It is forbidden for us to tell1 a gentile to perform work on the Sabbath on our behalf, although they are not commanded [to observe] the Sabbath.2 [This applies] even when the instructions were conveyed to them before the Sabbath and we do not require [the products of] their work until after the Sabbath.

The above is forbidden as a Rabbinical prohibition to prevent the people from regarding the Sabbath lightly, lest they perform [forbidden] labor themselves.3


אָסוּר לוֹמַר לְנָכְרִי לַעֲשׂוֹת לָנוּ מְלָאכָה בְּשַׁבָּת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְצֻוֶּה עַל הַשַּׁבָּת. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאָמַר לוֹ מִקֹּדֶם הַשַּׁבָּת. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְאוֹתָהּ מְלָאכָה אֶלָּא לְאַחַר הַשַּׁבָּת. וְדָבָר זֶה אָסוּר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא תִּהְיֶה שַׁבָּת קַלָּה בְּעֵינֵיהֶן וְיָבוֹאוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת בְּעַצְמָן:


[The following rules4 apply] when a gentile performs a [forbidden] labor on the Sabbath on his own accord:5 If he performed it on behalf of a Jew, it is forbidden to benefit from that labor6 until one waits the amount of time necessary to perform the labor on Saturday night.7

[The latter leniency is granted] provided the matter is not public notice - i.e., everyone knows that a particular task is being performed for a person on the Sabbath.8

If [the gentile] performed [the labor] for his own sake alone,9 it is permitted to benefit from it on the Sabbath.


נָכְרִי שֶׁעָשָׂה מְלָאכָה מֵעַצְמוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת אִם בִּשְׁבִיל יִשְׂרָאֵל עָשָׂה אוֹתָהּ אָסוּר לֵהָנוֹת בְּאוֹתָהּ מְלָאכָה עַד מוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת וְיַמְתִּין בִּכְדֵי שֶׁתֵּעָשֶׂה. וְהוּא שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא הַדָּבָר בְּפַרְהֶסְיָא עַד שֶׁיֵּדְעוּ בּוֹ רַבִּים שֶׁדָּבָר זֶה בִּשְׁבִיל פְּלוֹנִי הוּא נַעֲשָׂה בְּשַׁבָּת. וְאִם בִּשְׁבִיל עַצְמוֹ בִּלְבַד עָשָׂה מֻתָּר לֵהָנוֹת בָּהּ בְּשַׁבָּת:


What is implied? If a gentile kindled a candle [for his own benefit], a Jew is also permitted to perform activity by its light.10 If [the gentile] kindled the light on behalf of the Jew, it is forbidden.11

Similarly, if a gentile made a ramp to descend from a ship [himself], a Jew may descend after him.12 If he made it for the Jew, it is forbidden.13 If he filled a trench with water to allow his animal to drink, a Jew may have his own animal drink afterwards. If he did so for the sake of the Jew, it is forbidden.14

If a [gentile] gathered grass to feed his animal, a Jew may bring his animal to eat from it15 provided that the gentile does not know this Jew. [If he does, it is forbidden,16] lest he bring more on his behalf at which point he would be performing a [forbidden] labor on behalf of a Jew. Similarly, whenever there is a possibility that the gentile will add more [on a Jew's behalf], [a Jew] should not benefit unless [the gentile] does not know [the Jew].17


כֵּיצַד. נָכְרִי שֶׁהִדְלִיק אֶת הַנֵּר מִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ לְאוֹרוֹ יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאִם בִּשְׁבִיל יִשְׂרָאֵל אָסוּר. עָשָׂה נָכְרִי כֶּבֶשׁ לֵירֵד בּוֹ מִן הַסְּפִינָה יֵרֵד אַחֲרָיו יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאִם בִּשְׁבִיל יִשְׂרָאֵל אָסוּר. מִלֵּא מַיִם לְהַשְׁקוֹת בְּהֶמְתּוֹ מַשְׁקֶה אַחֲרָיו יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאִם בִּשְׁבִיל יִשְׂרָאֵל אָסוּר. לִקֵּט עֲשָׂבִים לְהַאֲכִיל לִבְהֶמְתּוֹ מַנִּיחַ יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּהֶמְתּוֹ לֶאֱכל מֵהֶן. וְהוּא שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא אוֹתוֹ הַנָּכְרִי מַכִּיר לְאוֹתוֹ יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁמָּא יַרְבֶּה בִּמְלַאכְתּוֹ בִּשְׁבִילוֹ וְנִמְצָא עוֹשֶׂה בִּשְׁבִיל יִשְׂרָאֵל. וְכֵן כָּל דָּבָר שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר לְהַרְבּוֹת בּוֹ לֹא יֵהָנֶה בּוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן אֵינוֹ מַכִּירוֹ:


In contrast, when a matter concerns a situation where there is no concept of increasing or decreasing [one's efforts for the sake of the Jew] - e.g., a light or a ramp18 - since [the gentile] performed these activities for his own sake, a Jew may benefit from them afterwards on the Sabbath, even when [the gentile] knows him.

[The following laws apply when] a lamp is kindled at a gathering [of Jews and gentiles] on the Sabbath: If most of the people in attendance are Jewish, it is forbidden to benefit from the light, since the one who kindles it does so for the sake of the majority.19 If the majority are gentiles, it is permitted to benefit from the light. If the proportions are equal, it is forbidden.20.

If a fire broke out on the Sabbath and a gentile comes to extinguish it, we may not tell him, "Extinguish it,21" nor [must we tell him,] "Do not extinguish it,"22 for his resting is not our responsibility.23 The same applies in all similar situations.


אֲבָל דָּבָר שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ לְהַרְבּוֹת וּלְמַעֵט כְּגוֹן נֵר וְכֶבֶשׁ הוֹאִיל וְעָשָׂה בִּשְׁבִיל עַצְמוֹ נֶהֱנֶה אַחֲרָיו יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּשַׁבָּת וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא מַכִּירוֹ. נֵר הַדָּלוּק בִּמְסִבָּה בְּשַׁבָּת. אִם רֹב יִשְׂרָאֵל אָסוּר לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ לְאוֹרָהּ שֶׁהַמַּדְלִיק עַל דַּעַת הָרֹב מַדְלִיק. וְאִם רֹב נָכְרִים מֻתָּר לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ לְאוֹרָהּ. מֶחֱצָה לְמֶחֱצָה אָסוּר. נָפְלָה דְּלֵקָה בְּשַׁבָּת וּבָא נָכְרִי לְכַבּוֹת אֵין אוֹמְרִין לוֹ כַּבֵּה וְאַל תְּכַבֶּה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין שְׁבִיתָתוֹ עָלֵינוּ. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה:


[The following principles apply when] gentiles make a coffin, dig a grave, or bring flutes to play mourning dirges on behalf of a deceased person:

If this was done discreetly, one must wait until that activity could have been carried out on Saturday night, and then the person may be buried using the above. If, however, the grave was located in a public square, the coffin was placed upon it, and all those who pass by say, "This activity that the gentiles are performing on the Sabbath is for the sake of so and so," that Jew may never be buried using the above, for this is a matter of public knowledge.24

Another Jew, however, may be buried using the above, provided that the people wait the amount of time necessary for these activities to have been performed [after the Sabbath has concluded].25 The same applies in all similar situations.


מֵת שֶׁעָשׂוּ לוֹ נָכְרִים אָרוֹן וְחָפְרוּ לוֹ קֶבֶר בְּשַׁבָּת אוֹ הֵבִיאוּ לוֹ חֲלִילִין לִסְפֹּד בָּהֶן. אִם בְּצִנְעָה יַמְתִּין בִּכְדֵי שֶׁיֵּעָשׂוּ לְמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת וְיִקָּבֵר בּוֹ. וְאִם הָיָה הַקֶּבֶר בִּסְרַטְיָא גְּדוֹלָה וְהָאָרוֹן עַל גַּבָּיו וְכָל הָעוֹבְרִין וְהַשָּׁבִין אוֹמְרִים שֶׁזֶּה שֶׁהַנָּכְרִים עוֹשִׂין עַכְשָׁו בְּשַׁבָּת לִפְלוֹנִי הוּא. הֲרֵי זֶה לֹא יִקָּבֵר בּוֹ אוֹתוֹ יִשְׂרָאֵל עוֹלָמִית. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא בְּפַרְהֶסְיָא. וּמֻתָּר לִקְבֹּר בּוֹ יִשְׂרָאֵל אַחֵר וְהוּא שֶׁיַּמְתִּין בִּכְדֵי שֶׁיֵּעָשֶׂה. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה:

Mishneh Torah (Moznaim)

Featuring a modern English translation and a commentary that presents a digest of the centuries of Torah scholarship which have been devoted to the study of the Mishneh Torah by Maimonides.


[The following rules apply when] a gentile brings flutes on the Sabbath to mourn a deceased person: Even though he brought them from just outside the wall,26 we are required to wait the time it takes to bring them from a close place27 after the Sabbath has concluded, and afterwards we may mourn with them.28 [This restriction stems from our suspicion] that he brought them from another place at night, and then entered with them in the morning.

If one is certain that they were brought from another place on the Sabbath, one should wait [the amount of time] until it was possible to bring them from that place after [the conclusion of] the Sabbath.29 [The above leniencies apply] only when [the flutes were not brought] in a public square, as mentioned above.


נָכְרִי שֶׁהֵבִיא חֲלִילִין בְּשַׁבָּת לְמֵת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֱבִיאָן מִצַּד הַחוֹמָה יַמְתִּין לְמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת בִּכְדֵי שֶׁיָּבוֹא מִמָּקוֹם קָרוֹב וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִסְפְּדוּ בָּהֶן. שֶׁמָּא בַּלַּיְלָה הֱבִיאוּם מִמָּקוֹם אַחֵר עַד הַחוֹמָה וּבַבֹּקֶר נִכְנְסוּ בָּהֶן. וְאִם יָדַע בְּוַדַּאי שֶׁמִּמָּקוֹם פְּלוֹנִי הֱבִיאוּם בְּשַׁבָּת יַמְתִּין בִּכְדֵי שֶׁיָּבוֹאוּ מֵאוֹתוֹ מָקוֹם אַחַר הַשַּׁבָּת. וְהוּא שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא הַדָּבָר בִּסְרַטְיָא גְּדוֹלָה כְּמוֹ שֶׁאָמַרְנוּ:


[The following rules apply with regard to] a city inhabited by both Jews and gentiles that possesses a bathhouse that is open on the Sabbath: If the majority [of the bathers30] are gentiles, it is permitted to bathe in it on Saturday night immediately [after the conclusion of the Sabbath].

If the majority of the bathers are Jewish, one must wait [the time it takes] for the water to heat.31 [The rationale is that] the water was heated for the majority of [the city's bathers]. If [the numbers of Jews and gentiles are] equal, one must wait [the time it takes] for the water to heat.32 The same applies in all similar situations.


עִיר שֶׁיִּשְׂרָאֵל וְנָכְרִים דָּרִין בְּתוֹכָהּ וְהָיְתָה בָּהּ מֶרְחָץ הַמַּרְחֶצֶת בְּשַׁבָּת. אִם רֹב נָכְרִים מֻתָּר לִרְחֹץ בָּהּ לְמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת מִיָּד. וְאִם רֹב יִשְׂרָאֵל יַמְתִּין בִּכְדֵי שֶׁיֵּחַמּוּ חַמִּין. שֶׁבִּשְׁבִיל הָרֹב הוּחַמּוּ. מֶחֱצָה לְמֶחֱצָה יַמְתִּין בִּכְדֵי שֶׁיֵּחַמּוּ חַמִּין. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה:


A Jew who instructs a gentile to perform a [forbidden] labor on his behalf on the Sabbath commits a transgression and should be given stripes for rebellion33 [as punishment]. Nevertheless, he is permitted to benefit from the labor on Saturday night after waiting the time it takes for the labor to have been performed.34

The following is the sole reason35 for which [the Sages] forbade using [the products of forbidden labor] until the time to perform the labor passes on Saturday night: If one permitted the use of [the products of forbidden labor] immediately [on Saturday night], a person might tell a gentile to perform a [forbidden] labor on his behalf, so that [after the conclusion of the Sabbath], it will be immediately available for him. Since, however, [the products of forbidden labor] are forbidden until the time it takes for the labor to have been performed passes, he will not instruct a gentile to perform this task. It does not bring him any benefit at all, for on Saturday evening he must wait the time it takes for the labor to have been performed on the Sabbath.


יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁאָמַר לְנָכְרִי לַעֲשׂוֹת לוֹ מְלָאכָה זוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעָבַר וּמַכִּין אוֹתוֹ מַכַּת מַרְדּוּת מֻתָּר לוֹ לֵהָנוֹת בְּאוֹתָהּ מְלָאכָה לָעֶרֶב אַחַר שֶׁיַּמְתִּין בִּכְדֵי שֶׁתֵּעָשֶׂה. וְלֹא אָסְרוּ בְּכָל מָקוֹם עַד שֶׁיַּמְתִּין בִּכְדֵי שֶׁיֵּעָשׂוּ אֶלָּא מִפְּנֵי דָּבָר זֶה. שֶׁאִם תֹּאמַר יְהֵא מֻתָּר מִיָּד שֶׁמָּא יֹאמַר לְנָכְרִי לַעֲשׂוֹת לוֹ וְיִמְצָא הַדָּבָר מוּכָן מִיָּד. וְכֵיוָן שֶׁאָסְרוּ עַד שֶׁיַּמְתִּין בִּכְדֵי שֶׁיֵּעָשׂוּ לֹא יֹאמַר לְנָכְרִי לַעֲשׂוֹת לוֹ שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵינוֹ מִשְׂתַּכֵּר כְּלוּם מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא מִתְעַכֵּב לָעֶרֶב בִּכְדֵי שֶׁיֵּעָשֶׂה דָּבָר זֶה שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה בְּשַׁבָּת:


A Jew is permitted to instruct a gentile to perform an activity that is not a [forbidden] labor36 and is prohibited from being performed on the Sabbath only as a sh'vut.37[This leniency applies] provided that this is necessary because of a minor infirmity,38 a very pressing matter,39 or a mitzvah.


דָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְלָאכָה וְאֵין אָסוּר לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת אֶלָּא מִשּׁוּם שְׁבוּת מֻתָּר לְיִשְׂרָאֵל לוֹמַר לְנָכְרִי לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת. וְהוּא שֶׁיִּהְיֶה שָׁם מִקְצָת חלִי אוֹ יִהְיֶה צָרִיךְ לַדָּבָר צֹרֶךְ הַרְבֵּה אוֹ מִפְּנֵי מִצְוָה:


What is implied? On the Sabbath, a Jew may instruct a gentile to climb a tree or to swim across water to bring him a shofar or a knife for circumcision. Similarly, [one may instruct a gentile] to bring hot water from one courtyard to another to wash a child or a person experiencing difficulty,40 although an eruv was not made to join them.41 The same applies in all similar situations.


כֵּיצַד. אוֹמֵר יִשְׂרָאֵל לְנָכְרִי בְּשַׁבָּת לַעֲלוֹת בָּאִילָן אוֹ לָשׁוּט עַל פְּנֵי הַמַּיִם כְּדֵי לְהָבִיא לוֹ שׁוֹפָר. אוֹ סַכִּין לְמִילָה. אוֹ מֵבִיא לוֹ מֵחָצֵר לְחָצֵר שֶׁאֵין עֵרוּב בֵּינֵיהֶן מַיִם חַמִּין לְהַרְחִיץ בָּהֶם קָטָן וּמִצְטַעֵר. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה:


When a person buys a house in Eretz Yisrael from a gentile,42 he is permitted to tell the gentile to compose a deed of sale on the Sabbath.43 Giving the gentile instructions [to perform a forbidden labor on the Sabbath] is a Rabbinic prohibition, and because [of the importance] of settling Eretz Yisrael44 the Sages did not enforce their decree in this instance.

Similarly, the above principles apply when one purchases a house from [a gentile] in Syria, for Syria is equivalent to Eretz Yisrael in this regard.45


הַלּוֹקֵחַ בַּיִת בְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל מִן הַנָּכְרִי מֻתָּר לוֹ לוֹמַר לַנָּכְרִי לִכְתֹּב לוֹ שְׁטָר בְּשַׁבָּת. שֶׁאֲמִירָה לְנָכְרִי בְּשַׁבָּת אֲסוּרָה מִדִּבְרֵיהֶם וּמִשּׁוּם יִשּׁוּב אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא גָּזְרוּ בְּדָבָר זֶה. וְכֵן הַלּוֹקֵחַ בַּיִת מֵהֶם בְּסוּרְיָא, שֶׁסּוּרְיָא כְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל לְדָבָר זֶה:


When a person contracts a gentile for a task and sets the price, the gentile [is considered] as acting in his own interests.46 [Therefore,] even if he performs the task on the Sabbath, it is permitted.47 Similarly, it is permissible to hire a gentile for a prolonged period, although he performs [forbidden] labor on the Sabbath.48

What is implied? When a person hires a gentile for a year or two as a scribe or as a weaver,49 it is permissible for the gentile to write or weave on the Sabbath. It is as though he contracted him to write a scroll or weave a garment, [in which case, he may] perform the task whenever he desires. [This leniency is granted] provided he does not pay him on a day to day basis.50


פּוֹסֵק אָדָם עִם הַנָּכְרִי עַל הַמְּלָאכָה וְקוֹצֵץ דָּמִים וְהַנָּכְרִי עוֹשֶׂה לְעַצְמוֹ וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא עוֹשֶׂה בְּשַׁבָּת מֻתָּר. וְכֵן הַשּׂוֹכֵר אֶת הַנָּכְרִי לְיָמִים הַרְבֵּה מֻתָּר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא עוֹשֶׂה בְּשַׁבָּת. כֵּיצַד. כְּגוֹן שֶׁשָּׂכַר הַנָּכְרִי לְשָׁנָה אוֹ לִשְׁתַּיִם שֶׁיִּכְתֹּב לוֹ אוֹ שֶׁיֶּאֱרֹג לוֹ. הֲרֵי זֶה כּוֹתֵב וְאוֹרֵג בְּשַׁבָּת וּמֻתָּר כְּאִלּוּ קָצַץ עִמּוֹ שֶׁיִּכְתֹּב לוֹ סֵפֶר אוֹ שֶׁיֶּאֱרֹג לוֹ בֶּגֶד שֶׁהוּא עוֹשֶׂה בְּכָל עֵת שֶׁיִּרְצֶה. וְהוּא שֶׁלֹּא יַחְשֹׁב עִמּוֹ יוֹם יוֹם:


When does the above51 apply? When the matter is discreet, and everyone52 is not aware that the [forbidden] labor being performed on the Sabbath is for the sake of a Jew. If, however, it53 is a matter that is well known, open, and of public knowledge,54 it is forbidden [for a gentile to perform such work]. A person who sees the gentile working does not know that he has been hired on a contractual55 basis and will say that so and so56 hired a gentile to work for him on the Sabbath.


בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּצִנְעָה שֶׁאֵין מַכִּירִים הַכּל שֶׁזּוֹ הַמְּלָאכָה הַנַּעֲשֵׂית בְּשַׁבָּת שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל הִיא. אֲבָל אִם הָיְתָה יְדוּעָה וּגְלוּיָה וּמְפֻרְסֶמֶת אֲסוּרָה שֶׁהָרוֹאֶה אֶת הַנָּכְרִי עוֹסֵק אֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁקָּצַץ וְאוֹמֵר שֶׁפְּלוֹנִי שָׂכַר הַנָּכְרִי לַעֲשׂוֹת לוֹ מְלָאכָה בְּשַׁבָּת:


Therefore, [the following rules apply when] a person hires a gentile to build a courtyard or a wall or to harvest his field, or [hires him to work] at building his courtyard or planting a vineyard for him for a year or two:

If the project is located in a city57 or within its Sabbath limits, it is forbidden for the Jew to allow them to work on the Sabbath,58 because of [the impression this might create in the mind of] an observer who is unaware that they were hired on a contractual basis. If the project is located beyond the Sabbath limits, it is permitted, for there are no Jews who will see the laborers at work on the Sabbath.


לְפִיכָךְ הַפּוֹסֵק עִם הַנָּכְרִי לִבְנוֹת לוֹ חֲצֵרוֹ אוֹ כָּתְלוֹ אוֹ לִקְצֹר אֶת שָׂדֵהוּ אוֹ שֶׁשְּׂכָרוֹ שָׁנָה אוֹ שְׁתַּיִם לִבְנוֹת לוֹ חָצֵר אוֹ לִטַּע לוֹ כֶּרֶם. אִם הָיְתָה הַמְּלָאכָה בַּמְּדִינָה אוֹ בְּתוֹךְ הַתְּחוּם אָסוּר לוֹ לַהֲנִיחָן לַעֲשׂוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת מִפְּנֵי הָרוֹאִים שֶׁאֵינָם יוֹדְעִים שֶׁפָּסַק. וְאִם הָיְתָה הַמְּלָאכָה חוּץ לַתְּחוּם מֻתָּר שֶׁאֵין שָׁם יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁיִּרְאֶה אֶת הַפּוֹעֲלִין כְּשֶׁהֵן עוֹשִׂין בְּשַׁבָּת:


Similarly, it is permitted for a Jew to hire out his vineyard or his field to a gentile, although the latter will sow and plant them on the Sabbath, since an observer will know that they have been hired out or given [to the gentile] under a sharecropping agreement.59

[In contrast,] when an enterprise60 is known by the name of its Jewish owner and is not of the type that is hired out or contracted out under a profit sharing agreement by most people in that city, it is forbidden to be hired out to a gentile.61 The gentile will perform work in the establishment on the Sabbath, and [in the public's mind, the establishment] will be associated with the name of its Jewish owner.62


וְכֵן מֻתָּר לְאָדָם לְהַשְׂכִּיר כַּרְמוֹ אוֹ שָׂדֵהוּ לְנָכְרִי אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא זוֹרְעָן וְנוֹטְעָן בְּשַׁבָּת. שֶׁהָרוֹאֶה יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁשְּׂכוּרִין הֵן אוֹ בַּאֲרִיסוּת נָתַן לָהֶן. וְדָבָר שֶׁשֵּׁם יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּעָלָיו קָרוּי עָלָיו וְאֵין דֶּרֶךְ רֹב אַנְשֵׁי אוֹתוֹ הַמָּקוֹם לְהַשְׂכִּירוֹ אוֹ לִתְּנוֹ בַּאֲרִיסוּת אָסוּר לְהַשְׂכִּירוֹ לְנָכְרִי. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַנָּכְרִי עוֹשֶׂה בְּאוֹתוֹ הַמָּקוֹם מְלָאכָה בְּשַׁבָּת וְהוּא נִקְרָא עַל שֵׁם הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל בְּעָלָיו:


It is permitted to lend63 and hire out64 utensils to a gentile although he will perform [forbidden] labors with them on the Sabbath,65 for we are not obligated to have our utensils rest [on the Sabbath].66 It is, however, forbidden to [lend or hire out] one's servant or livestock67 [to work on the Sabbath], for we are commanded that they rest.68


מֻתָּר לְהַשְׁאִיל כֵּלִים וּלְהַשְׂכִּירָן לְנָכְרִי וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא עוֹשֶׂה בָּהֶן מְלָאכָה בְּשַׁבָּת מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין אָנוּ מְצֻוִּים עַל שְׁבִיתַת הַכֵּלִים. אֲבָל בְּהֶמְתּוֹ וְעַבְדּוֹ אָסוּר מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאָנוּ מְצֻוִּין עַל שְׁבִיתַת בְּהֵמָה וְעֶבֶד:


[The following rules apply when a Jew] enters into a partnership with a gentile concerning labor, merchandise, or the operation of a storefront:69 If such a stipulation was made at the outset,70 it is permissible71 for the profits from the Sabbath - whether large or small - to be designated for the gentile alone, and the profits of another day to be given to the Jew alone in exchange.72

If, however, such conditions were not made at the outset, when [the two] come to divide the profits, the gentile should take all the profits of the Sabbath for himself alone, and then the remainder should be divided [equally].73 The [gentile] need not give [the Jew] anything extra for the Sabbath unless a stipulation to that effect was made at the outset.74 The same principles apply if [a Jew and a gentile] hired a field under a partnership arrangement.75


הַמִּשְׁתַּתֵּף עִם הַנָּכְרִי בִּמְלָאכָה אוֹ בִּסְחוֹרָה אוֹ בַּחֲנוּת. אִם הִתְנוּ בַּתְּחִלָּה שֶׁיִּהְיֶה שְׂכַר הַשַּׁבָּת לַנָּכְרִי לְבַדּוֹ אִם מְעַט אִם הַרְבֵּה וּשְׂכַר יוֹם אַחֵר כְּנֶגֶד יוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת לְיִשְׂרָאֵל לְבַדּוֹ מֻתָּר. וְאִם לֹא הִתְנוּ בַּתְּחִלָּה. כְּשֶׁיָּבוֹאוּ לַחֲלֹק נוֹטֵל הַנָּכְרִי שְׂכַר הַשַּׁבָּתוֹת כֻּלָּן לְבַדּוֹ וְהַשְּׁאָר חוֹלְקִין אוֹתוֹ. וְאֵינוֹ מוֹסִיף לוֹ כְּלוּם כְּנֶגֶד יוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הִתְנוּ בַּתְּחִלָּה. וְכֵן אִם קִבְּלוּ שָׂדֶה בְּשֻׁתָּפוּת דִּין אֶחָד הוּא:


If the stipulation [mentioned above] was not made, [the partners] came to divide the profits, and the profits of the Sabbath were not distinct, it appears to me76 that the gentile should take a seventh of the profits alone77 and the remainder should be divided equally.78

When a person gives a gentile money to invest, the two may divide the profits equally, despite the fact that the gentile engages in business dealings with these funds on the Sabbath.79 All of the Geonim80 concur with this ruling.


וְאִם לֹא הִתְּנוּ וּבָאוּ לַחֲלֹק הַשָּׂכָר וְלֹא הָיָה שְׂכַר שַׁבָּת יָדוּעַ יֵרָאֶה לִי שֶׁהַנָּכְרִי נוֹטֵל לְבַדּוֹ שְׁבִיעִית הַשָּׂכָר וְהַשְּׁאָר חוֹלְקִין. הַנּוֹתֵן מָעוֹת לְנָכְרִי לְהִתְעַסֵּק בָּהֶן אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַנָּכְרִי נוֹשֵׂא וְנוֹתֵן בְּשַׁבָּת חוֹלֵק עִמּוֹ בַּשָּׂכָר בְּשָׁוֶה וְכֵן הוֹרוּ כָּל הַגְּאוֹנִים:


A Jew should not give utensils to a gentile artisan to fashion81 on Friday, despite the fact that he has established a set price,82 unless there is time for him to remove them from [the Jew's] home before nightfall.83

Similarly, a person should not sell, lend, pawn, or give a present of his possessions to a gentile unless [the gentile] can leave the entrance of [the Jew's] house with that article before the Sabbath. As long as [the gentile] is in [the Jew's] house, no one knows when he gave it to him. Thus, should the gentile leave [the Jew's] house on the Sabbath with [the Jew's] possessions in his hand, it would appear that the object was lent, pawned, agreed to be worked on, or sold on the Sabbath.84


לֹא יִתֵּן אָדָם בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת כֵּלִים לְאֻמָּן נָכְרִי לַעֲשׂוֹתָן אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁפָּסַק עִמּוֹ. אֶלָּא בִּכְדֵי שֶׁיֵּצֵא בָּהֶן מִבֵּיתוֹ קֹדֶם שֶׁחֲשֵׁכָה. וְכֵן לֹא יִמְכֹּר אָדָם חֲפָצָיו לְנָכְרִי וְלֹא יַשְׁאִילֶנּוּ וְלֹא יַלְוֶנּוּ וְלֹא יְמַשְׁכְּנֶנּוּ וְלֹא יִתֵּן לוֹ בְּמַתָּנָה אֶלָּא בִּכְדֵי שֶׁיֵּצֵא בְּאוֹתוֹ חֵפֶץ מִפֶּתַח בֵּיתוֹ קֹדֶם הַשַּׁבָּת. שֶׁכָּל זְמַן שֶׁהוּא בְּבֵיתוֹ אֵין אָדָם יוֹדֵעַ אֵימָתַי נָתַן לוֹ וּכְשֶׁיֵּצֵא הַנָּכְרִי מִבֵּיתוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת וְחֵפֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּיָדוֹ יֵרָאֶה כְּמִי שֶׁהִלְּוָהוּ לַנָּכְרִי אוֹ מִשְׁכְּנוֹ אוֹ פָּסַק עִמּוֹ אוֹ מָכַר לוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת:


[The following rules apply when] a person gives a gentile a letter to bring to another city. If he fixed a fee for conveying [the letter], it is permitted [even if the gentile conveys it on the Sabbath].85 [This leniency applies] even when [the Jew] gives [the letter] to [the gentile] on Friday at nightfall, provided [the gentile] leaves [the Jew's] home before the commencement of the Sabbath.

When a fee was not fixed [beforehand, the following rules apply]: If there is a designated person in the city86 who collects letters and sends them to other cities with his agents,87 it is permitted to give a gentile the letter,88 provided there is time [on Friday] for the letter to reach a house adjacent to [the city's] wall before [the commencement of] the Sabbath, lest the home of the gentile who collects and sends letters be located there.89

If there is no person designated to fulfill this function and the gentile to whom one gives the letter is the one who brings it to the other city, it is always forbidden to send a letter with a gentile90 unless one establishes a fixed price [beforehand].


הַנּוֹתֵן אִגֶּרֶת לְנָכְרִי לְהוֹלִיכָהּ לְעִיר אַחֶרֶת אִם קָצַץ עִמּוֹ שְׂכַר הוֹלָכָה מֻתָּר. וַאֲפִלּוּ נְתָנָהּ לוֹ עֶרֶב שַׁבָּת עִם חֲשֵׁכָה. וְהוּא שֶׁיֵּצֵא בָּהּ מִפֶּתַח בֵּיתוֹ קֹדֶם הַשַּׁבָּת. וְאִם לֹא קָצַץ אִם יֵשׁ בַּמְּדִינָה אָדָם קָבוּעַ שֶׁהוּא מְקַבֵּץ הָאִגְּרוֹת וְשׁוֹלֵחַ אוֹתָם לְכָל מְדִינָה וּמְדִינָה עִם שְׁלוּחָיו מֻתָּר לִתֵּן לַנָּכְרִי הָאִגֶּרֶת. וְהוּא שֶׁיִּהְיֶה שְׁהוּת בַּיּוֹם כְּדֵי שֶׁיַּגִּיעַ לַבַּיִת הַסָּמוּךְ לַחוֹמָה קֹדֶם הַשַּׁבָּת. שֶׁמָּא זֶה שֶׁמְּקַבֵּל הָאִגְּרוֹת וְשׁוֹלְחָן בֵּיתוֹ סָמוּךְ לַחוֹמָה הוּא. וְאִם אֵין שָׁם אָדָם קָבוּעַ לְכָךְ אֶלָּא הַנָּכְרִי שֶׁנּוֹתְנִין לוֹ הָאִגֶּרֶת הוּא שֶׁמּוֹלִיכָהּ לְעִיר אַחֶרֶת אָסוּר לִשְׁלֹחַ בְּיַד נָכְרִי הָאִגֶּרֶת לְעוֹלָם אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן קָצַץ לוֹ דָּמִים:


It is permissible for a gentile carrying his possessions to bring them into the Jew's house on the Sabbath.91 It is even permissible for [the Jew] to tell [the gentile], "Place them in this corner."92

One may invite a gentile to visit on the Sabbath and serve food93 for him to eat.94 If he took the food outside [the Jew's] home, there is no difficulty, for one is not obligated to see that he observes the Sabbath.95

Similarly, one may serve food to a dog in one's courtyard. If he takes it outside, there is no difficulty.


נָכְרִי שֶׁהֵבִיא חֲפָצָיו בְּשַׁבָּת וְהִכְנִיסָן לְבֵית יִשְׂרָאֵל מֻתָּר. וַאֲפִלּוּ אָמַר לוֹ הַנִּיחָן בְּזָוִית זוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר. וּמְזַמְּנִין אֶת הַנָּכְרִי בְּשַׁבָּת וְנוֹתְנִין לְפָנָיו מְזוֹנוֹת לְאָכְלָן. וְאִם נְטָלָן וְיָצָא אֵין נִזְקָקִין לוֹ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין שְׁבִיתָתוֹ עָלֵינוּ. וְכֵן נוֹתְנִין מְזוֹנוֹת לִפְנֵי הַכֶּלֶב בֶּחָצֵר וְאִם נְטָלָן וְיָצָא אֵין נִזְקָקִין לוֹ:


When a person is carrying money while traveling on a journey and the Sabbath commences, he should give his wallet to a gentile to carry for him. On Saturday night, he may take it back from him. This is permitted even though he did not pay the gentile for his services96 and even though he gave it to him after nightfall.97

These leniencies are granted because a person becomes distraught over his money and cannot bear to discard it. If we do not allow him [to have a gentile carry it for him] - a matter forbidden merely by Rabbinic decree - we fear that he will come to carry it himself98and thus transgress one of the Torah's prohibitions.99

When do the above [leniencies] apply? With regard to one's wallet. In contrast, a person may not give an ownerless object that he discovered to a gentile [to carry for him].100 Instead, he should carry it less than four cubits at a time101 [until he reaches a place where he can deposit it].


מִי שֶׁהָיָה בָּא בַּדֶּרֶךְ וְקָדַשׁ עָלָיו הַיּוֹם וְהָיוּ עִמּוֹ מָעוֹת נוֹתֵן כִּיסוֹ לְנָכְרִי לְהוֹלִיכוֹ לוֹ וּלְמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת לוֹקְחוֹ מִמֶּנּוּ. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא נָתַן לוֹ שָׂכָר עַל זֶה. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנְּתָנוֹ לוֹ מִשֶּׁחֲשֵׁכָה מֻתָּר מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאָדָם בָּהוּל עַל מָמוֹנוֹ וְאִי אֶפְשָׁר שֶׁיַּשְׁלִיכֶנּוּ. וְאִם לֹא תַּתִּיר לוֹ דָּבָר זֶה שֶׁאֵין אִסּוּרוֹ אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים יָבוֹא לַהֲבִיאוֹ בְּיָדוֹ וְעוֹבֵר עַל מְלָאכָה שֶׁל תּוֹרָה. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּכִיסוֹ אֲבָל מְצִיאָה לֹא יִתֵּן לַנָּכְרִי אֶלָּא מוֹלִיכָהּ בְּפָחוֹת פָּחוֹת מֵאַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת:


[The following rules apply when] a Jew performs a [forbidden] labor on the Sabbath: If he willingly transgressed, it is forbidden for him to benefit from this labor forever.102 Other Jews103 may, however, benefit from this labor immediately after the conclusion of the Sabbath,104 as [can be inferred from Exodus 31:14]: "And you shall observe the Sabbath, for it is holy." [Our Sages105 commented,] "It is holy, but the fruits of labor performed on it are not holy."106

What is implied? When a Jew cooks [food] on the Sabbath in willful violation [of the Sabbath laws], other Jews may partake of it Saturday night. He, however, is forbidden to partake of it forever. If he cooked it without knowing of the prohibition he was violating, both he107 and others may eat it immediately after the conclusion of the Sabbath.108 The same principles apply in other similar situations.


יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁעָשָׂה מְלָאכָה בְּשַׁבָּת אִם עָבַר וְעָשָׂה בְּזָדוֹן אָסוּר לוֹ לֵהָנוֹת בְּאוֹתָהּ מְלָאכָה לְעוֹלָם. וּשְׁאָר יִשְׂרָאֵל מֻתָּר לָהֶם לֵהָנוֹת בָּהּ לְמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת מִיָּד שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות לא יד) "וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת כִּי קֹדֶשׁ הִיא", הִיא קֹדֶשׁ וְאֵין מַעֲשֶׂיהָ קֹדֶשׁ. כֵּיצַד. יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁבִּשֵּׁל בְּשַׁבָּת בְּמֵזִיד. לְמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת יֵאָכֵל לַאֲחֵרִים אֲבָל לוֹ לֹא יֵאָכֵל עוֹלָמִית. וְאִם בִּשֵּׁל בִּשְׁגָגָה לְמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת יֹאכַל בֵּין הוּא בֵּין אֲחֵרִים מִיָּד. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה:


When produce was taken outside a city's Sabbath limits and then brought back without the knowledge of the prohibition involved, one may partake of it on the Sabbath, since nothing was done to the fruits themselves, and their state did not change. If they were brought back in willful violation of the prohibition involved,109 one may not partake of them until after the conclusion of the Sabbath.110


פֵּרוֹת שֶׁיָּצְאוּ חוּץ לַתְּחוּם וְחָזְרוּ. בְּשׁוֹגֵג יֵאָכְלוּ בְּשַׁבָּת שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא נַעֲשָׂה בְּגוּפָן מַעֲשֶׂה וְלֹא נִשְׁתַּנּוּ. בְּמֵזִיד לֹא יֵאָכְלוּ עַד מוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת:


When a person hires a worker to watch a cow or a baby, he should not pay him a wage for the Sabbath day.111 Therefore, [the worker] is not responsible for what happens on the Sabbath.112If a worker was hired on a weekly or annual basis, he is given full payment.113 Therefore, [the worker] is responsible for what happens on the Sabbath. [In the latter instance,] the worker should not say, "Pay me for the Sabbath," but rather, "Pay me for the year," or "Pay me for the ten days."114


הַשּׂוֹכֵר אֶת הַפּוֹעֵל לִשְׁמֹר לוֹ אֶת הַפָּרָה וְאֶת הַתִּינוֹק לֹא יִתֵּן לוֹ שְׂכָרוֹ שֶׁל שַׁבָּת. לְפִיכָךְ אֵין אַחֲרָיוּת שַׁבָּת עָלָיו. וְאִם הָיָה הַשָּׂכִיר שְׂכִיר שַׁבָּת אוֹ שְׂכִיר שָׁנָה נוֹתֵן לוֹ שְׂכָרוֹ מָשְׁלָם. לְפִיכָךְ אַחֲרָיוּת שַׁבָּת עָלָיו. וְלֹא יֹאמַר לוֹ תֵּן לִי שְׂכָרִי שֶׁל שַׁבָּת אֶלָּא אוֹמֵר לוֹ תֵּן לִי שְׂכָרִי שֶׁל שָׁנָה אוֹ שֶׁל עֲשָׂרָה יָמִים: