derivative of reaping.9 Similarly, any person who removes produce from where it is growing is liable for reaping. Therefore, a person who removes grass growing from a rock, a parasite plant that grows on shrubs, or grasses that grow on a barrel is liable, for this is the place where they grow.10

In contrast, a person who removes [fruit from a plant growing] in a flower pot that is not perforated is not liable, for this is not the [ordinary] place from which it grows.11 If, however, the flower pot has a hole the size of a small root, [the plant] is considered as growing in the ground12 and a person who picks fruit from it is liable.

ג

הַקּוֹצֵר כִּגְרוֹגֶרֶת חַיָּב. וְתוֹלֵשׁ תּוֹלֶדֶת קוֹצֵר הוּא. וְכָל הָעוֹקֵר דָּבָר מִגִּדּוּלוֹ חַיָּב מִשּׁוּם קוֹצֵר. לְפִיכָךְ צְרוֹר שֶׁעָלוּ בּוֹ עֲשָׂבִים וּכְשׁוּת שֶׁעָלָה בַּסְּנֶה וַעֲשָׂבִים שֶׁצָּמְחוּ עַל גַּב הֶחָבִית. הַתּוֹלֵשׁ מֵהֶן חַיָּב שֶׁזֶּה הוּא מְקוֹם גִּדּוּלָן. אֲבָל הַתּוֹלֵשׁ מֵעָצִיץ שֶׁאֵינוֹ נָקוּב פָּטוּר מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין זֶה מְקוֹם גִּדּוּלוֹ. וְעָצִיץ נָקוּב בִּכְדֵי שֹׁרֶשׁ קָטָן הֲרֵי הוּא כְּאֶרֶץ וְהַתּוֹלֵשׁ מִמֶּנּוּ חַיָּב:

4

Whenever reaping from a plant causes it to grow larger - e.g., cattle-grass or beets - a person who harvests it without knowing of the prohibition involved is liable for two sin offerings: one because he [performed the labor of] reaping, and one because he [performed the labor of] planting.13 Similarly, a person who prunes [a tree] and desires to use [the branches he prunes] is liable for reaping and planting.

[The following rules apply to] a clod of earth on which grass is growing: If one lifted it from the earth and placed it on staves, one is liable for uprooting. If it was supported by staves and one placed it on the earth, one is liable for planting.14

When figs have dried out while on the tree, and similarly, [other] trees whose fruits have dried out - a person who picks them on the Sabbath is liable15 although they are considered to be detached [from the tree] with regard to the laws of ritual purity.16

ד

כָּל זֶרַע שֶׁקְּצִירָתוֹ מַצְמַחַת אוֹתוֹ וּמְגַדַּלְתּוֹ כְּגוֹן אַסְפַּסְתָּא וְסִלְקָא. הַקּוֹצְרוֹ בִּשְׁגָגָה חַיָּב שְׁתֵּי חַטָּאוֹת. אַחַת מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא קוֹצֵר וְאַחַת מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא נוֹטֵעַ. וְכֵן הַזּוֹמֵר וְהוּא צָרִיךְ לָעֵצִים חַיָּב מִשּׁוּם קוֹצֵר וּמִשּׁוּם נוֹטֵעַ. גַּבְשׁוּשִׁית שֶׁל עָפָר שֶׁעָלוּ בָּהּ עֲשָׂבִים, הִגְבִּיהָהּ מֵעַל הָאָרֶץ וְהִנִּיחָהּ עַל גַּבֵּי יְתֵדוֹת חַיָּב מִשּׁוּם תּוֹלֵשׁ. הָיְתָה עַל גַּבֵּי יְתֵדוֹת וְהִנִּיחָהּ עַל הָאָרֶץ חַיָּב מִשּׁוּם זוֹרֵעַ. תְּאֵנִים שֶׁיָּבְשׁוּ בְּאִבֵּיהֶן וְכֵן אִילָן שֶׁיָּבְשׁוּ פֵּרוֹתָיו בּוֹ. הַתּוֹלֵשׁ מֵהֶן בְּשַׁבָּת חַיָּב אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵן כַּעֲקוּרִין לְעִנְיַן טֻמְאָה:

5

[The following rules apply to] one who uproots chicory or who prunes moist shoots:17 If he intends to use them as food [for human beings], the minimum measure [for which one is held liable for reaping] is the size of a dried fig.18 If he intends to use them as animal [fodder], the minimum measure is the amount necessary to fill the mouth of a young kid.19 If he intends to use them for kindling, the minimum measure is the amount necessary to cook an egg.20

[Similar measures apply with regard to the forbidden labor of] collecting food:21 If [one's intent is to use it] as [food for human beings], the minimum measure [for which one is held liable] is the size of a dried fig. [If one's intent is] for animal [fodder], the minimum measure is the amount necessary to fill the mouth of a young kid. [If one's intent is] for kindling, the minimum measure is the amount necessary to cook an egg.

Whenever the term "an egg" is used, the intent is an average-size chicken egg.22 Whenever the term "the amount necessary to cook an egg" is used, the intent is the amount necessary to cook a portion of an egg the size of a dried fig. A dried fig is one-third the size of an egg.23

[The forbidden labor of] collecting food applies only with regard to [collecting] the earth's produce.24

ה

הַתּוֹלֵשׁ עֻלְשִׁין הַמְזָרֵד זְרָדִין. אִם לַאֲכִילָה שִׁעוּרוֹ כִּגְרוֹגֶרֶת. וְאִם לִבְהֵמָה שִׁעוּרוֹ כִּמְלוֹא פִּי גְּדִי. וְאִם לְהַסָּקָה שִׁעוּרוֹ כְּדֵי לְבַשֵּׁל בֵּיצָה. הַמְעַמֵּר אֳכָלִין אִם לַאֲכִילָה שִׁעוּרוֹ כִּגְרוֹגֶרֶת. וְאִם עִמֵּר לִבְהֵמָה שִׁעוּרוֹ כִּמְלוֹא פִּי גְּדִי. וְאִם לְהַסָּקָה שִׁעוּרוֹ כְּדֵי לְבַשֵּׁל בֵּיצָה. וּבֵיצָה הָאֲמוּרָה בְּכָל מָקוֹם הִיא בֵּיצָה בֵּינוֹנִית שֶׁל תַּרְנְגוֹלִין. וְכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר כְּדֵי לְבַשֵּׁל בֵּיצָה הוּא כְּדֵי לְבַשֵּׁל כִּגְרוֹגֶרֶת מִבֵּיצָה וּגְרוֹגֶרֶת אֶחָד מִשְּׁלֹשָׁה בְּבֵיצָה. וְאֵין עִמּוּר אֶלָּא בְּגִדּוּלֵי קַרְקַע:

6

A person who collects figs25 and makes a chain from them or one who pierces a hole through dates and passes a string through them until they are collected as a single entity performs a derivative26 of the forbidden labor of collecting sheaves. The same applies in other similar circumstances.

ו

הַמְקַבֵּץ דְּבֵלָה וְעָשָׂה מִמֶּנָּה עִגּוּלָה אוֹ שֶׁנִּקֵּב תְּאֵנִים וְהִכְנִיס הַחֶבֶל בָּהֶן עַד שֶׁנִּתְקַבְּצוּ גּוּף אֶחָד. הֲרֵי זֶה תּוֹלֶדֶת מְעַמֵּר וְחַיָּב. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה:

7

A person who threshes [an amount of grain the size of] a dried fig is liable. [The forbidden labor of] threshing applies only with regard to the earth's produce.27

Extracting produce from its shell28 is a derivative of threshing; [a person who performs this activity] is liable. The same applies in all similar situations. Similarly, a person who milks an animal is liable for extracting food.29

By the same token, a person who wounds an animal that has a hide30is liable for extracting,31 provided he requires the blood32that flows from the wound. If, however, his intent is merely to wound [the animal], he is not liable, because his activity is destructive in nature.33 One is not liable unless one extracts a quantity of blood or milk equivalent to the size of a dried fig.34

ז

הַדָּשׁ כִּגְרוֹגֶרֶת חַיָּב וְאֵין דִּישָׁה אֶלָּא בְּגִדּוּלֵי קַרְקַע. וְהַמְפָרֵק הֲרֵי הִיא תּוֹלֶדֶת הַדָּשׁ וְחַיָּב וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה. הַחוֹלֵב אֶת הַבְּהֵמָה חַיָּב מִשּׁוּם מְפָרֵק וְכֵן הַחוֹבֵל בְּחַי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ עוֹר חַיָּב מִשּׁוּם מְפָרֵק. וְהוּא שֶׁיִּהְיֶה צָרִיךְ לַדָּם שֶׁיֵּצֵא מִן הַחַבּוּרָה. אֲבָל אִם נִתְכַּוֵּן לְהַזִּיק בִּלְבַד פָּטוּר מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא מְקַלְקֵל. וְאֵינוֹ חַיָּב עַד שֶׁיִּהְיֶה בַּדָּם אוֹ בַּחָלָב שֶׁהוֹצִיא כִּגְרוֹגֶרֶת:

8

When does the above apply? When one wounds an animal, a wild beast, a fowl, or the like. If one wounds a fellow man, by contrast, one is liable although one's intent is to injure, for [this activity generates] pleasure.35 It causes one's feelings to cool and one's anger to subside. Therefore, it is considered "constructive" in nature. Accordingly, even if one does not require the blood that one extracts, one is liable.36

ח

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּחוֹבֵל בִּבְהֵמָה וְחַיָּה וְעוֹף וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶם. אֲבָל הַחוֹבֵל בַּחֲבֵרוֹ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּתְכַּוֵּן לְהַזִּיק חַיָּב מִפְּנֵי נַחַת רוּחוֹ שֶׁהֲרֵי נִתְקָרְרָה דַּעְתּוֹ וְשָׁכְכָה חֲמָתוֹ וַהֲרֵי הוּא כִּמְתַקֵּן. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לַדָּם שֶׁהוֹצִיא מִמֶּנּוּ חַיָּב:

9

The eight creeping animals mentioned in the Torah37 have hides whose status is analogous to those of animals, beasts, and fowl with regard to the Sabbath laws.38 Other small creatures and crawling animals are not considered to have a hide [whose status is significant with regard to the Sabbath laws]. Therefore, one who wounds them is not liable.39

One who wounds an animal, beast, fowl, or one of the above-mentioned eight creeping animals is liable whether he caused an open wound from which they bled or he made a bruise that caused internal bleeding.

ט

שְׁמוֹנָה שְׁרָצִים הָאֲמוּרִים בַּתּוֹרָה הֵן שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהֶן עוֹרוֹת לְעִנְיַן שַׁבָּת כְּמוֹ חַיָּה וּבְהֵמָה וְעוֹף. אֲבָל שְׁאָר שְׁקָצִים וּרְמָשִׂים אֵין לָהֶן עוֹר. לְפִיכָךְ הַחוֹבֵל בָּהֶן פָּטוּר. וְאֶחָד הַחוֹבֵל בִּבְהֵמָה חַיָּה וְעוֹף אוֹ בִּשְׁמוֹנָה שְׁרָצִים וְעָשָׂה בָּהֶן חַבּוּרָה וְיָצָא מֵהֶם דָּם אוֹ שֶׁנִּצְרַר הַדָּם אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא יָצָא חַיָּב:

10

A person who squeezes fruit to extract its juice is liable for extracting. One is not liable until he extracts an amount of juice equivalent to the size of a dried fig. From the Torah itself, one is liable for pressing only grapes and olives.40

It is, [however,] permitted to squeeze a cluster of grapes directly into food, since a liquid that is absorbed into food is considered as food. Thus, one is considered to be extracting food from food.41 Nevertheless, if one squeezes these liquids into a vessel that does not contain food,42 this is considered pressing and one is liable.

[Similarly,] one who milks directly into food43 or one who sucks with his mouth is not liable.44 One is liable only when one milks into a container.45

י

הַסּוֹחֵט אֶת הַפֵּרוֹת לְהוֹצִיא מֵימֵיהֶן חַיָּב מִשּׁוּם מְפָרֵק. וְאֵינוֹ חַיָּב עַד שֶׁיִּהְיֶה בַּמַּשְׁקִין שֶׁסָּחַט כִּגְרוֹגֶרֶת. וְאֵין חַיָּבִים מִן הַתּוֹרָה אֶלָּא עַל דְּרִיכַת זֵיתִים וַעֲנָבִים בִּלְבַד. וּמֻתָּר לִסְחֹט אֶשְׁכּוֹל שֶׁל עֲנָבִים לְתוֹךְ הָאֹכֶל. שֶׁמַּשְׁקֶה הַבָּא לְאֹכֶל אֹכֶל הוּא וְנִמְצָא כִּמְפָרֵק אֹכֶל מֵאֹכֶל. אֲבָל אִם סָחַט לִכְלִי שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ אֹכֶל הֲרֵי זֶה דּוֹרֵךְ וְחַיָּב. וְהַחוֹלֵב לְתוֹךְ הָאֹכֶל אוֹ הַיּוֹנֵק בְּפִיו פָּטוּר וְאֵינוֹ חַיָּב עַד שֶׁיַּחֲלֹב לְתוֹךְ הַכְּלִי:

11

A person who winnows or separates [an amount of food the size of] a dried fig is liable.46 Causing milk to curdle is a derivative [of the category] of separating.

Similarly, a person who separates the dregs from liquids is liable for having performed a derivative of separating or a derivative of sifting.47 [The particular category of forbidden labor is not defined,] because the labors of winnowing, separating, and sifting resemble each other.48 [If so,] why were they reckoned as three [separate categories? Because every labor that was performed in the Sanctuary is counted as a separate category.

יא

הַזּוֹרֶה אוֹ הַבּוֹרֵר כִּגְרוֹגֶרֶת חַיָּב. וְהַמְחַבֵּץ הֲרֵי הוּא תּוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹרֵר. וְכֵן הַבּוֹרֵר שְׁמָרִים מִתּוֹךְ הַמַּשְׁקִין הֲרֵי זֶה תּוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹרֵר אוֹ תּוֹלֶדֶת מְרַקֵּד וְחַיָּב. שֶׁהַזּוֹרֶה וְהַבּוֹרֵר וְהַמְרַקֵּד דּוֹמִין עִנְיְנֵיהֶם זֶה לָזֶה. וּמִפְּנֵי מָה מָנוּ אוֹתָן בִּשְׁלֹשָׁה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁכָּל מְלָאכָה שֶׁהָיְתָה בַּמִּשְׁכָּן מוֹנִין אוֹתָהּ בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָהּ:

12

A person who separates food from unwanted matter49 and one who separates one type of food from another food50 using a sifter or a strainer is liable. If one separates using a tray51 or a pot with compartments,52 one is not liable. It is permitted to separate food by hand to eat immediately.53

יב

הַבּוֹרֵר אֹכֶל מִתּוֹךְ פְּסלֶת אוֹ שֶׁהָיוּ לְפָנָיו שְׁנֵי מִינֵי אֳכָלִין וּבֵרֵר מִין מִמִּין אַחֵר בְּנָפָה וּבִכְבָרָה חַיָּב. בְּקָנוֹן אוֹ בְּתַמְחוּי פָּטוּר. וְאִם בֵּרֵר בְּיָדוֹ לֶאֱכל לְאַלְתַּר מֻתָּר:

13

A person who separates unwanted matter from food is liable,54 even if he does so using only one hand.55 A person who separates turmos beans from their shucks is liable, for the shucks sweeten them when they are cooked together. Therefore, one is considered to be taking unwanted matter from food and is held liable.56

A person who separates food from unwanted matter by hand and sets it aside [to serve] at a later time,57 even later on [the Sabbath] itself, is considered to have separated for the purpose of storage and is held liable.

If there were two types of food mixed together before a person, he may separate one from the other and place it aside to eat immediately. If he separated [one from the other] and set it aside [to serve] at a later time, even later on [the Sabbath] itself, he is liable - for example, one separated food in the morning to eat in the late afternoon.58

יג

וְהַבּוֹרֵר פְּסלֶת מִתּוֹךְ הָאֹכֶל וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּיָדוֹ אַחַת חַיָּב. וְהַבּוֹרֵר תֻּרְמוֹסִין מִתּוֹךְ פְּסלֶת שֶׁלָּהֶן חַיָּב מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַפְּסלֶת שֶׁלָּהֶן מְמַתֶּקֶת אוֹתָן כְּשֶׁיִּשְׁלְקוּ אוֹתָן עִמָּהֶם וְנִמְצָא כְּבוֹרֵר פְּסלֶת מִתּוֹךְ אֹכֶל וְחַיָּב. הַבּוֹרֵר אֹכֶל מִתּוֹךְ פְּסלֶת בְּיָדוֹ לְהַנִּיחוֹ אֲפִלּוּ לְבוֹ בַּיּוֹם נַעֲשָׂה כְּבוֹרֵר לָאוֹצָר וְחַיָּב. הָיוּ לְפָנָיו שְׁנֵי מִינֵי אֳכָלִין מְעֹרָבִין בּוֹרֵר אֶחָד מֵאַחֵר וּמַנִּיחַ לֶאֱכל מִיָּד. וְאִם בֵּרֵר וְהִנִּיחַ לְאַחַר זְמַן אֲפִלּוּ לְבוֹ בַּיּוֹם כְּגוֹן שֶׁבֵּרֵר בְּשַׁחֲרִית לֶאֱכל בֵּין הָעַרְבַּיִם חַיָּב:

14

A person who filters the dregs from wine, oil, water, or other liquids, using a utensil appropriate for this purpose59 is liable,60 provided he removes the dregs from an amount of liquid equivalent to the size of a dried fig. One may, however, filter wine61 that has no dregs, or clear water, with a handkerchief or with an Egyptian basket62 so they will become crystal clear.63

We may pour water over wine dregs64 so they will become clear.65 [Similarly,] we may place a raw egg in a mustard strainer so that it becomes clear.66

When one has mixed mustard on Friday, one may stir it by hand or with a utensil to make it fit to drink [on the Sabbath].67 Similarly, while wine is in the process of fermentation, one may pour out a barrel of wine together with the dregs over handkerchiefs, for the dregs have not been finely separated from the wine and they are still considered a single mixture.68 The same applies to mustard and all similar substances.69

יד

המְשַׁמֵּר יַיִן אוֹ שֶׁמֶן אוֹ מַיִם וְכֵן שְׁאָר הַמַּשְׁקִין בַּמְּשַׁמֶּרֶת שֶׁלָּהֶן חַיָּב. וְהוּא שֶׁיְּשַׁמֵּר כִּגְרוֹגֶרֶת. אֲבָל מְסַנְּנִין יַיִן שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ שְׁמָרִים אוֹ מַיִם צְלוּלִין בְּסוּדָרִין וּבִכְפִיפָה מִצְרִית כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּהֵא צָלוּל בְּיוֹתֵר. וְנוֹתְנִין מַיִם עַל גַּבֵּי שְׁמָרִים בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁיִּצּוֹלוּ. וְנוֹתְנִין בֵּיצָה טְרוּפָה לִמְסַנֶּנֶת שֶׁל חַרְדָּל כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּצָּלֵל. חַרְדָּל שֶׁלָּשׁוֹ מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת. לְמָחָר מְמַחֶה וְשׁוֹתֶה בֵּין בַּיָּד בֵּין בִּכְלִי. וְכֵן יַיִן מִגִּתּוֹ כָּל זְמַן שֶׁהוּא תּוֹסֵס טוֹרֵף חָבִית בִּשְׁמָרֶיהָ וְנוֹתֵן לְתוֹךְ הַסּוּדָרִין. שֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא נִפְרְשׁוּ הַשְּׁמָרִים מִן הַיַּיִן יָפֶה יָפֶה וְכָל הַיַּיִן כְּגוּף אֶחָד הוּא. וְכֵן הַחַרְדָּל וְכָל כַּיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ:

15

A person who grinds [an amount of grain the size of] a dried fig is liable. One who crushes spices or herbs in a mortar is performing the labor of grinding and is held liable.70

A person who cuts a vegetable that has been detached from its source [into small pieces] performs a derivative of the labor of grinding.71

Similarly, a person who saws wood in order to benefit from the sawdust, and similarly, one who files a piece of metal is liable72for filing even the slightest amount.73 A person who chops wood is not liable [for grinding] until he produces enough chips to cook an amount of egg the size of a dried fig.74

טו

הַטּוֹחֵן כִּגְרוֹגֶרֶת חַיָּב. וְכָל הַשּׁוֹחֵק תַּבְלִין וְסַמָּנִין בְּמַכְתֶּשֶׁת הֲרֵי זֶה טוֹחֵן וְחַיָּב. הַמְחַתֵּךְ יָרָק תָּלוּשׁ הֲרֵי זֶה תּוֹלֶדֶת טוֹחֵן. וְכֵן הַנּוֹסֵר עֵצִים לֵהָנוֹת בִּנְסֹרֶת שֶׁלָּהֶן אוֹ הַשָּׁף לָשׁוֹן שֶׁל מַתֶּכֶת חַיָּב מִשֶּׁיָּשׁוּף כָּל שֶׁהוּא. אֲבָל הַמְחַתֵּךְ עֵצִים אֵינוֹ חַיָּב עַד שֶׁיְּדַקְדֵּק מֵהֶן כְּדֵי לְבַשֵּׁל כִּגְרוֹגֶרֶת מִבֵּיצָה:

16

A person who sifts [an amount of flour the size of] a dried fig is liable.75

A person who kneads [dough76 the size of] a dried fig is liable. Mixing earth [for use as cement] is a derivative of kneading. What is the minimum amount for which one is liable? The amount necessary to make a crucible for a goldsmith.77 The activity of mixing cement cannot be performed with ash, coarse sand, bran, or the like.78

A person who places sesame seeds, flax seeds, or the like in water is liable for kneading,79 because they become attached to each other.

טז

הַמְרַקֵּד כִּגְרוֹגֶרֶת חַיָּב. הַלָּשׁ כִּגְרוֹגֶרֶת חַיָּב הַמְגַבֵּל אֶת הֶעָפָר הֲרֵי זֶה תּוֹלֶדֶת לָשׁ. וְכַמָּה שִׁעוּרוֹ כְּדֵי לַעֲשׂוֹת פִּי כּוּר שֶׁל צוֹרְפֵי זָהָב. וְאֵין גִּבּוּל בְּאֵפֶר וְלֹא בְּחוֹל הַגַּס וְלֹא בְּמֻרְסָן וְלֹא בְּכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן. וְהַנּוֹתֵן זֶרַע שֻׁמְשְׁמִין אוֹ זֶרַע פִּשְׁתָּן וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן בְּמַיִם חַיָּב מִשּׁוּם לָשׁ. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן מִתְעָרְבִין וְנִתְלִין זֶה בָּזֶה: