1

There are five species [of grain]: wheat, barley, rye, oats, and spelt. Rye is a sub-species of wheat, and oats and spelt are sub-species of barley.

When these five species are in their stalks, they are referred to as tevuah. After they have been threshed and winnowed, they are referred to as grain. When they have been milled and their flour kneaded and baked, they are referred to as bread. Bread made from these species is referred to as bread without any additional modifier.

א

חמשה מינין הן החיטין והשעורין והכוסמין ושבולת שועל ושיפון הכוסמין ממין החיטין ושבולת שועל ושיפון ממין השעורים וחמשה מינין האלו כשהן שבלים נקראים תבואה בכל מקום ואחר שדשין וזורין אותן נקראין דגן וכשטוחנין אותן ולשין את קמחן ואופין אותן נקראין פת והפת הנעשה מאחד מהן היא הנקראת פת בכ"מ בלא לווי:

There are five species [of grain] - As will be explained, there are special laws regarding the blessings recited before and after food made from these species of grain. These five species are also mentioned in Hilchot Chametz UMatzah 5:1.

wheat, barley - These grains, fundamental to day to day life in Western society, are among the seven species for which Deuteronomy 8:8 praises Eretz Yisrael for producing.

rye - This is the accepted translation. There is some difficulty, however, in accepting it, since rye was not commonly grown in the Mediterranean region. In his Commentary on the Mishnah, Kilayim 1:1, the Rambam defines כוסמין as "wild wheat."

oats - In his Commentary on the Mishnah (loc. cit.), the Rambam describes oats as "wild barley."

The term שבולת שועל, which literally means "the kernels of the fox," is used because, unlike wheat and barley, oat kernels grow separate from the stalk of the grain, like a fox tail, which has hairs that stand out rather than lie flat.

and spelt. - In his Commentary on the Mishnah (loc. cit.), the Rambam mentions that this grain resembles כוסמין. [For this reason, there are commentaries which interchange the translations of כוסמין and שיפון.]

Rye is a sub-species of wheat, and oats and spelt are sub- species of barley. - Although this statement has other implications (see Rashi, Pesachim 35a), the Rambam mentions it here to teach us that although Deuteronomy (loc. cit.) mentions only wheat and barley, since these other three grains are sub-species of them, they are governed by the same laws.

When these five species are in their stalks, they are referred to as tevuah. After they have been threshed and winnowed, they are referred to as grain. - Here, also, although these statements have other halachic implications (e.g., Challah 1:2 mentions these points within the context of vows: if a person vows not to benefit from tevuah or grain, he is forbidden to benefit from these species), the Rambam is defining these terms here because he will refer to them throughout this chapter.

When they have been milled and their flour kneaded and baked, they are referred to as bread - and require the ritual washing of hands and the blessing hamotzi beforehand and grace afterwards.

Bread made from these species is referred to as bread without any additional modifier. - If, however, bread is made from other grains - e.g., rice or corn - it is referred to as ricebread or cornbread.

2

Before eating bread, a person should recite the blessing, "Blessed are You, God, our Lord, King of the universe, who brings forth bread from the earth." Afterwards, he should recite the four blessings [of grace].

Before eating kernels of grain that have been cooked without being processed, a person should recite the blessing borey pri ha'adamah. Afterwards, he should recite the blessing borey nefashot rabbot. Before eating flour, a person should recite the blessing shehakol. Afterwards, he should recite the blessing borey nefashot rabbot.

ב

האוכל פת חייב לברך לפניה ברוך אתה יי' אלהינו מלך העולם המוציא לחם מן הארץ ולאחריה ארבע ברכות אכל דגן שלוק כמו שהוא מברך לפניו בורא פרי האדמה ולאחריו בורא נפשות רבות אכל קמח מברך לפניו שהכל ולאחריו בורא נפשות רבות:

Before eating bread - made from the five species of grain mentioned in the previous halachah

a person should recite the blessing, "Blessed are You, God, our Lord, King of the universe, who brings forth bread from the earth." - Tosafot, Berachot 38b, notes that the conclusion of the blessing is taken from Psalms 104:14. Because of its importance as "the staff of life," the Sages established a special blessing for bread in place of the blessing borey pri ha'adamah.

Afterwards, he should recite the four blessings [of grace] - discussed in the previous chapter.

Before eating kernels of grain that have been cooked without being processed, - i.e., without removing the kernel's shell or crushing it. See Halachah 4.

Literally, the Rambam's words mean "grain cooked as it is." The Kessef Mishneh interprets this to mean "as it comes from the silo."

a person should recite the blessing borey pri ha'adamah - the blessing recited for eating vegetables and other products of the earth (Chapter 8, Halachah 1).

Berachot 37a states, "A person who chews [kernels of] wheat should recite the blessing borey pri ha'adamah." Even though the grain has been cooked, since the kernels were not processed at all, it does not warrant a blessing of greater importance (Kessef Mishnah).

The Mishnah Berurah 208:3-6 discusses the question of grains that are cooked whole, but are cooked for a long period until their shell dissolves. There are authorities who recommend that unless the kernels have been cooked to the extent that they stick together as a single mass, whole grains should be eaten only in the midst of a meal containing bread. See also Halachah 4.

Afterwards, he should recite the blessing borey nefashot rabbot. - The blessing usually recited after partaking of foods other than those from the seven species for which Eretz Yisrael was praised. The same rationale mentioned above applies. Since the kernels were served without being processed, they do not warrant a blessing of greater importance.

Before eating flour - which has not been cooked

a person should recite the blessing shehakol. Afterwards, he should recite the blessing borey nefashot rabbot. - In this instance as well, the special blessings for grain products are not recited because the food was not prepared in the usual fashion. Furthermore, even the blessing borey pri ha'adamah is not recited, because generally people do not eat flour (Rabbenu Yitzchak Alfasi, See also Berachot 36a).
1. I.e., it resembles a porridge.
2. Because of the importance of the five species of grain, the Sages ordained the recitation of a special blessing before and after partaking of them. Since this mixture is considered a food and not a beverage, it warrants the recitation of these blessings.
3. Since this mixture is considered a beverage and not a food, it does not warrant the recitation of these blessings.
4. Berachot 37b relates that any food that is made from the five species of grain but is not considered bread requires the blessing al hamichyah. Since these foods are cooked in a pot, they are not considered bread. See also note 6.
5. Since the grain kernels have been processed slightly, they are considered worthy of the special blessings ordained for foods from the five species. As mentioned in the commentary on Halachah 2, the later authorities suggest that the grains be cooked to the point that they stick together as a single mass before these blessings should be recited. If, however, both the shell of the kernel has been removed and they have been crushed, the blessing al hamichyah may be recited even when the kernels do not stick together (Mishnah Berurah 208:15).
6. As mentioned in Halachah 6, as long as the grain is included to add flavor, it is considered the primary element in the mixture, and the blessing al hamichyah should be recited, even though quantitatively, the dish contains a majority of other substances. (See Shulchan Aruch, Orach Chayim 208:2.)
7. The definition of foods as primary and secondary depends on the person's intention and not the quantity of the foods included in the mixture.
8. This principle is quoted from the Mishnah, Berachot 6:7.
9. Thus producing a single food, as exemplified in Halachah 6.
10. In this instance, the two foods remain separate, yet the secondary food is included in the blessing recited over the primary one, as exemplified in Halachah 7.
11. The Rambam is quoting Berachot 39a, which states that this law applies even to turnips that require a large amount of flour.
12. Beitzah 38a states, "Anything added for flavor is never considered negligible."

The Magen Avraham 204:25 and the Chacham Tzvi (Responsum 129) explain that the Rambam's (and the Talmud's) statements apply only to products from the five species of grain. Whenever they are added to flavor foods, they are considered of primary importance even when, quantitatively, they are less than the other ingredients of a particular dish. In contrast, when two or more types of foods other than grain products are mixed together in a single dish and both are intended to add flavor and/or satiate the person eating, the food which is greater in quantity is considered as the primary ingredient.

The Kessef Mishneh adds that if the starch was added for flavor, the mixture would require the blessing borey minei mezonot. He continues, explaining that when other foods - e.g., fruits which are not usually eaten raw, are cooked in sugar to produce jam, the fruits are considered of primary importance. Hence, the blessing borey pri ha'etz should be recited. See Shulchan Aruch, Orach Chayim 204:11.
14. By adding the clause, "so that the heavy brine...," the Rambam explains the source for this ruling, Berachot 6:7, and clarifies a problem posed by the commentaries.

Although the Mishnah mentions the example of bread serving as a secondary food when it accompanies salted foods, the Talmud (Berachot 44a) protests, and explains that in almost all situations bread would be considered the primary food. The Mishnah is describing a specific instance: people who eat fruit that originates in the area around Lake Kineret.

In his Commentary on the Mishnah, the Rambam explains that this refers to people who work as watchmen in orchards. They eat large quantities of fruit. Hence, in order to help their digestion, they also must partake of brine. Since the brine itself could be harmful, they eat bread with it.

Here, also, the Rambam is referring to a case where the person has no desire to eat bread and does so only to protect his throat. If, however, a person wanted to eat salted fish on bread and desired both the bread and the fish, he must recite the blessing hamotzi and recite grace. (See Turei Zahav 212:1-2.)

Shulchan Aruch HaRav 212:2 gives another example: A person who eats bread to weaken the taste of an alcoholic beverage.

16. A k'zayit. In contemporary measure, it is equivalent to 28.8 cc according to Shiurei Torah and 33 cc according to the Chazon Ish.
17. Out of faithfulness to the Rambam's text, we have translated his words literally, although they have caused the commentaries great difficulty. On the surface, there is an open contradiction between the first clause and the second clause. From the first clause, it appears that a piece of bread less than the size of an olive which resembles bread warrants the blessing hamotzi. In contrast, the latter clause appears to indicate that the bread must both be the size of an olive and have the appearance of bread to warrant the blessing hamotzi.

Because of this difficulty, the Radbaz (Vol. V, Responsum 1393) and Sefer HaBatim have suggested amending the text and rendering the latter clause, "If they are not the size of an olive and no longer resemble bread because of the cooking process." Furthermore, even without amending the text, this interpretation can be accepted, since, as the Rambam's own descendant, Rabbi Yehoshua, explains, there are times when the Hebrew או can be rendered as "if." Thus, the passage would read, "If they are not the size of an olive, if...."

Rav Yosef Karo was aware of the text's difficulty and the suggestions to amend it. Nevertheless, both in his Kessef Mishneh and his Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 168:10), he seeks to justify the Rambam's choice of phraseology, explaining his statements as follows:

When one cooked pieces of bread or mixed them into soup, if they are the size of an olive, one should recite the blessing hamotzi although they no longer resemble bread. If they are less than the size of an olive but resemble bread, one should recite this blessing when they have been mixed into soup. If, however, they have been cooked, and although it is obvious that these pieces came from a loaf of bread, they no longer have the appearance of bread, only the blessing borey minei mezonot should be recited.

To summarize: when one breaks bread into pieces and puts them into soup, since the pieces still resemble bread they may not be eaten unless one recites the blessing hamotzi. If the pieces of bread were cooked completely to prepare a different food and less than a k'zayit remains whole, the blessing borey minei mezonot should be recited. According to most authorities, if one cooks with bread crumbs or matzah meal, the blessing borey minei mezonot, should be recited on the foods produced.

3

[The following rules apply] when a person cooks flour from one of the five species of grain, which has been mixed with water or other liquids: If the mixture is thick, so that it is fit to be eaten and chewed, one should recite the blessing borey minei mezonot beforehand and the blessing al hamichyah v'al hakalkalah afterward. If the mixture is thin, so that it is fit to be drunk, one should recite the blessing shehakol beforehand and the blessing borey nefashot rabbot afterward.

ג

קמח של אחד מחמשת המינין ששלקוהו וערבו במים או בשאר משקים אם היה עבה כדי שיהיה ראוי לאכילה וללעסו מברך עליו בתחלה בורא מיני מזונות ולבסוף על המחיה ועל הכלכלה ואם היה רך כדי שיהיה ראוי לשתייה מברך עליו בתחלה שהכל ולבסוף בורא נפשות רבות:

4

The blessing borey minei mezonot is recited before [partaking of any of the following foods]:
flour from one of the five species of grain that was cooked in a pot - whether alone or whether it was mixed together with other ingredients - e.g., dumplings or the like;
grain that was divided or crushed and cooked in a pot - e.g., groats or grits. These [two categories] are referred to as cooked dishes.

The same laws also apply to any dish in which flour or bread from the five species of grain was mixed.

ד

קמח של אחד מחמשת המינין שבשלו בקדרה בין לבדו בין שעירבו עם דברים אחרים כגון לביבות וכיוצא בהן וכן הדגן שחלקו או כתשו ובשלו בקדרה כגון הריפות וגרש הכרמל וכיוצא בהן וכל זה הוא הנקרא מעשה קדרה וכן כל תבשיל שערב בו מחמשת המינין בין קמח בין פת בתחלה מברך עליו בורא מיני מזונות:

5

When does the above apply? When the person considers the [flour or bread] from the five species of grain as the primary element [of the mixture] and not as a secondary element. If, however, the [flour or bread] from the five species of grain is a secondary element of a mixture, the person should recite the [appropriate] blessing over the primary food, and thus fulfill his obligation regarding the secondary food.

This is a major principle with regard to blessings: Whenever a food contains primary and secondary elements, a person should recite a blessing over the primary element, and thus fulfill his obligation regarding the secondary element. [This principle applies] regardless of whether the secondary element is mixed together with the primary element or not.

ה

בד"א כשהיה המין הזה חשוב אצלו ולא היה טפלה אבל אם היה אחד מחמשת המינין שעירב טפלה אינו מברך אלא על העיקר ופוטר את הטפלה וזה כלל בברכות כל שהוא עיקר ועמו טפלה מברך על העיקר ופוטר את הטפלה בין שהיתה הטפלה מעורבת עם העיקר בין שלא היתה מעורבת:

6

What is an example of a secondary food mixed together [with a primary food]? Cooked turnips or cabbage to which flour from one of the five species was added so that it would hold together. The blessing borey minei mezonot is not recited, because the turnips are of primary importance and the flour is secondary.

Similarly, whenever a substance is added to hold food together, to add fragrance, or to color a dish, it is considered secondary. If, however, it was added in order to add flavor to the food, it is considered of primary importance.

Accordingly, when sweets are made by cooking honey and mixing it with starch so that it will stick together, the blessing borey minei mezonot is not recited, because the honey is of primary importance.

ו

כיצד היא הטפלה המעורבת כגון לפת או כרוב שבשלו ועירב בו קמח של אחד מחמשת המינין כדי לדבקו אינו מברך עליו בורא מיני מזונות שהלפת הוא העיקר וקמחו טפלה שכל דבר שמערבין אותו לדבק או כדי ליתן ריח או כדי לצבוע את התבשיל הרי זו טפלה אבל אם עירב כדי ליתן טעם בתערובות הרי הוא עיקר לפיכך מיני דבש שמבשלין אותן ונותנין בהן חלב חטה כדי לדבק ועושין מהן מיני מתיקה אינו מברך עליו בורא מיני מזונות מפני שהדבש הוא העיקר:

7

What is an example of a secondary food which is not mixed together? A person who wants to eat salted fish and eats bread with it so that the heavy brine will not harm his throat or tongue. [In this instance,] he should recite a blessing on the salted fish, and by doing so fulfill his obligation regarding the bread, because the bread is secondary. The same principle applies in other similar situations.

ז

כיצד היא הטפלה שאינה מעורבת הרי שצריך לאכול דג מליח ואכל הפת עמו כדי שלא יזיק המלח גרונו ולשונו הרי זה מברך על המליח ופוטר את הפת מפני שהפת טפלה לו וכן כל כיוצא בזה:

8

[The following rules apply when] bread was broken into pieces and cooked in a pot or mixed into soup: If the pieces are the size of an olive or they can be recognized as bread and their appearance has not changed, the blessing hamotzi should be recited before partaking of them. If, however, they are not the size of an olive or they no longer resemble bread because of the cooking process, the blessing borey minei mezonot should be recited before partaking of them.

ח

הפת שפתת אותה פתים ובשלה בקדרה או לשה במרק אם יש בפתיתין כזית או שניכר שהן פת ולא נשתנה צורתה מברך עליה בתחלה המוציא ואם אין בהן כזית או שעברה צורת הפת בבישול מברך עליה בתחלה בורא מיני מזונות:

9

Before partaking of dough baked over the ground as is baked by the Arabs living in the desert, one should recite the blessing borey minei mezonot, because it does not have the appearance of bread. If, however, one uses it as the basis of a meal, one should recite the blessing hamotzi.

Similar [laws apply to] dough that was kneaded with honey, oil, or milk, or mixed together with different condiments and baked. It is referred to as pat haba'ah b'kisnin. Although it [resembles] bread, the blessing borey minei mezonot is recited over it. If, however, one uses it as the basis of a meal, one should recite the blessing hamotzi.

ט

עיסה שנאפת בקרקע כמו שהערביים שוכני המדברות אופים הואיל ואין עליה צורת פת מברך עליה בתחלה בורא מיני מזונות ואם קבע מזונו עליה מברך המוציא וכן עיסה שלשה בדבש או בשמן או בחלב או שעירב בה מיני תבלין ואפאה והיא הנקראת פת הבאה בכסנין אף על פי שהוא פת מברך עליה בורא מיני מזונות ואם קבע סעודתו עליה מברך המוציא:

Before partaking of dough baked over the ground - Significantly, the Rambam's definition of the term כובא דארעא, discussed by our Sages, Berachot 38a, differs from that of Rashi, whose interpretation is quoted in the Tur and the Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 168:15).

as is baked by the Arabs living in the desert - Rav Kapach explains that the Arabs would dig a hole in the ground, fill it with wood, and start a fire. When the wood had burned until all that remained was glowing coals, they would remove them and fill the hole with dough. Afterwards, the coals would be placed above the dough and allowed to remain there until the dough was baked. (See also Hilchot Chametz UMatzah 6:6.)

one should recite the blessing borey minei mezonot - and not hamotzi

because it does not have the appearance of bread. - The fact that it does not look like bread - although its manner of preparation, taste, and texture are similar - is significant enough to prevent it from receiving the blessing hamotzi.

[The Rambam's conception is significant since other halachic authorities - e.g., the Magen Avraham 168:40 - maintain thathamotzi should not be recited because this dough is soft, like pancakes.]

If, however, one uses it as the basis of a meal, - Based on Berachot 42a, the Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 168:6) interprets this to mean "a measure that others would usually use as the basis for a meal even though, personally, one is not satisfied from it."

Quantitatively, Shulchan Aruch HaRav 168:8 states that the intention is a full meal, an isaron. [He arrives at this calculation as follows: In the desert, the Jews received an omer of manna for two meals each day. An omer is twice the quantity of an isaron.] This is approximately 22 k'beitzot, or 1266 cc according to Shiurei Torah, and 1452 cc according to the Chazon Ish. This figure includes not only the grain product, but also other foods - e.g., meat, fish, or vegetables - that are eaten together with it.

Nevertheless, there are more stringent opinions, and accordingly, Shulchan Aruch HaRav (loc. cit.) and the Mishnah Berurah 168:24 suggest not eating a meal consisting of more than four k'beitzot of food with such "bread" as its base.

one should recite the blessing hamotzi. - Shulchan Aruch HaRav 168:8 states that the blessing hamotzi was designated for bread to indicate its importance as a satisfying food and the foundation of our diet. Hence, it was instituted only for breads that are usually served for such a purpose. If, however, a person decided to serve another food made from flour and resembling bread with a similar intent, it is also appropriate that he recite hamotzi.

Similar [laws apply to] dough that was kneaded with honey, oil, or milk - The Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 168:7) states that all that is necessary is to mix enough of these ingredients into the dough so that their taste is felt. The Ramah and the Magen Avraham 168:16 differ and maintain that the amount of these ingredients must exceed the quantity of water used. Support for their ruling can be drawn from the Rambam's statements in Hilchot Chametz UMatzah 5:20.

The above is significant with regard to what is popularly called today mezonot bread, which is produced by using apple juice instead of (or together with) water. According to the Ramah, the blessing borey minei mezonot should not be recited:
a) if the dough is made with more water than juice,
b) if one uses this bread as the basis for a large meal.

or mixed together with different condiments - sugar, honey, nuts, fruits, or spices

and baked - producing a product which, like cake, is generally eaten for pleasure and not as the basis of a meal.

It is referred to as pat haba'ah b'kisnin. - Note theShulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 168:7), which offers two other interpretations of the term, pat haba'ah b'kisnin:
a) Rabbenu Chananel's interpretation - dough filled with other sweet substances - e.g., pies that are served for dessert, like apple pie;
b) Rav Hai Gaon's interpretation - crackers.

Although it [resembles] bread, the blessing borey minei mezonot is recited over it - because it is not food which, like bread, is the foundation of our diets.

If, however, one uses it as the basis of a meal - eating the quantity mentioned above of this grain product either alone or together with other foods (Magen Avraham 168:13)

one should recite the blessing hamotzi. - The Shulchan Aruch (loc. cit.) states that all three opinions may be accepted as halachah, and none of these three types of foods requires the blessing hamotzi or grace, unless it is eaten as the basis of a meal.

There are, however, several difficulties with the application of this decision in contemporary situations, particularly with regard to "mezonot bread." Surely, when one eats a complete meal, serving such bread does not free one of the obligation of washing and reciting grace. Furthermore, there are difficulties even when one eats only a snack with such bread. First, some authorities - e.g., Rav Shneur Zalman of Liadi in his Piskei Siddur - state that a meticulous person should not each such bread without having recited hamotzi on other bread first.

Second, when one eats sandwiches using such bread or eats it with other foods, one may easily eat more than four k'beitzot of food, and that, as explained above, is problematic according to certain authorities.

10

Before eating rice that has been cooked or bread made from rice, one should recite the blessing borey minei mezonot. Afterwards, the blessing borey nefashot should be recited. This applies only when no other ingredients are combined together with the rice.

In contrast, before eating bread made from millet or other species of kitniyot, one should recite the blessing shehakol. Afterwards, the blessing borey nefashot should be recited.

י

אורז שבישלו או שעשה ממנו פת בתחלה מברך עליו בורא מיני מזונות ולבסוף בורא נפשות ובלבד שלא יהא מעורב עם דבר אחר אלא אורז לבדו אבל פת דוחן או פת של שאר מיני קטנית בתחלה מברך שהכל ולבסוף בורא נפשות רבות:

Before eating rice - In this halachah, we have translated אורז as "rice" and דוחן as "millet," based on the Rambam's Commentary on the Mishnah, Shvi'it 2:7. There is, however, debate concerning this manner among the halachic authorities. Rashi (Berachot 37a) and the Maharil interpret אורז as "millet." With respect to these opinions, the Magen Avraham 208:9 and the Turei Zahav 208:11 suggest partaking of rice or millet only in the midst of a meal including bread. If either are eaten separately, the blessing shehakol should be recited beforehand because of the doubt involved.

In contrast, the Sha'ar Tziyun 208:31 rules that the blessing borey minei mezonot should be recited before partaking of rice. He explains that there are opinions that the blessing borey minei mezonot should be recited on all satisfying food. Since rice serves this purpose, it can be given this blessing.

that has been cooked - after its shell has been removed and it has been crushed

or bread made from rice - In contrast, before eating kernels of rice, one should recite the blessing borey pri ha'adamah as is done before partaking of kernels of grain. (See Halachah 2 and Berachot 37a.)

one should recite the blessing borey minei mezonot. - The latter phrase praises God as "the Creator of satisfying food." Since rice falls into this category, Berachot, loc. cit., decided that it should be given this blessing.

Afterwards, the blessing borey nefashot should be recited. - Although rice is a satisfying food, it is not one of the five species of grain. Hence, neither grace nor al hamichyah is recited after partaking of it. See also the following halachah.

This applies only when no other ingredients are combined together with the rice. - Thus, the law regarding rice differs from that regarding cooked foods made from the five grains. As explained in Halachot 4-6, although quantitatively a food may contain a mixture of other ingredients, as long as the grain was intended to add flavor to the food, it is considered the primary ingredient. In contrast, the blessing borey minei mezonot is recited on a mixture of rice and other foods only when rice is quantitatively the primary element of the mixture. See Shulchan Aruch (14Orach Chayim13 208:7).

The Turei Zahav 208:9, however, maintains that the Rambam's words should be interpreted literally. Thus, the blessing borey minei mezonot should be recited only when rice is prepared by itself and not when eaten in combination with even a minority of other foods.

In contrast, before eating bread made from millet - Rabbenu Asher and many other Ashkenazic authorities differ with the Rambam and maintain that since millet, like rice, is a sustaining food, it warrants the blessing borey minei mezonot. Nevertheless, theShulchan Aruch (loc. cit.:8) and the later authorities follow the Rambam's opinion. Note, however, the difference of opinion on the definition of the terms אורז and דוחן mentioned above.

or other species of kitniyot - Kitniyot is generally translated as "legumes." In halachic literature, however, it is used to refer to a far wider scope of agricultural products, particularly with regard to the laws of Pesach. (See Hilchot Chametz UMatzah 5:1.) For example, corn is referred to as kitniyot.

one should recite the blessing shehakol. - Although allkitniyot grow from the ground, the blessing borey pri ha'adamah is recited only when one eats them cooked as vegetables, and not when they have been ground into flour and baked into other foods, since this is not the normal manner in which they are eaten (Magen Avraham 208:12).

Afterwards, the blessing borey nefashot should be recited - as is proper after partaking of all foods of this type.

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Whenever the blessing hamotzi is recited before [partaking of a food], the four blessings of grace are recited afterwards in their proper order. Whenever the blessing borey minei mezonot is recited before [partaking of a food], a single blessing, which includes the three [blessings of grace], is recited afterward, except when one eats rice.

יא

כל שמברכין עליו בתחלה המוציא מברכין לאחריו בסוף ברכת המזון כסדרה ארבע ברכות וכל שמברכין עליו בתחלה בורא מיני מזונות מברכין בסוף לאחריו ברכה אחת מעין שלש חוץ מן האורז:

Whenever the blessing hamotzi is recited before [partaking of a food] - i.e., when one eats bread or enough of other grain substances to warrant the recitation of hamotzi, as mentioned in Halachah 9.

the four blessings of grace are recited afterwards in their proper order.

Whenever the blessing borey minei mezonot is recited before [partaking of a food] - i.e, the foods made from the five species of grain that are mentioned in Halachot 3, 4, 8, and 9.

a single blessing, which includes the three [blessings of grace], is recited afterward - This blessing contains the three primary elements of the first three blessings of grace, an expression of thanks to God for granting us sustenance, for granting us Eretz Yisrael, and for granting us Jerusalem. The full text of this blessing is quoted in Halachah 13.

except when one eats rice. - as explained in the previous halachah.

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When does the above apply? When a person ate more than the size of an olive [from these foods]. If, however, he ate less than the size of an olive, whether from bread or from other food, or drank less than a revi'it, whether from wine or from other beverages, he should recite the appropriate blessing before partaking of the food or drink, but should not recite any blessing at all afterward.

יב

במה דברים אמורים שאכל מכזית ולמעלה אבל אכל פחות מכזית בין מן הפת בין משאר אוכלין והשותה פחות מרביעית בין מן היין בין משאר משקין מברך בתחלה ברכה הראויה לאותו המין ולבסוף אינו מברך כלל:

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This is [the text of] the single blessing that includes the three blessings of grace:

Blessed are You, God, our Lord, King of the universe, for the life- giving and the sustaining [food], for the precious, good, and spacious land which You have graciously given as a heritage to our ancestors. Have mercy, God, our Lord, on us, and on all Israel, Your people, and on Jerusalem, Your city, and on Zion, the abode of Your glory. And may You cause us to ascend to it and let us rejoice in its rebuilding and we will bless You in holiness and in purity. Blessed are You, God, for the land and for the sustenance.

On Sabbaths and festivals, one should include in this blessing a condensed reference to the sanctity of the day as one does in grace.

יג

וזו היא ברכה אחת מעין שלש:

ברוך אתה יי' אלהינו מלך העולם על המחיה ועל הכלכלה ועל ארץ חמדה טובה ורחבה שרצית ושהנחלת את אבותינו רחם יי' אלהינו עלינו ועל ישראל עמך ועל ירושלים עירך ועל ציון משכן כבודך והעלנו לתוכה ושמחנו בבניינה ונברכך עליה בקדושה ובטהרה ברוך אתה יי' על הארץ ועל המחיה ובשבתות וימים טובים אומר בברכה זו בכללה מעין קדושת היום כדרך שמזכיר בברכת המזון: