1

Women and slaves are obligated to recite grace. There is a doubt whether their obligation stems from the Torah, since [this is a positive mitzvah] that is not linked to a specific time, or whether their obligation does not stem from the Torah. Therefore, they should not fulfill the obligation of grace on behalf of others. Children, however, are obligated to recite grace by virtue of Rabbinic decree, in order to educate them to perform mitzvot.

א

נשים ועבדים חייבין בברכת המזון וספק יש בדבר אם הן חייבין מן התורה לפי שאין קבוע לה זמן או אינם חייבין מן התורה לפיכך אין מוציאין את הגדולים ידי חובתן אבל הקטנים חייבין בברכת המזון מדברי סופרים כדי לחנכן במצות:

Women and slaves - whose Torah obligations are equivalent (Chagigah 4a)

are obligated to recite grace. - There are opinions that state that a woman does not have to recite the part of grace that blesses God for "Your covenant that You have sealed in our flesh, and for Your Torah that You have taught us," since women are not obligated to fulfill these mitzvot. Nevertheless, in practice, it is agreed that women should mention both these mitzvot, because the ultimate fulfillment of the creation of both men and women is when they marry. Therefore, a man and his wife are considered a single unit (Shulchan Aruch HaRav 187:7).

There is a doubt whether their obligation stems from the Torah, since [this is a positive mitzvah] that is not linked to a specific time - Women are not obligated to fulfill such mitzvot. See Kiddushin (1:7). Since the obligation to recite grace is constant, whether one eats during the day or at night, it would appear that women are obligated. Some commentaries point to Sefer HaMitzvot (Positive Commandment 19) and the Rambam's Commentary on the Mishnah (Berachot 3:3 and Kiddushin, loc. cit.) as indications that the Rambam supports the view that a woman's obligation for grace stems from the Torah.

or whether their obligation does not stem from the Torah. -Berachot 20b explains this hypothesis: Since Deuteronomy 8:10, the proof-text requiring us to recite grace, states: "You shall bless God, your Lord, for the good land that He gave you," one might think that only those who were given an inheritance in Eretz Yisrael are required to recite grace, thus excluding women who were not given an inheritance.

Therefore - i.e., because of this doubt

they should not - endeavor to

fulfill the obligation of grace on behalf of others. - Since, as stated in Chapter 1, Halachah 11, a person can only recite a blessing on behalf of another person if he shares an equal obligation himself.

Children - Boys below thirteen and girls below twelve, or individuals above that age who have not demonstrated signs of physical maturity.

however, are obligated to recite grace - This expression appears to indicate that the Sages placed the obligation on the child himself. See also Hilchot Sukkah 6:1 and Hilchot Lulav 7:19, where the Rambam uses similar expressions. (In Hilchot Tefillin 4:13 and Hilchot Chagigah 2:3, however, the Rambam states that the obligation to train a child to fulfill these mitzvot lies on the father.)

The hypothesis that the obligation lies on the child is supported by Halachah 16, which states that a child may fulfill the obligation of grace for a person who did not eat to the point of satisfaction (and, therefore, is obligated to recite grace only by Rabbinic decree). Were the Sages to have placed the obligation to educate the child on his father and not on the child himself, the child would not be able to fulfill the mitzvah on behalf of another person.

Nevertheless, it is possible to explain that the Sages placed the obligation on the father. This obligation, however, encompasses the child and, hence, causes him to be considered as obligated in the mitzvah (Likkutei Sichot, Vol. 17).

by virtue of Rabbinic decree - until a child reaches intellectual maturity, the Torah itself places no obligations upon him (Pesachim 116a).

in order to educate them to perform mitzvot.

1. Zimmun is related to the word להזדמן, which means "to come together" (Rashi, Berachot 45a).
2. Berachot (loc. cit.) derives this obligation from Psalms 34:4: "Exalt God with me, and let us extol His name together." Rashi notes that the use of the plural form of the word "exalt" implies the presence of at least two people and the expression, "with me," the presence of a third.
3. The Magen Avraham 192:1 cites the Zohar (Vol. III, 186b), which states that the person reciting grace should call the attention of the participants in the meal. Therefore, it is customary for him to begin, "Gentlemen, let us recite grace," and for the others to reply, "May the name of God be blessed forever and ever."
4. The Tur (Orach Chayim 192) states that between zimmun and grace, the participants say, "Blessed be He and blessed be His name." This is the custom in many Ashkenazic communities.
5. The person who recites the zimmun should recite grace with the intention of fulfilling the obligation on behalf of the others, and they should have the intention of fulfilling the mitzvah by listening to his blessings. (See the commentary on Halachah 15.)

At present, it is customary for each person to recite grace by himself after hearing the zimmun (Shulchan Aruch, Orach Chayim 183:7). It is feared that one will lose concentration in the midst of the blessings (Shulchan Aruch HaRav 183:10).

6. This enhances the importance of the blessings.
7. The Rambam's text states, לא-להינו, which is a direct quote from Berachot 7:3. The Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 192:1) states that the ל should be omitted, because it is not proper usage.
8. There are several differences between the rules governing this addition and those governing the recitation of the wedding blessings. (See Chapter 2, Halachot 9-11.) First, the addition, "in whose abode is joy," is recited both before and after the time when the wedding blessings are recited. Secondly, there is no need for "new faces."

At present, the Shulchan Aruch (Even HaEzer 62:7) writes that a marriage feast is not unique compared to other celebrations. Therefore, this addition is made only in the seven days of the wedding celebrations.

9. Rav David Avudraham explains that this refers to the angels in heaven, who recite songs of praise. This heavenly rejoicing is mentioned at the time of a wedding, one of the most significant worldly celebrations.
10. The Chelkat Mechokeik 62:7 states that the addition of "in whose abode is joy" is made only in an instance when when others join the wedding party and not when only the immediate family are present.
11. Our translation is based on Arachin 4a, which interprets the word הכל as referring to priests, Levites, and Israelites.
12. Arachin (loc. cit.) explains that since the priests partake of the sacrifices in order that the people who bring them should receive atonement and not because they desire to eat a meal, one might think that they would not be required to recite this blessing.
13. Arachin (loc. cit.) explains that since the Israelites are not allowed to partake of the terumah eaten by the priests, one might think that it would not be considered as if they ate together as a group. This law has ramifications in the present age in situations when people eating a fleishig meal join others eating a milchig meal at the same table (See Shulchan Aruch HaRav 196:7).

2

When three people eat [a meal including] bread together, they are obligated to recite the blessing of zimmun before grace.

What is the blessing of zimmun? If there were between three and ten participants in a meal, one recites the blessing, saying, "Let us bless Him of whose [bounty] we have eaten."

Everyone responds: "Blessed be He of whose [bounty] we have eaten and by whose goodness we live." The one [reciting the blessing] then repeats: "Blessed be He of whose [bounty] we have eaten and by whose goodness we live."

ב

שלשה שאכלו פת כאחד חייבין לברך ברכת הזימון קודם ברכת המזון ואי זו היא ברכת הזימון אם היו האוכלים משלשה עד עשרה מברך אחד מהם ואומר נברך שאכלנו משלו והכל עונין ברוך שאכלנו משלו ובטובו חיינו והוא חוזר ומברך ברוך שאכלנו משלו ובטובו חיינו:

3

Afterwards, he recites, "Blessed are You, God, our Lord, King of the universe, who sustains the entire world in His goodness..." until he completes the four blessings [of grace]. The others answer Amen after each blessing.

ג

ואח"כ אומר ברוך אתה יי' אלהינו מלך העולם הזן את העולם כולו בטובו עד שגומר ארבע ברכות והן עונין אמן אחר כל ברכה וברכה:

4

If ten or more people eat together, the zimmun should be recited with God's name. What is implied? The one reciting the blessing declares, "Let us bless to our God of whose [bounty] we have eaten."

The others respond: "Blessed be our God of whose [bounty] we have eaten and by whose goodness we live." The one [reciting the blessing] then repeats: "Blessed be our God of whose [bounty] we have eaten and by whose goodness we live." He then begins reciting grace.

ד

היו האוכלין מעשרה ולמעלה מזמנין בשם כיצד המברך אומר נברך לאלהינו שאכלנו משלו והן עונין ברוך אלהינו שאכלנו משלו ובטובו חיינו והוא חוזר ואומר ברוך אלהינו שאכלנו משלו ובטובו חיינו ומתחיל ברכת המזון:

5

When eating in the home of a bridegroom from the time when the preparations for the wedding feast have begun until 30 days after the wedding, the one reciting the blessings should say, "Let us bless Him in whose abode is joy, of whose bounty we have eaten," and the others respond, "Blessed be He in whose abode is joy, of whose bounty we have eaten...."

If ten people are present, he says, "Let us bless our God in whose abode is joy, of whose bounty we have eaten..." and the others respond, "Blessed be our God in whose abode is joy, of whose bounty we have eaten...." Similarly, whenever a feast is held because of the wedding for twelve months after the wedding, one should include the phrase, "in whose abode is joy."

ה

הסועד בבית חתנים משיתחילו להתעסק בצרכי סעודת נישואין ולהכינה עד שלשים יום אחר הנישואין מברך נברך שהשמחה במעונו שאכלנו משלו והם עונים ברוך שהשמחה במעונו שאכלנו משלו וכו' ואם היו עשרה מברך נברך לאלהינו שהשמחה במעונו שאכלנו משלו והם עונין ברוך אלהינו שהשמחה וכו' וכן סעודה שעושין אותה אחר הנישואין מחמת הנישואין עד שנים עשר חדש מברך שהשמחה במעונו:

6

All men are obligated in the blessing of the zimmun as they are obligated in grace, even priests who partook of sacrifices of the most sacred order in the Temple Courtyard. Similarly, priests and Israelites who ate together are required to recite the zimmun as they are required to recite grace, although the priests partook of terumah and the Israelites ordinary food.

ו

הכל חייבין בברכת הזימון כדרך שחייבין בברכת המזון אפילו כהנים שאכלו קדשי הקדשים בעזרה וכן כהנים וישראלים שאכלו כאחד ואכלו הכהנים תרומה וישראל חולין חייבין בזימון כחיובן בברכת המזון:

7

Women, servants, and children are not included in azimmun. They may, however, make a zimmun among themselves. Nevertheless, for the sake of modesty, there should not be a company that consists of women, servants, and children [together]. Instead, women may make a zimmun alone, as may servants and as may children. They should not, however, mention God's name.

An androgynous may make a zimmun among his own kind, but should not be included among a zimmun either of men or of women. A tumtum should not be included in a zimmun at all.

A child who understands Whom is being blessed may be included in a zimmun, although he is merely seven or eight years old. He may be counted among either a group of three or a group of ten for the purpose of zimmun. A gentile may not be included in a zimmun.

ז

נשים ועבדים וקטנים אין מזמנין עליהן אבל מזמנין לעצמן ולא תהא חבורה של נשים ועבדים וקטנים מפני הפריצות אבל נשים מזמנות לעצמן או עבדים לעצמן ובלבד שלא יזמנו בשם אנדרוגינוס מזמן למינו ואינו מזמן לא לנשים ולא לאנשים מפני שהוא ספק והטומטום אינו מזמן כלל קטן היודע למי מברכין מזמנין עליו ואע"פ שהוא כבן שבע או כבן שמונה ומצטרף בין למנין שלשה בין למנין עשרה לזמן עליו והעכו"ם אין מזמנין עליו:

Women, servants, and - very young

children are not included in a zimmun. - i.e., if there are two adult males and one of these three types of individuals, it is impossible to make a zimmun. The Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 199:7) states that when women eat together with men who make a zimmun, they are obligated to answer.

They may, however, make a zimmun among themselves. Nevertheless, for the sake of modesty - If any two of these three categories of people eat together, there is a possibility of undesirable results. In order not to encourage such meals, the Sages did not impose the obligation of zimmun.

The Rambam mentions modesty only as a reason why women and servants should not join in a zimmun. Significantly, other authorities explain that it is for reasons of modesty that women should not be counted in a zimmun together with men.

there should not be a company that consists of women, servants, and children [together]. - Nor should a company consist of two of these three categories.

Instead, women may make a zimmun alone - There is, however, no obligation for them to do so (Shulchan Aruch, Orach Chayim 199:7). Rabbenu Asher considers them as obligated to make azimmun. Nevertheless, even among the Ashkenazic community, most authorities do not accept his ruling.

as may servants and as may children. They should not, however, mention God's name. - The mention of God's name causes the recitation of grace to be considered "a holy matter." As stated in Hilchot Tefillah 8:6, prayers of this nature can be recited only when a quorum of ten adult males is present (Kessef Mishneh).

An androgynous - A person who possesses both male and female sexual organs

may make a zimmun among his own kind, but should not be included among a zimmun either of men or of women - since he is not a member of either sex.

A tumtum - a person who has flesh covering his genitalia, making it impossible to determine whether he is a male or a female

should not be included in a zimmun at all. - He should not be counted among men or women, because we are unsure of his sex. Furthermore, unlike androgynouses a group of tumtumim cannot make a zimmun of their own.

In the case of an androgynous, the doubt is how to define his halachic status properly. Hence, they are considered a separate category. In contrast, a tumtum is either a male or a female, and it is his physical condition that prevents us from determining his sex. Thus, a group of tumtumim may include both males and females, and hence they are not allowed to be counted in a zimmun at all (Kessef Mishneh).

A child - The Magen Avraham 199:6 states that this applies to only one child, but not two or more.

who understands Whom is being blessed may be included in a zimmun, although he is merely seven or eight years old. - Rav Yitzchak Alfasi mentions an age of nine or ten. The Beit Yosef (Orach Chayim 199) states that all authorities agree that a child below the age of six may not be counted in a zimmun.

He may be counted among either a group of three - to recite the zimmun together with two adult males

or a group of ten - to include the mention of God's name together with nine adults

for the purpose of zimmun. - The Magen Avraham, loc. cit., explains why such a decision is granted with regard to a zimmun and not with regard to kaddish, barchu, kedushah, and the like. The latter prayers are obligations incumbent on a person each day, and may be fulfilled only with a quorum of adult men. In contrast, since each person may fulfill his obligation to recite grace without a zimmun, leniencies were granted in counting the people included.

Rabbenu Asher and the Ramah (Orach Chayim 199:10) do not accept this distinction, and rule that a child may not be counted in a zimun until he is thirteen years of age and has exhibited signs of physical maturity.

A gentile may not be included in a zimun - even when we are certain that he will bless God.

In his Commentary on the Mishnah (Berachot 7:1, based on Berachot 47b), the Rambam states that this refers to a gentile who has already made a decision to convert and has been circumcised for that reason. Nevertheless, if he has not immersed himself in the mikveh, he is not considered a Jew, and may not be included in a zimmun.
14. This ruling is not accepted by many other authorities, including Rabbenu Yitzchak Alfasi and Rabbenu Asher. Because of the difference of opinion, the Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 197:3) rules that, at the outset, an attempt should be made to follow the Rambam's decision. If, however, the third person does not desire to eat bread, he may be included in the zimmun as long as he partook of ak'zayit of other foods.
15. The commentaries note that the Rambam does not quote Berachot 48a (the source for this halachah) exactly. The Talmud states "dipped his food in brine with them." The Rambam's choice of phraseology is particularly difficult since, as the Rambam himself writes in Hilchot Sh'vitat Asor 2:5, brine is generally not eaten alone as a food.
16. The commentaries have noted the apparent redundancy in the Rambam's expressions. The Kol ben Levi offers a possible resolution, explaining that, in the opening clause, the Rambam states that these people are not required to make a zimmun. In the final clause, he states that they are not allowed to do so.
17. Tosafot, Berachot 47a, writes that if they have already decided to recite grace, the third person may not be included in azimmun with them. The Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 197:1) accepts this ruling.
18. According to the Rambam's opinion mentioned in the previous halachah, the third person must partake of bread. According to the other opinions mentioned above, if the third person partakes of other foods, the first two may include him in a zimmun.
19. Berachot 47a relates that Rav Simai bar Chiyya joined Rav and Shemuel in a meal after the latter had completed eating. They ate another side dish together with him, and then recited the zimmun.
20. Note the Be'ur Halachah 197, which states that they are obligated to recite the zimmun.
21. He may, however, convey this privilege on another person if he desires (Tosafot, loc. cit.; Shulchan Aruch, Orach Chayim 201:1).

The Shulchan Aruch (loc. cit.) mentions that if a guest is present, he should be given the privilege of reciting thezimmun, so that he will be able to recite a blessing for the host, as mentioned in Chapter 2, Halachah 7.

The Shulchan Aruch (loc. cit.:2) also mentions that a priest who is a Torah sage should be given the privilege of reciting the zimmun. (See Hilchot Klei HaMikdash 4:2 and Hilchot Tefillah 12:18.)

22. Although a sufficient number of people to recite grace with azimmun will remain, each individual is personally obligated to participate in the zimmun and may not recite grace alone.
23. Enough people remain in each group to allow them both to recite grace with a zimmun. There is, however, no obligation to separate. If the people desire, they may recite grace in a single group (Ramah, Orach Chayim 193:1).
24. Until there are twenty people, separation will prevent - at the very least - the people who separate from reciting grace with God's name.

The Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 193:1, based onBerachot 50a) states that, at a meal attended by many people, if there is a difficulty or inconvenience preventing an individual from participating in the zimmun in which God's name is mentioned, he may recite grace with a zimmun of three.

8

Only those who ate at least an amount of bread equal to the size of an olive should be included in a zimmun.

When seven people partake of bread and three eat vegetables or brine and the like with them, the latter may be included in the zimmun, so that God's name may be mentioned, provided the one reciting the blessings partook of bread. In contrast, should six people partake of bread and four eat vegetables, the latter may not be included. There has to be a distinct majority of people who partook of bread.

When does the above apply? With regard to [a zimmun of] ten. Regarding three, however, they should not recite the zimmun unless each one of them eats a portion of bread the size of an olive.

ח

אין מזמנין אלא על מי שאכל כזית פת ולמעלה שבעה שאכלו פת ושלשה אכלו עמהן ירק או ציר וכיוצא בהן מצטרפין לזמן בשם והוא שיהיה המברך מאוכלי הפת אבל ששה שאכלו פת וארבעה ירק אין מצטרפין עד שיהיו אוכלי הפת רוב הניכר בד"א בעשרה אבל בשלשה צריך שיאכלו כל אחד ואחד מהן כזית פת ואחר כך מזמנין:

9

[The following rule applies when] two people eat together and complete their meal, and afterward, a third person comes and eats. If the others can eat any food [- they need not partake of bread -] together with him, he should be included [in the zimmun] with them.

The sage of the greatest stature among those dining should recite grace, although he arrived at the end of the meal.

ט

שנים שאכלו וגמרו מלאכול ובא שלישי ואכל אם יכולין לאכול עמו כל שהוא ואפילו משאר אוכלין מצטרף עמהן וחכם גדול שבמסובין הוא שמברך לכולן אף על פי שלא בא אלא באחרונה:

10

When three people eat together, they may not separate [and recite grace without a zimmun]. The same applies to four and five people. Between six and ten people may separate [and recite grace in two groups].

If more then ten people are present, they may not separate until [their number reaches] twenty. [The governing principle is that a group may separate only if] the blessing of the zimmun will be the same for both groups if they separate.

י

שלשה שאכלו כאחד אינן רשאין ליחלק וכן ארבעה וכן חמשה וששה יש להם ליחלק עד עשרה מעשרה ולמעלה אינם רשאים ליחלק עד עשרים שכל זמן שיחלקו ותהיה ברכת הזימון לכל חלק וחלק כזימון הכל יש להם ליחלק:

11

When three people who each came from a different group of three [join together], they should not separate [without reciting grace with a zimmun]. If each of them already participated in a zimmun, they may separate. They are not obligated to participate in a zimmun again, because a zimmun was already recited including them.

When three people sit down [together] to eat bread, they may not separate even though each person eats from his own food.

יא

שלשה בני אדם שבאו משלש חבורות של שלשה שלשה אינן רשאין ליחלק ואם כבר זימן כל אחד ואחד מהן בחבורה שלו רשאין ליחלק ואינן חייבין בזימון שכבר זימנו עליהן שלשה שישבו לאכול פת אע"פ שכל אחד ואחד אוכל משלו אינן רשאין ליחלק:

When three people who each came - It is possible to explain that this is referring to three individuals who each began eating with a separate group in the same large room. Afterwards, they joined together and ate at the same table.

Alternatively, the halachah is speaking about three groups that ate on the same table, and one remained from each group (Merchevat HaMishneh), or the three individuals came from different groups, but left their original group inadvertently or because of forces beyond their control (Mishnah Berurah 193:25).

from a different group of three - and thus were each personally obligated to participate in a zimmun (Rashi, Berachot 50a)

[join together], - even when they themselves do not eat together (loc. cit.). According to the Kessef Mishneh, this applies when they eat together. The Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 193:5) states that, in either instance, the following law applies.

they should not separate [without reciting grace with a zimmun]. - Ideally, they should not have separated from their first company. See the Rishon LeTzion; Ramah, Orach Chayim 193:6). After the fact, since they all have still not recited grace and are all obligated to participate in a zimmun, they should do so.

If each of them already participated in a zimmun - i.e., although they desired to continue eating, they responded to thezimmun and listened to the first blessing of grace (Tosafot, Berachot, loc. cit.; Ramah, Orach Chayim 200:1)

they may separate. They are not obligated - The Shulchan Aruch (193:5) states, "They cannot..."; i.e., it is forbidden for them to participate in a zimmun again.

to participate in a zimmun again - Even if the latter group of three eat together, since they did not begin their meal with the intention of eating as a company, they are not obligated to recite grace with a zimmun.

because a zimmun was already recited including them. - This expression implies a different concept. If a fourth person joined the two remaining in the original group and a zimmun was recited, the obligation of a zimmun is no longer incumbent on the person who left the group. Therefore, a zimmun may not be recited in the new group of three (Shulchan Aruch, Orach Chayim 193:6).

If the three people in the new group eat together as a company, they may recite a zimmun (Mishnah Berurah 193:33).

When three people sit down [together] to eat bread, they may not separate - even though one of the three desires to recite grace before the others, they must recite the zimmun as a group (Mishnah Berurah 193:28).

even though each person eats from his own food. - It is the intent to sit down together at a single table that establishes them as a company, and not the fact that they share food.

25. This halachah describes a large feast, at which many people eat at different tables. Nevertheless, they all came together for the same purpose, and thus are considered a single group. (See the Jerusalem Talmud, Berachot 7:5; and Shulchan Aruch HaRav 195:2).

In contrast, in a restaurant, although many people eat in the same room, since they did not come with the intention of eating together, they are considered as a single group. 26. The Rambam is quoting the Mishnah (Berachot 7:5). Rabbenu Asher and the Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 195:1) state that the same principles apply if the feast is held in two separate rooms (or houses), as long as they are not separated by a street.
27. Similarly, if a single group is large enough to prevent the words of the blessings from being heard, people should recite the zimmun in smaller groups (Kessef Mishneh; Shulchan Aruch, Orach Chayim 193:1).
28. He must also respond (Berachot 45b; Mishnah Berurah 194:6).
29. He fulfills his obligation for zimmun, but not for grace.
30. It is only proper that God's name be mentioned when the ten people are in the same room (Berachot, loc. cit.).
31. If, however, two people from a group of three recite grace alone, a zimmun may not be recited (Shulchan Aruch, Orach Chayim 194:1).
32. The Ramah (Orach Chayim 194:1) states that this law only applies when the individual has not answered to a zimmun previously. If, however, he answered to the zimmun of a previous group, he may not be included in this zimmun.
33. He should respond as usual.
34. Zimmun should precede grace. Once a person has recited grace, he can no longer fulfill his obligation for zimmun

.
12

[The following rules apply when] two groups eat together in the same building: When part of one group can see part of the other group, they may join together in a single zimmun. If not, they should each recite a zimmun separately.

If there is a single attendant who serves both of these groups, they may join in a single zimmun, even though none of the people in the two groups see each other, provided both groups can clearly hear the words of the person reciting the blessings.

יב

שתי חבורות שהיו אוכלין בבית אחד בזמן שמקצתן רואין אלו את אלו מצטרפין לזימון אחד ואם לאו אלו מזמנין לעצמן ואלו מזמנין לעצמן ואם יש שמש אחד ביניהם שהוא הולך ומשמש מחבורה זו לחבורה זו מצטרפין לזימון אחד אף על פי שאין מקצת אלו רואין את אלו והוא שישמעו שתיהן כל דברי המברך בביאור:

13

When three people ate together and one went out to the marketplace, he should be called to pay attention to what they are saying. He may be included in the zimmun while he is at the marketplace, and thus fulfill his obligation. Afterwards, when he returns to his house, he should recite grace alone. In contrast, when ten people eat together and one goes out to the market place, the zimmun may not be recited until he returns to his place.

יג

שלשה שאכלו ויצא אחד מהן לשוק קוראין לו כדי שיכוין לשמוע מה שהן אומרים ומזמנין עליו והוא בשוק ויוצא ידי חובתו ולכשיחזור לביתו יחזור ויברך ברכת המזון לעצמו אבל עשרה שאכלו ויצא אחד מהן לשוק אין מזמנין עליו עד שיחזור למקומו וישב עמהן:

14

When three people eat together and one recites grace alone before the others, the zimmun can be recited with him and the other two fulfill their obligation. He, however, is not considered to have fulfilled his obligation, because the zimmun cannot be fulfilled retroactively.

יד

שלשה שאכלו כאחד וקדם אחד מהן ובירך לעצמו מזמנין עליו ויצאו השנים ידי חובת זימון והוא לא יצא בזימון זה שאין זימון למפרע:

15

When two people eat together, each person should recite grace by himself. If one knows [how to recite grace] and the other does not, the one who knows should recite the grace out loud, and the other person should recite Amen after each blessing. In this manner, he fulfills his obligation.

A son may recite grace for his father, a servant for his master, and a woman for her husband - and thus enable the person to fulfill his obligation. Nevertheless, our Sages said, "May a curse come on a person whose wife or children recite grace for him."

טו

שנים שאכלו כאחד כל אחד ואחד מברך לעצמו ואם היה אחד מהן יודע ואחד אינו יודע זה שיודע מברך בקול רם והשני עונה אמן אחר כל ברכה וברכה ויוצא ידי חובתו ובן מברך לאביו ועבד מברך לרבו ואשה מברכת לבעלה ויוצאין ידי חובתן אבל אמרו חכמים תבא מארה למי שאשתו ובניו מברכין לו:

16

When do the statements that [it is possible to] fulfill one's obligation [in this manner] apply? When they have not eaten to the point of satiation. Therefore, their obligation is only Rabbinic in origin, and can be fulfilled by [listening to] a minor, a servant, or a woman.

If, however, they ate to the point of satisfaction, and thus are obligated according to the Torah itself to recite grace, they cannot fulfill their obligation by [listening to] either a woman, a minor, or a servant. Anyone who is obligated according to the Torah to perform a mitzvah can have his obligation fulfilled only by another person who is also obligated from the Torah [to fulfill this mitzvah] as he is.

טז

במה דברים אמורים שיצאו ידי חובתן בזמן שאכלו ולא שבעו שהן חייבים לברך מדברי סופרים ולפיכך מוציאין אותן קטן או עבד או אשה מידי חובתן אבל אם אכל ושבע שהוא חייב בברכת המזון מן התורה בין אשה בין קטן או עבד אין מוציאין אותן שכל החייב בדבר מן התורה אין מוציאין אותן מידי חובתן אלא החייב באותו דבר מן התורה כמותו:

17

[The following rules apply when] a person enters [a room where] others are reciting the blessing of zimmun]: If he [enters when] the person reciting the blessings says, "Let us recite grace," he should respond, "Blessed is He, and may He be blessed." If he [enters when] the others reply, he should say Amen afterward.

יז

הנכנס אצל אחרים ומצאן מברכין בברכת הזימון אם מצא המברך אומר נברך הוא עונה ברוך הוא ומבורך ואם מצא האוכלים עונין ברוך שאכלנו משלו הוא עונה אחריהן אמן: