There are substances which, if food is covered with them to preserve its heat,1 will raise its temperature and contribute to its being cooked as fire does2 - e.g., gefet, manure, salt, lime, sand; nor may we use grape skins, unprocessed wool,3 or grass4 [for this purpose] when they are damp, even5 when this is due to their natural moistness. These entities are referred to as substances that increase heat.

There are substances which, if food is covered with them to preserve its heat, will [accomplish that objective alone]. They will not contribute to the cooking process, but will merely prevent [the food] from cooling - e.g., grape skins, unprocessed fabrics, grass, when these are dry, garments, produce,6 pigeon feathers, thin chips from the combing of flax, carpenters' sawdust, pelts, and the shearings of wool. These entities are referred to as substances which preserve heat.7


יֵשׁ דְּבָרִים שֶׁאִם טָמַן בָּהֶן הַתַּבְשִׁיל הוּא מִתְחַמֵּם וּמוֹסִיפִין בְּבִשּׁוּלוֹ כְּעֵין הָאֵשׁ. כְּגוֹן הַגֶּפֶת וְזֶבֶל וּמֶלַח וְסִיד וְחוֹל אוֹ זַגִּין וּמוֹכִין וַעֲשָׂבִים בִּזְמַן שֶׁשְּׁלָשְׁתָּן לַחִים וַאֲפִלּוּ מֵחֲמַת עַצְמָן. וּדְבָרִים אֵלּוּ נִקְרָאִין דָּבָר הַמּוֹסִיף הֶבֶל. וְיֵשׁ דְּבָרִים שֶׁאִם טָמַן בָּהֶן הַתַּבְשִׁיל יִשָּׁאֵר בַּחֲמִימוּתוֹ בִּלְבַד וְאֵינָן מוֹסִיפִין לוֹ בִּשּׁוּל אֶלָּא מוֹנְעִין אוֹתוֹ מִלְּהִצְטַנֵּן. כְּגוֹן זַגִּין וּמוֹכִין וַעֲשָׂבִים יְבֵשִׁין וּכְסוּת וּפֵרוֹת וְכַנְפֵי יוֹנָה וּנְעֹרֶת הַפִּשְׁתָּן וּנְסֹרֶת חָרָשִׁים וּשְׁלָחִין וְגִזֵּי צֶמֶר. וּדְבָרִים אֵלּוּ נִקְרָאִין דָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מוֹסִיף הֶבֶל:


[The Torah's definition of the Sabbath] laws would allow one to cover food with substances that raise its temperature before nightfall, and thus the food would be covered and its heat preserved on the Sabbath, for it is permitted to leave food cooking on a fire on the Sabbath.

The Sages, however, enacted a decree forbidding covering food with substances that raise its temperature before nightfall,8 lest the pot boil on the Sabbath and it be necessary to uncover it until its boiling ceases. If one would then cover it again on the Sabbath, one would be covering food with a substance that increases its heat on the Sabbath, and this is forbidden.9

Accordingly, it is permitted to cover food with substances that increase its temperature beyn hash'mashot,10 since at that time most pots have already boiled, and they [have cooled, so that] they cease boiling. Since they have already ceased boiling, it is unlikely that they will boil again.


מִן הַדִּין הָיָה שֶׁטּוֹמְנִין בְּדָבָר הַמּוֹסִיף הֶבֶל מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם וְיִשָּׁאֵר הַתַּבְשִׁיל טָמוּן בְּשַׁבָּת. שֶׁהֲרֵי מַשְׁהִין עַל גַּבֵּי הָאֵשׁ בְּשַׁבָּת. אֲבָל אָסְרוּ חֲכָמִים לְהַטְמִין בְּדָבָר הַמּוֹסִיף הֶבֶל מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא תַּרְתִּיחַ הַקְּדֵרָה בְּשַׁבָּת וְיִצְטָרֵךְ לְגָלוֹתָן עַד שֶׁתָּנוּחַ הָרְתִיחָה וְיַחֲזֹר וִיכַסֶּה בְּשַׁבָּת וְנִמְצָא טוֹמֵן בְּדָבָר הַמּוֹסִיף הֶבֶל בְּשַׁבָּת שֶׁהוּא אָסוּר. לְפִיכָךְ מֻתָּר לְהַטְמִין בְּדָבָר הַמּוֹסִיף הֶבֶל בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת שֶׁסְּתָם קְדֵרוֹת בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת כְּבָר רָתְחוּ וְנָחוּ מִבִּעֲבּוּעָן וְכֵיוָן שֶׁנָּחוּ שׁוּב אֵינָן רוֹתְחִין:


Similarly, [the Torah's definition of the Sabbath] laws would allow one to cover food with substances that do not raise its temperature on the Sabbath itself. The Sages, however, enacted a decree forbidding this, lest a person cover food with a mixture of ash and coals that has sparks of fire, and stir the coals.11 [As a safeguard against this,12 the Sages] forbade covering food with any substance13 on the Sabbath, even when it will not raise the food's temperature.


וְכֵן מִן הַדִּין הָיָה לִטְמֹן הַתַּבְשִׁיל בְּדָבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מוֹסִיף הֶבֶל בְּשַׁבָּת עַצְמָהּ. אֲבָל אָסְרוּ חֲכָמִים דָּבָר זֶה גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יַטְמִין בְּרֶמֶץ וְיִהְיֶה בּוֹ נִיצוֹצוֹת שֶׁל אֵשׁ וְנִמְצָא חוֹתֶה בַּגֶּחָלִים. לְפִיכָךְ אָסְרוּ לְהַטְמִין דָּבָר חַם בְּשַׁבָּת וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּדָבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מוֹסִיף הֶבֶל:


If one is unsure whether it is before or after nightfall,14 one may cover hot food.15 Similarly, it is permitted to cover cold food with a substance that will not raise its temperature, to prevent it from becoming colder or to remove its chill.

When hot food that was covered before the Sabbath becomes uncovered16 on the Sabbath,17 it may be covered again, since one is not increasing its temperature. It is permitted to change the covering of food on the Sabbath - e.g., one may replace clothing with pigeon feathers or replace pigeon feathers with clothing.18


סָפֵק חֲשֵׁכָה סָפֵק אֵינָהּ חֲשֵׁכָה מֻתָּר לִטְמוֹן אֶת דָּבָר חַם. וּמֻתָּר לִטְמוֹן אֶת דָּבָר הַצּוֹנֵן בְּשַׁבָּת בְּדָבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מוֹסִיף כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִצְטַנֵּן בְּיוֹתֵר אוֹ כְּדֵי שֶׁתָּפוּג צִנָּתָן. חַמִּין שֶׁטְּמָנָן מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת וְנִתְגַּלּוּ בְּשַׁבָּת מֻתָּר לְכַסּוֹתָן. שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵינוֹ מוֹסִיף. וּמֻתָּר לְהַחֲלִיף הַכִּסּוּי בְּשַׁבָּת. כֵּיצַד. נוֹטֵל כְּסוּת וּמַנִּיחַ כַּנְפֵי יוֹנָה אוֹ נוֹטֵל כַּנְפֵי יוֹנָה וּמַנִּיחַ הַכְּסוּת:


Should one transfer hot food or water from the vessel [in which it was cooked]19 into another vessel, it is permitted to cover the second vessel with a substance that does not raise its temperature on the Sabbath, as one is permitted to cover cold food.20 The prohibition against covering [food] on the Sabbath applies only to hot food in the vessel in which it was cooked. If it was transferred, it is permitted.21


פִּנָּה הַתַּבְשִׁיל אוֹ הַמַּיִם הַחַמִּין מִכְּלִי לִכְלִי אַחֵר מֻתָּר לְהַטְמִין הַכְּלִי הָאַחֵר בְּשַׁבָּת בְּדָבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מוֹסִיף. כְּמוֹ הַדָּבָר הַצּוֹנֵן. שֶׁלֹּא אָסְרוּ לְהַטְמִין בְּשַׁבָּת אֶלָּא דָּבָר חַם שֶׁהוּא בִּכְלִי רִאשׁוֹן שֶׁנִתְבַּשֵּׁל בּוֹ אֲבָל אִם פִּנָּהוּ מֻתָּר:

Mishneh Torah (Moznaim)

Featuring a modern English translation and a commentary that presents a digest of the centuries of Torah scholarship which have been devoted to the study of the Mishneh Torah by Maimonides.


One may place one metal pot on another metal pot, an earthenware pot on another earthenware pot,22 an earthenware pot on a metal pot, and a metal pot on an earthenware pot, and one may seal [either an earthenware pot or a metal pot] closed with dough - one's intent being not that they should be heated more, but that their heat should be preserved.23

The [Sages] forbade only covering [food] with other substances on the Sabbath. It is, however, permissible to place one vessel on another vessel so that they remain hot.24 In contrast, we may not place a vessel containing a cold substance on a hot vessel on the Sabbath, for by doing so one introduces heat to it.25 It is permissible, however, to place [cold food on a hot pot] before the Sabbath commences.26 It is not considered analogous to covering food with a substance that raises its temperature.27


מַנִּיחִין מֵיחַם עַל גַּבֵּי מֵיחַם בְּשַׁבָּת וּקְדֵרָה עַל גַּבֵּי קְדֵרָה וּקְדֵרָה עַל גַּבֵּי מֵיחַם וּמֵיחַם עַל גַּבֵּי קְדֵרָה וְטָח פִּיהֶם בְּבָצֵק לֹא בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁיּוּחַמּוּ אֶלָּא בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁיַּעַמְדוּ עַל חֻמָּם. שֶׁלֹּא אָסְרוּ אֶלָּא לְהַטְמִין בְּשַׁבָּת אֲבָל לְהַנִּיחַ כְּלִי חַם עַל גַּב כְּלִי חַם כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיוּ עוֹמְדִין בַּחֲמִימוּתָן מֻתָּר. אֲבָל אֵין מַנִּיחִין כְּלִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ דָּבָר צוֹנֵן עַל גַּבֵּי כְּלִי חַם בְּשַׁבָּת שֶׁהֲרֵי מוֹלִיךְ בּוֹ חֹם בְּשַׁבָּת וְאִם הִנִּיחוֹ מִבָּעֶרֶב מֻתָּר וְאֵינוֹ כְּטוֹמֵן בְּדָבָר הַמּוֹסִיף: