SECTION 1 Laws Relating to Rising in the Morning. (1–9)

סימן א דִּין הַשְׁכָּמַת הַבֹּקֶר, וּבוֹ ט סְעִיפִים:

1 Yehudah ben Teima says: “Be bold as a leopard, swift as an eagle, fleet as a deer and strong as a lion, to fulfill the will of your Father in Heaven.”1

To be “bold as a leopard”2 means that one should not to be embarrassed when confronted by scoffers. “Strong as a lion” — strength is mainly lodged in the heart,3 enabling one to overcome his [evil] inclination and conquer it, like a mighty man who overcomes his adversary, vanquishing him and throwing him to the ground.

Similarly, like a lion, every individual should overcome his inclination in the morning and rise from sleep before dawn to serve his Creator. Thus he will rouse the morning,4 as it is written,5 “I will wake the dawn,” which implies: I will wake the dawn; the dawn will not wake me.6 This is an intermediate standard of conduct.7

א "יְהוּדָא א בֶּן תֵּימָא אוֹמֵר: הֱוֵי עַז כַּנָּמֵר וְקַל כַּנֶּשֶׁר רָץ כַּצְּבִי וְגִבּוֹר כָּאֲרִי – לַעֲשׂוֹת רְצוֹן אָבִיךָ שֶׁבַּשָּׁמַיִם".1 "עַז כַּנָּמֵר",ב, 2 הוּא, שֶׁלֹּא לְהִתְבַּיֵּשׁ מִפְּנֵי בְּנֵי אָדָם הַמַּלְעִיגִים.ג "וְגִבּוֹר כָּאֲרִי", עִקַּר הַגְּבוּרָה הוּא בַּלֵּב,ד, 3 לְהִתְגַּבֵּר עַל יִצְרוֹ לְנַצְּחוֹ, כְּגִבּוֹר הַמִּתְגַּבֵּר עַל שׂוֹנְאוֹ לְנַצְּחוֹ וּלְהַפִּילוֹ לָאָרֶץ.

וְכֵן צָרִיךְ כָּל אָדָם בַּבֹּקֶר לְהִתְגַּבֵּר עַל יִצְרוֹ כָּאֲרִי,ה לָקוּם מִשְּׁנָתוֹ קֹדֶם אוֹר הַבֹּקֶר לַעֲבוֹדַת בּוֹרְאוֹ,ו כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּהֵא הוּא מְעוֹרֵר הַשַּׁחַר,ז, 4 כְּמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב: ח, 5 "אָעִירָה שָּׁחַר" – אֲנִי מְעוֹרֵר הַשַּׁחַר וְאֵין הַשַּׁחַר מֵעִיר אוֹתִי,ט, 6 וְזוֹ מִדָּה בֵּינוֹנִית.י, 7

2 It is, however, appropriate for any G‑d-fearing person,8 any man of valor whose heart G‑d has touched,9 to rise at midnight10 and to devote a little time to mourning for the destruction of the Beis HaMikdash and the exile of the Divine Presence.11 One should recite the psalm beginning, “By the waters of Babylon”12 and the like13 (as printed in various Siddurim14). For thus it is written,15 “Arise, cry out in the night, at the beginning of the watches” — just as the Holy One, blessed be He, Himself mourns at this time, saying, “Woe is Me, that I have destroyed My House...”16 And a modest measure recited with genuine intent is preferable to a greater quantity with less earnest feelings.17

Afterwards, one should engage in the study18 of the Oral Law19 until daybreak.

ב אֲבָל רָאוּי לְכָל יְרֵא שָׁמַיִם יא, 8 וְכָל הַחַיִל אֲשֶׁר נָגַע ה' בְּלִבּוֹ,יב, 9 לָקוּם בַּחֲצוֹת הַלַּיְלָה יג, 10 וּלְקוֹנֵן מְעַט יד בְּמִזְמוֹר "עַל נַהֲרוֹת בָּבֶל" טו, 12 וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ טז, 13 (כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּדְפַּס בַּסִּדּוּרִים),יז, 14 עַל חֻרְבַּן בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ וְגָלוּת הַשְּׁכִינָה,יח, 11 כְּמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב: יט, 15 "קוּמִי רֹנִּי בַלַּיְלָה לְרֹאשׁ אַשְׁמֻרוֹת וגו'", וּכְמוֹ שֶׁהַקָּדוֹשׁ־בָּרוּךְ־הוּא מְקוֹנֵן בָּעֵת הַהִיא וְאוֹמֵר: כ "אוֹי לִי שֶׁהֶחֱרַבְתִּי אֶת בֵּיתִי כו'".16 וְטוֹב מְעַט בְּכַוָּנָה מֵהַרְבּוֹת שֶׁלֹּא בְּכַוָּנָה.כא, 17 וְאַחַר־כָּךְ כב לַעֲסֹק בַּתּוֹרָה כג, 18 שֶׁבְּעַל פֶּה כד, 19 עַד אוֹר הַיּוֹם.כה

3 The praises which the Zohar20 lavishes on this practice are well known. Similarly, the Talmud21 states that midnight is a time of Divine favor; this is reflected in the fact that22 “it came to pass at midnight that G‑d smote all the firstborn [in the land of Egypt].” [Our Sages] also said:23 “Whenever a person engages in Torah study at night, the Divine Presence is before him. This is implied by the verse, ‘Arise, cry out in the night, at the beginning of the watches; pour out your heart like water, facing the Presence of G‑d.’ ” That is to say, the Divine Presence abides with the individual “at the beginning of the watches,”24 which means midnight.25

(If a person cannot rise at midnight, he should rise at the beginning of the third watch.26)

If one engages in Torah study at night, a thread of Divine favor is extended over him during the day,27 as it is written,28 “By day G‑d ordains His lovingkindness, and at night His song is with me.” Moreover, such a person is called a servant of G‑d,29 as in the verse that addresses30 “all the servants of G‑d who stand in the House of G‑d by night.”

It is advisable to prepare a rooster,31 as R. Akiva did, to wake one at midnight. Even when on a journey he would take a rooster with him to wake him at midnight.32 If a rooster will not wake [its owner], he should hire someone to wake him.

ג וְנוֹדַע כְּבָר מַה שֶּׁהִפְלִיגוּ בְּמַעֲלָה זוֹ בְּסֵפֶר הַזֹּהַר,כו, 20 וְכֵן אָמְרוּ בַּגְּמָרָא כז, 30 שֶׁחֲצוֹת לַיְלָה הִיא "עֵת רָצוֹן", וּכְמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב: כח, 22 "וַיְהִי בַּחֲצִי הַלַּיְלָה וַה' הִכָּה כָל בְּכוֹר וגו'". וְגַם אָמְרוּ: כט, 23 "כָּל הָעוֹסֵק בַּתּוֹרָה בַּלַּיְלָה – שְׁכִינָה כְּנֶגְדּוֹ", שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ל "קוּמִי רֹנִּי בַלַּיְלָה לְרֹאשׁ אַשְׁמֻרוֹת שִׁפְכִי כַמַּיִם לִבֵּךְ נֹכַח פְּנֵי ה'", כְּלוֹמַר שְׁכִינָה שְׁרוּיָה אֶצְלֵךְ,לא, 24 וְרֹאשׁ אַשְׁמֻרוֹת הוּא חֲצוֹת הַלַּיְלָה.לב, 25

(וְאִם אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לָקוּם בַּחֲצוֹת לג – יָקוּם בְּרֹאשׁ הָאַשְׁמוּרָה הַשְּׁלִישִׁית) לד, 26 וְכָל הָעוֹסֵק בַּתּוֹרָה בַּלַּיְלָה – חוּט שֶׁל חֶסֶד מָשׁוּךְ עָלָיו בַּיּוֹם,לה, 27 שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: לו, 28 "יוֹמָם יְצַוֶּה ה' חַסְדּוֹ וּבַלַּיְלָה שִׁירֹה עִמִּי". וְזֶה הַנִּקְרָא "עֶבֶד ה'",לז, 29 כְּמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב: לח, 30 "כָּל עַבְדֵי ה' הָעוֹמְדִים בְּבֵית ה' בַּלֵּילוֹת".

וְנָכוֹן לְהָכִין תַּרְנְגוֹל לט, 31 לַהֲקִיצוֹ מִשְּׁנָתוֹ מ בַּחֲצוֹת,מא וּכְמוֹ שֶׁהָיָה עוֹשֶׂה רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא,מב שֶׁהָיָה מוֹלִיךְ עִמּוֹ תַּרְנְגוֹל גַּם כְּשֶׁהָיָה מְהַלֵּךְ בַּדֶּרֶךְ כְּדֵי לַהֲקִיצוֹ בַּחֲצוֹת.מג, 32 וְאִם אֵין הַתַּרְנְגוֹל מְקִיצוֹ – יִשְׂכֹּר לוֹ אָדָם שֶׁיְּקִיצֶנּוּ.

4 As soon as a person wakes up,33 in order that he should be able to overcome his inclination and rise energetically — at midnight, or before dawn as in the intermediate standard of conduct — he should contemplate in his heart before Whom he is lying. He should be aware that the King of kings is hovering over him, as it is written,34 “The entire earth is filled with His glory.” Were he to lie before a king of flesh and blood who was standing over him, he would be liable for his life. How much more does this apply with regard to the King of kings, the Holy One, blessed be He!

ד וּמִיָּד שֶׁנֵּעוֹר מִשְּׁנָתוֹ מד, 33 כְּדֵי שֶׁיּוּכַל לְהִתְגַּבֵּר עַל יִצְרוֹ לָקוּם בִּזְרִיזוּת בַּחֲצוֹת, אוֹ קֹדֶם עַמּוּד הַשַּׁחַר בְּמִדָּה בֵּינוֹנִית מה – יַחְשֹׁב בְּלִבּוֹ לִפְנֵי מִי הוּא שׁוֹכֵב,מו וְיֵדַע שֶׁמֶּלֶךְ מַלְכֵי הַמְּלָכִים הַקָּדוֹשׁ־בָּרוּךְ־הוּא חוֹפֵף עָלָיו, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: מז, 34 "מְלֹא כָל הָאָרֶץ כְּבוֹדוֹ", וְאִלּוּ הָיָה שׁוֹכֵב לִפְנֵי מֶלֶךְ בָּשָׂר וָדָם הָעוֹמֵד עָלָיו – הָיָה מִתְחַיֵּב בְּנַפְשׁוֹ, קַל וָחֹמֶר לִפְנֵי מֶלֶךְ מַלְכֵי הַמְּלָכִים הַקָּדוֹשׁ־בָּרוּךְ־הוּא.

5 A cardinal principle in the Torah35 and one of the attributes of the righteous who walk before G‑d is reflected by the verse,36 “I have placed G‑d before me at all times.” For the manner in which a person sits, moves about, and conducts his affairs is not the same when he is alone at home as when he is in the presence of a great king.37 Similarly, the way he speaks freely in the company of members of his household is not the same as the way he speaks in the dwelling of a king.

How much more does this apply when one earnestly considers that the great King — the King of kings, the Holy One, blessed be He — is standing over him and observing his deeds. As it is written,38 “‘If a man hides himself in secret places, will I not see him?’ says G‑d. ‘For I fill both heaven and earth!’ ” [When one earnestly considers this,] he will immediately be affected by awe39 and submissiveness, with a constant fear of G‑d and bashfulness before Him.

If he is not immediately affected in this manner, he should ponder deeply upon this concept until he is affected.40 Moreover, he should repent with wholehearted teshuvah for all his sins, for it is they that prevent the awe from affecting him,41 as it is written,42 “Your sins have separated [you from your G‑d].”

ה וְזֶה כְּלָל גָּדוֹל בַּתּוֹרָה מח, 35 וּבְמַעֲלוֹת הַצַּדִּיקִים הַהוֹלְכִים לִפְנֵי הָאֱלֹקִים, כְּמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב: מט, 36 "שִׁוִּיתִי ה' לְנֶגְדִּי תָמִיד", כִּי אֵין יְשִׁיבַת הָאָדָם וּתְנוּעוֹתָיו וַעֲסָקָיו וְהוּא לְבַדּוֹ בְּבֵיתוֹ כִּישִׁיבָתוֹ וּתְנוּעוֹתָיו וַעֲסָקָיו וְהוּא לִפְנֵי מֶלֶךְ גָּדוֹל,נ, 37 וְאֵין דִּבּוּרוֹ וְהַרְחָבַת פִּיו כִּרְצוֹנוֹ וְהוּא עִם אַנְשֵׁי בֵּיתוֹ כְּדִבּוּרוֹ בְּמוֹשַׁב הַמֶּלֶךְ, כָּל שֶׁכֵּן כְּשֶׁיָּשִׂים הָאָדָם אֶל לִבּוֹ, שֶׁהַמֶּלֶךְ הַגָּדוֹל, מֶלֶךְ מַלְכֵי הַמְּלָכִים הַקָּדוֹשׁ־בָּרוּךְ־הוּא, עוֹמֵד עָלָיו וְרוֹאֶה בְּמַעֲשָׂיו, כְּמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב: נא, 38 "אִם יִסָּתֵר אִישׁ בַּמִּסְתָּרִים וַאֲנִי לֹא אֶרְאֶנּוּ נְאֻם ה', הַלֹּא אֶת הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֶת הָאָרֶץ אֲנִי מָלֵא" – מִיָּד יַגִּיעַ אֵלָיו הַיִּרְאָה נב, 39 וְהַהַכְנָעָה בְּפַחַד ה' וּבָשְׁתּוֹ מִמֶּנּוּ תָּמִיד.

וְאִם לֹא יַגִּיעַ אֵלָיו מִיָּד – יַעֲמִיק הַרְבֵּה בְּעִנְיָן זֶה עַד שֶׁיַּגִּיעַ אֵלָיו,נג, 40 וְגַם יָשׁוּב בִּתְשׁוּבָה שְׁלֵמָה עַל כָּל עֲוֹנוֹתָיו, שֶׁהֵם הַמּוֹנְעִים מֵהַגִּיעַ אֵלָיו הַיִּרְאָה,נד, 41 כְּמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב: נה, 42 "עֲוֹנוֹתֵיכֶם הָיוּ מַבְדִּילִים וגו'".

6 It is proper for one to habituate himself immediately upon waking43 to say Modeh Ani...: “I offer thanks to You, living and eternal King, for You have mercifully restored my soul within me; great is Your faithfulness.”44 This will remind him of G‑d Who is standing over him and he will then rise energetically. Nevertheless, he should not rise and stand up suddenly, but should wait a little until he has completed this sentence while still lying or sitting, as will be explained in the laws of proper conduct.45

Since this statement does not include any of the seven Divine names46 that may not be erased,47 one is not forbidden to recite it before washing his hands.48 [This applies] even when he slept naked and his hands presumably touched unclean parts of his body, as will be explained in sec. 4.49

By contrast, it is forbidden to utter words of Torah with unclean hands, though it is permissible to think about words of Torah.50 Nevertheless,51 a person should not speak — nor even think — words of Torah while he is still lying in bed, even if he has already washed his hands. Instead, he should arise and stand up or sit in awe, in the spirit of the verse,52 “Prepare to greet your G‑d, O Israel.”

ו וְטוֹב לְהַרְגִּיל עַצְמוֹ לוֹמַר מִיָּד שֶׁנֵּעוֹר מִשְּׁנָתוֹ נו, 43 ("מוֹדֶה אֲנִי לְפָנֶיךָ מֶלֶךְ חַי וְקַיָּם, שֶׁהֶחֱזַרְתָּ בִּי נִשְׁמָתִי בְּחֶמְלָה, רַבָּה אֱמוּנָתֶךָ"),44 וְעַל יְדֵי זֶה יִזְכֹּר אֶת ה' הָעוֹמֵד עָלָיו וְיָקוּם בִּזְרִיזוּת.נז אַךְ לֹא יָקוּם וְיַעֲמֹד בְּפֶתַע פִּתְאֹם,נח אֶלָּא יִשְׁהֶה מְעַט,נט עַד שֶׁיִּגְמֹר נֻסָּח זֶה בְּעוֹדוֹ שׁוֹכֵב אוֹ יוֹשֵׁב, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּהִלְכוֹת דֶּרֶךְ אֶרֶץ.ס, 45

וּלְפִי שֶׁבְּנֻסָּח זֶה אֵין בּוֹ שׁוּם שֵׁם סאמִשִּׁבְעָה שֵׁמוֹת46 שֶׁאֵינָם נִמְחָקִין סב, 47 – אֵין אִסּוּר לְאָמְרוֹ קֹדֶם שֶׁנָּטַל יָדָיו,48 אַף אִם יָשַׁן עַל מִטָּתוֹ עָרֹם וּמִסְּתָּמָא נָגְעוּ יָדָיו בִּמְקוֹמוֹת מְטֻנָּפִים שֶׁבְּגוּפוֹ כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ד.סג, 49

אֲבָל אָסוּר לְהוֹצִיא דִּבְרֵי תּוֹרָה מִפִּיו בְּיָדַיִם מְטֻנָּפוֹת,סד אֲבָל לְהַרְהֵר בְּדִבְרֵי תּוֹרָה – מֻתָּר.סה, 50 וְאַף־עַל־פִּי־כֵן סו, 51 [אֵין לוֹ לְדַבֵּר וְלֹא אֲפִלּוּ לְהַרְהֵר] סז בְּדִבְרֵי תּוֹרָה בְּעוֹדוֹ מֻשְׁכָּב עַל מִטָּתוֹ גַּם אִם נָטַל יָדָיו, אֶלָּא יָקוּם וְיַעֲמֹד אוֹ יֵשֵׁב בְּאֵימָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: סח, 52 "הִכּוֹן לִקְרַאת אֱלֹקֶיךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל".

7 As explained below in sec. 4, the Talmud53 and the subsequent halachic authorities54 rule that when a person sleeps in his clothes,55 it is possible that his hands did not touch the unclean parts of his body;56 hence his hands are presumably in a state that allows him to mention G‑d’s name that appears in the blessings and to speak words of Torah.57 Needless to say, [according to this ruling,] he may touch his clothes, even though a spirit of impurity rests upon [his hands];58 he should merely refrain from touching food59 or drink, as explained there.

Nevertheless, the Zohar60 rules very stringently that one should neither recite blessings, nor study, nor touch one’s garments,61 nor walk62 four cubits, while the spirit of impurity still rests on one’s hands before they are washed in the morning.63 A person who walks four cubits [before washing] is liable for his life,64 for by allowing this impurity to rest upon his hands, he desecrates the sanctity of G‑d which rests upon him — as it rests upon all of G‑d’s servants who sanctify themselves with the holiness of the Omnipresent and His holy Torah to a higher degree of sanctity and purity than that of the people at large who have not attained this level.

Nonetheless, if it happens that a person does not have sufficient water to wash his hands three times properly in order to remove the spirit of impurity when he rises at night, Heaven forbid that he should desist from studying Torah until daybreak when he will be able to wash his hands three times. Instead, he should wash his hands in a lesser manner or clean them with any other substance. He should then recite the blessings and proceed with his study, in accordance with the ruling of the Talmud and the halachic authorities.65

ז וּמִי שֶׁיָּשַׁן בְּמַלְבּוּשָׁיו,סט, 55 מֵאַחַר שֶׁיָכוֹל לִהְיוֹת שֶׁלֹּא נָגְעוּ יָדָיו בִּמְקוֹמוֹת מְטֻנָּפִים ע שֶׁבְּגוּפוֹ56 – הֲרֵי סְתָם יָדַיִם אֵלּוּ כְּשֵׁרוֹת לְהַזְכִּיר הַשֵּׁם בִּבְרָכוֹת  וּלְדַבֵּר דִּבְרֵי תּוֹרָה עב, 57 מִדִּין הַתַּלְמוּד עג, 53 וְהַפּוֹסְקִים עד, 54 (כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ד).עה וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר לִגַּע בְּמַלְבּוּשָׁיו עו קֹדֶם נְטִילַת יָדַיִם, אַף־עַל־פִּי שֶׁרוּחַ רָעָה שׁוֹרָה עֲלֵיהֶן.עז, 58 רַק שֶׁלֹּא לִגַּע בָּאֳכָלִין עח וּמַשְׁקֵין עט, 59 בִּלְבַד, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם.פ

אַךְ בַּזֹּהַר פא, 60 הֶחְמִירוּ מְאֹד שֶׁלֹּא לְבָרֵךְ, וְלֹא לִלְמֹד, וְכֵן שֶׁלֹּא לִגַּע בְּמַלְבּוּשָׁיו,פב, 61 וְכֵן שֶׁלֹּא לֵילֵךְ פג, 62 אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת, בְּעוֹד רוּחַ הַטֻּמְאָה שׁוֹרָה עַל הַיָּדַיִם, קֹדֶם נְטִילַת יָדַיִם שַׁחֲרִית.63 וְהַמְהַלֵּךְ אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת – חַיָּב מִיתָה,פד, 64 כִּי בְּהַשְׁרָאַת טֻמְאָה זוֹ עַל יָדָיו – חִלֵּל קְדֻשַּׁת ה' אֲשֶׁר עָלָיו, כְּעַל כָּל עַבְדֵי ה' הַמִּתְקַדְּשִׁים בִּקְדֻשָּׁתוֹ שֶׁל מָקוֹם בָּרוּךְ־הוּא וְתוֹרָתוֹ הַקְּדוֹשָׁה, בִּקְדֻשָּׁה וְטָהֳרָה יְתֵרָה, עַל טָהֳרַת הֲמוֹן עַם אֲשֶׁר לֹא הִגִּיעוּ לְמִדָּה זוֹ.

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם אֵרַע מִקְרֶה שֶׁאֵין לוֹ מַיִם לִטֹּל יָדָיו שָׁלֹשׁ פְּעָמִים פה כָּרָאוּי, לְהַעֲבִיר רוּחַ הַטֻּמְאָה, כְּשֶׁמַּשְׁכִּים בַּלַּיְלָה – חָלִילָה לוֹ לִבָּטֵל מִדִּבְרֵי תּוֹרָה עַד שֶׁיָּאִיר הַיּוֹם וְיִטֹּל יָדָיו שָׁלֹשׁ פְּעָמִים, אֶלָּא יִטֹּל מְעַט אוֹ יְנַקֶּה בְּכָל מִידִי דִּמְנַקֵּי, וִיבָרֵךְ וְיִלְמֹד כְּדִין הַתַּלְמוּד וְהַפּוֹסְקִים.פו, 65

8 The time of midnight is always [calculated] in the same manner in summer and winter66 — twelve hours after noon. This is the actual midpoint of the night, and a time of Divine favor above, at all times and in all places. Although the length of the days and the nights varies according to the climates [i.e., the various latitudes] and the longitudinal distances between one country and another, that does not change the above.67 This resembles the times for reciting Shema and Shemoneh Esreh and the times at which the Shabbos or the festivals commence, which are also [calculated] for each country according to the times of its own day and night.

(For the time of Divine favor above, and the Supernal Unions effected by the recitation of Shema and Shemoneh Esreh, and the sanctity of Shabbos and the festivals — all transcend the limits of space and time, though they radiate “downward” into the physical realms to each and every place at the time appropriate for it. This also explains why a sublime holiness pervades in the Diaspora on the second day of a festival; hence inhabitants of Eretz Yisrael who are temporarily in the Diaspora are obliged to observe the holiness of that day, even though they intend to return [to Eretz Yisrael].68 This will be explained in the laws pertaining to the festivals.69)

ח וּזְמַן חֲצוֹת לַיְלָה פז הוּא שָׁוֶה בַּקַּיִץ וּבַחֹרֶף,66 לְעוֹלָם שְׁתֵּים עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁעוֹת אַחַר חֲצִי הַיּוֹם, שֶׁהוּא אֶמְצַע הַלַּיְלָה מַמָּשׁ, וְהִיא "עֵת רָצוֹן" לְמַעְלָה,פח בְּכָל זְמַן וּבְכָל מָקוֹם.

וְאַף שֶׁהַיָּמִים וְהַלֵּילוֹת מִשְׁתַּנִּים לְפִי הָאַקְלִימִים וְרִחוּק הַמְּדִינוֹת זוֹ מִזּוֹ מִמִּזְרָח לְמַעֲרָב – אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם.67 וּכְמוֹ זְמַן קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע וּתְפִלָּה וּזְמַן כְּנִיסַת שַׁבָּת פט וְיוֹם־טוֹב, שֶׁהוּא גַּם כֵּן בְּכָל מְדִינָה וּמְדִינָה לְפִי זְמַן הַיָּמִים וְהַלֵּילוֹת שֶׁלָּהּ. (כִּי "עֵת רָצוֹן" שֶׁלְּמַעְלָה, וְיִחוּדִים עֶלְיוֹנִים שֶׁבִּקְרִיאַת שְׁמַע וּתְפִלָּה, וּקְדֻשַּׁת שַׁבָּת וְיוֹם־טוֹב – הוּא לְמַעְלָה מִגֶּדֶר הַמָּקוֹם וְהַזְּמַן, רַק שֶׁמֵּאִיר לְמַטָּה לְכָל מָקוֹם וּמָקוֹם בִּזְמַנּוֹ הָרָאוּי לוֹ. וְזֶהוּ גַּם כֵּן הַטַּעַם שֶׁשּׁוֹרָה קְדֻשָּׁה עֶלְיוֹנָה בְּחוּץ לָאָרֶץ בְּיוֹם־טוֹב שֵׁנִי שֶׁל גָּלֻיּוֹת. וְלָכֵן גַּם בְּנֵי אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל הַבָּאִים לְחוּץ לָאָרֶץ חַיָּבִים בִּקְדֻשַּׁת הַיּוֹם אַף שֶׁדַּעְתָּם לַחֲזֹר,68 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּהִלְכוֹת יוֹם־טוֹב).צ, 69

9 It is proper to recite70 every day the passage of the Akeidah (the Binding of Yitzchak) to recall the merit of the Patriarchs, the passage concerning the manna [to spur] one’s trust in G‑d Who provides every man with his daily bread, and the Ten Commandments.71

In addition, it is very advisable to recite the passages pertaining to the various sacrifices72 — the daily burnt-offering, the peace-offering, the thanksgiving-offering, the sin-offering, the definite guilt-offering and the provisional guilt-offering, the adjustable guilt-offering, the libations, and all the meal offerings — as reproduced in the Maamados.73 This recitation fulfills the intent of the verse,74 “We will render [the prayer of] our lips in place of [the sacrifice of] bulls.” Likewise it is written,75 “This is the law of the burnt-offering, the meal-offering, the sin-offering...,” and on this verse the Sages comment:76 “Whoever studies the laws of the burnt-offering [is considered to have brought a burnt-offering].”

Nevertheless, a person who has the capacity to study and to understand [the Oral Law] should not recite daily even the passages describing the sacrifices. This he should do only from time to time, and for him it is sufficient every day to recite the chapter beginning Eizehu Mekoman77 — for “Torah study is superior because it leads to action,”78 as well as to a knowledge of the Torah (as is stated in Hilchos Talmud Torah).79

If a person knows that he is obligated to offer a particular sacrifice80 — e.g., a burnt-offering because he neglected a positive commandment or [willfully] contemplated transgressing a prohibitive commandment, or a thanksgiving-offering if he finds himself in one of the four categories of those who are obligated to express their gratitude in this way81 — he should recite the passage dealing with that sacrifice as soon as he becomes obligated.

[This] he should do by day,82 for this is the time at which the relevant sacrifices were offered, and not at night. However, he does not have to recite these passages while standing,83 as a kohen was required to offer the sacrifices while standing, for in fact he is not a kohen offering sacrifices; it is only that his study is accounted as equivalent to the service of a priest who brought an offering on his behalf.

On Shabbos, it is proper to recite the passage describing the offering of the Showbread.84

ט טוֹב לוֹמַר צא, 70 בְּכָל יוֹם צב פָּרָשַׁת הָעֲקֵדָה – לִזְכֹּר זְכוּת אָבוֹת,צג וּפָרָשַׁת הַמָּן – לִבְטֹחַ בַּה' נוֹתֵן לֶחֶם "דְּבַר יוֹם בְּיוֹמוֹ", וַעֲשֶׂרֶת הַדִּבְּרוֹת.71 וְיֶתֶר עַל כֵּן, טוֹב מְאֹד לוֹמַר פָּרָשַׁת הַקָּרְבָּנוֹת,72 שֶׁהֵן: צד עוֹלָה, וּשְׁלָמִים, וְתוֹדָה, וְחַטָּאת, וְאָשָׁם וַדַּאי וְתָלוּי,צה וְקָרְבָּן עוֹלֶה וְיוֹרֵד, וּפָרָשַׁת נְסָכִים, וּשְׁאָר כָּל הַמְּנָחוֹת, כַּכָּתוּב בַּמַּעֲמָדוֹת,צו, 73 לְקַיֵּם מַה שֶּׁנֶּאֱמַר: צז, 74 "וּנְשַׁלְּמָה פָרִים שְׂפָתֵינוּ". וּכְמוֹ שֶׁאָמְרוּ חֲכָמִים צח, 76 עַל פָּסוּק: צט, 75 "זֹאת הַתּוֹרָה לָעֹלָה לַמִּנְחָה וְלַחַטָּאת וגו'" – "כָּל הָעוֹסֵק בְּתוֹרַת עוֹלָה כו'". וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, מִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ לֵב לִלְמֹד וּלְהָבִין ק – אֵין לוֹמַר אֲפִלּוּ פָּרָשַׁת הַקָּרְבָּנוֹת בְּכָל יוֹם, אֶלָּא לִפְרָקִים,קא וְדַי לוֹ בַּאֲמִירַת פֶּרֶק "אֵיזֶהוּ מְקוֹמָן",77 כִּי גָּדוֹל תַּלְמוּד הַמֵּבִיא לִידֵי מַעֲשֶׂה קב, 78 וְלִידֵי יְדִיעַת הַתּוֹרָה (כְּמוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב בְּהִלְכוֹת תַּלְמוּד תּוֹרָה).קג, 79

וְאִם יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁנִּתְחַיֵּב בְּאֵיזֶה קָרְבָּן,קד, 80 כְּגוֹן: עוֹלָה עַל בִּטּוּל מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה, אוֹ עַל הִרְהוּר הַלֵּב בְּלֹא תַּעֲשֶׂה, וְתוֹדָה לְאַרְבָּעָה הַצְּרִיכִים לְהוֹדוֹת81 – יֹאמַר פָּרָשַׁת הַקָּרְבָּן מִיָּד שֶׁנִּתְחַיֵּב בּוֹ.

וּכְשֶׁיֹּאמַר פָּרָשַׁת הַקָּרְבָּנוֹת – יֹאמַר בַּיּוֹם,קה, 82 שֶׁהוּא זְמַן הַקְרָבָתָם, וְלֹא בַּלַּיְלָה. אֲבָל אֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר מְעֻמָּד קו, 83 כְּמוֹ הַכֹּהֵן שֶׁהָיָה עוֹבֵד מְעֻמָּד, מֵאַחַר שֶׁהוּא אֵינֶנּוּ כֹּהֵן הָעוֹבֵד, אֶלָּא שֶׁבִּקְרִיאָתוֹ מַעֲלֶה עָלָיו הַכָּתוּב כְּאִלּוּ הִקְרִיב לוֹ הַכֹּהֵן.

וְטוֹב לוֹמַר בְּשַׁבָּת פָּרָשַׁת לֶחֶם הַפָּנִים.קז, 84