1

When an earthenware container that held the ashes of a red heifer was touched by the carcass of a crawling animal on its side, it is pure, for an earthenware container does not contract impurity from its outside, even with regard to this purification process. If, however, one placed the container on top of the carcass of the crawling animal, the ashes contract impurity, even though the container remains pure, as indicated by Numbers 19:9: states: "And he shall place them down outside the camp in a pure place," and this is not a pure place.

Not only does placing the ashes on the carcass of a crawling animal render them impure, they contract impurity even if they are placed on food which is a secondary derivative of impurity or the like which are less substantial types of impurity originating in Rabbinic decrees. For it is written: "A pure place," i.e., that they should not be placed on any impurity whatsoever.

Similar rulings apply if an earthenware container holding the ashes of the red heifer was placed on an aperture in an impure house. If the container was hanging within the inner space of the house, the ashes contract impurity even if the aperture was not a handbreadth by a handbreadth in size. If it was not hanging into the inner space of the house, it is impure if the aperture is a handbreadth by a handbreadth in size.

א

כְּלִי חֶרֶס שֶׁהָיָה בּוֹ אֵפר חַטָּאת וְנָגַע בּוֹ שֶׁרֶץ מִצִּדּוֹ טָהוֹר שֶׁאֵין כְּלִי חֶרֶס מִטַּמֵּא מִגַּבּוֹ אֲפִלּוּ לְגַבֵּי חַטָּאת. הִנִּיחַ הַכְּלִי עַל גַּבֵּי הַשֶּׁרֶץ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא נִטְמָא הַכְּלִי הֲרֵי הָאֵפֶר טָמֵא שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר יט ט) "וְהִנִּיחַ מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה בְּמָקוֹם טָהוֹר" וְאֵין זֶה מָקוֹם טָהוֹר. וְלֹא עַל גַּבֵּי הַשֶּׁרֶץ בִּלְבַד אֶלָּא אֲפִלּוּ הִנִּיחוֹ עַל גַּבֵּי אֹכֶל שֵׁנִי וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ מִדְּבָרִים שֶׁטֻּמְאָתָן טֻמְאָה קַלָּה וְהֵם מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים הֲרֵי נִטְמָא הָאֵפֶר שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בְּמָקוֹם טָהוֹר שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיֶה עַל [גַּבֵּי] שׁוּם טֻמְאָה בָּעוֹלָם. וְכֵן כְּלִי חֶרֶס שֶׁהָיָה בּוֹ אֵפֶר חַטָּאת וְנָתוּן עַל אֲרֻבָּה שֶׁבַּבַּיִת טָמֵא. אִם הָיָה הַכְּלִי מְשֻׁלְשָׁל לַבַּיִת נִטְמָא הָאֵפֶר וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶּׁאֵין בָּאֲרֻבָּה פּוֹתֵחַ טֶפַח. וְאִם לֹא הָיָה מְשֻׁלְשָׁל אִם הָיָה בָּאֲרֻבָּה פּוֹתֵחַ טֶפַח טָמֵא:

2

If the container was made of stone, the ashes are pure, whether the aperture is a handbreadth by a handbreadth or not.

ב

הָיָה הַכְּלִי שֶׁל אֶבֶן. בֵּין שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ פּוֹתֵחַ טֶפַח בֵּין שֶׁאֵין בָּהּ הָאֵפֶר טָהוֹר:

3

Similarly, when a container that has the ashes of the red heifer or sanctified water was sealed closed and placed under the same shelter as a corpse, the ashes and/or the water are impure. The rationale is that articles associated with the purification process of the red heifer are not protected by a closed seal, for with regard to them, it is written: "a pure place," and this is not a pure place.

ג

וְכֵן כְּלִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ אֵפֶר אוֹ מַיִם מְקֻדָּשִׁים וּמֻקָּף צָמִיד פָּתִיל וְנָתוּן בְּאֹהֶל הַמֵּת. הֲרֵי הָאֵפֶר וְהַמַּיִם טְמֵאִים שֶׁאֵין אֵפֶר הַחַטָּאת נִצֶּלֶת בְּצָמִיד פָּתִיל שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר יט ט) "בְּמָקוֹם טָהוֹר" וְאֵין זֶה מָקוֹם טָהוֹר:

4

Similarly, sacrificial foods and liquids are not protected from impurity by being in a sealed container. Nevertheless, water that had not been sanctified and an empty container that was purified for use in this purification process are protected by a sealed container.

When does the above apply? When the owner was pure. If, however, the owner contracted impurity, the water is disqualified, no matter where it is located.

What is implied? If a person's water was in a sealed container and he and it were both under the same shelter as a corpse, they are both impure. If he is outside and water that is not sanctified is inside, they are both pure. If he is inside and the water is outside, just as he becomes impure, his water is also disqualified.

ד

וְכֵן אֳכָלִין וּמַשְׁקִין שֶׁל קֹדֶשׁ אֵינָן נִצָּלִין בְּצָמִיד פָּתִיל. אֲבָל מַיִם שֶׁאֵינָן מְקֻדָּשִׁין וּכְלִי רֵיקָן הַטָּהוֹר לְחַטָּאת נִצָּל בְּצָמִיד פָּתִיל. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים כְּשֶׁהָיוּ הַבְּעָלִים טְהוֹרִים. אֲבָל אִם נִטְמְאוּ הַבְּעָלִים נִפְסְלוּ הַמַּיִם בְּכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁהֵן. כֵּיצַד. הָיוּ מֵימָיו מֻקָּפִין צָמִיד פָּתִיל וְהוּא וְהֵם בְּאֹהֶל הַמֵּת שְׁנֵיהֶן טְמֵאִים. הָיָה הוּא מִבַּחוּץ וְהַמַּיִם שֶׁאֵינָן מְקֻדָּשִׁין מִבִּפְנִים שְׁנֵיהֶן טְהוֹרִין. הוּא בִּפְנִים וְהַמַּיִם בַּחוּץ כְּשֵׁם שֶׁהוּא טָמֵא כָּךְ מֵימָיו פְּסוּלִין:

5

The following laws apply when a person who had purified himself for the sake of this purification process was standing on an oven or a similar implement that had not been purified for this process and he extended his hands outside the space of the oven while holding a receptacle containing the water for this purification process. Similar laws apply if a bar was placed over an oven and receptacles holding water for this purification process were hanging from either side. The receptacles are impure, because they are not in a place that is pure for this purification process. Since they are supported by the oven, it is as if they are placed on top of it.

If, however, one was standing on an oven while holding an empty receptacle that was purified for this purification process or water that was not yet sanctified, their prior state of purity remains unchanged. If one was standing away from an oven and stretched out his hand and took a container that had water sanctified for this purification process and carried it over the oven, it remains pure. Similarly, if when one sprinkled this water, it passed over an impure place, e.g., a place where one sits or lies that became impure or the like, it is pure.

ה

הַטָּהוֹר לְחַטָּאת שֶׁהָיָה עוֹמֵד עַל גַּבֵּי הַתַּנּוּר וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ מִכֵּלִים שֶׁאֵינָם טְהוֹרִים לְחַטָּאת וּפָשַׁט יָדוֹ חוּץ לַתַּנּוּר וּכְלִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ מֵי חַטָּאת בְּיָדוֹ. וְכֵן קָנֶה הַמֻּטָּל עַל גַּבֵּי הַתַּנּוּר וּשְׁנֵי כֵּלִים שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהֶן מֵי חַטָּאת תְּלוּיִין בּוֹ אֶחָד מִכָּאן וְאַחַד מִכָּאן הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ טְמֵאִין לְפִי שֶׁאֵינָן בְּמָקוֹם הַטָּהוֹר לְחַטָּאת. וְהוֹאִיל וְהֵם נִשְׁעָנִין עַל הַתַּנּוּר הֲרֵי הֵן כְּאִלּוּ מֻנָּחִין עַל גַּבָּיו. אֲבָל אִם הָיָה עוֹמֵד עַל הַתַּנּוּר וּבְיָדוֹ כְּלִי רֵיקָן הַטָּהוֹר לְחַטָּאת אוֹ מַיִם שֶׁאֵינָן מְקֻדָּשִׁין הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ טְהוֹרִין כְּמוֹת שֶׁהָיוּ. הָיָה עוֹמֵד חוּץ לַתַּנּוּר וּפָשַׁט יָדוֹ לַחַלּוֹן וְנָטַל כְּלִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ חַטָּאת וְהֶעֱבִירוֹ עַל גַּבֵּי הַתַּנּוּר הֲרֵי זֶה טָהוֹר. וְכֵן הַזָּיָה שֶׁעָבְרָה עַל גַּבֵּי טֻמְאָה כְּגוֹן מִשְׁכָּב וּמוֹשָׁב וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן הֲרֵי זוֹ טְהוֹרָה:

6

When a receptacle containing water for the purification process involving the ashes of the red heifer touches a receptacle containing consecrated food, the receptacle that contains the sanctified water and everything inside of it is considered as impure. The receptacle containing sacrificial food, by contrast, remains pure. Similarly, if a person who purified himself for this purification process touched both of these receptacles, each one with one of his hands while they are placed on the ground, the receptacle containing the sanctified water, becomes impure. The rationale is that the person who had purified himself for this process contracted impurity when touching a container that had not been purified for this purpose, as we explained, and then, he imparts impurity to the sanctified water.

ו

כְּלִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ מֵי חַטָּאת וּכְלִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ קֹדֶשׁ שֶׁנָּגְעוּ זֶה בָּזֶה הֲרֵי נִטְמָא כְּלִי שֶׁל חַטָּאת וְכָל שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ אֲבָל כְּלִי הַקֹּדֶשׁ טָהוֹר כְּשֶׁהָיָה. וְכֵן אִם נָגַע הַטָּהוֹר לַחַטָּאת בִּשְׁנֵיהֶן בִּשְׁתֵּי יָדָיו כְּשֶׁהֵן מֻנָּחִין עַל הָאָרֶץ הֲרֵי נִטְמָא שֶׁל חַטָּאת שֶׁהֲרֵי הַטָּהוֹר לְחַטָּאת נִטְמָא בִּנְגִיעַת הַכְּלִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ טָהוֹר לְחַטָּאת כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ וְחָזַר וְטִמֵּא אֶת מֵי חַטָּאת:

7

If he lifted up both receptacles, each with a different hand, they are both impure. The receptacle containing the sanctified water becomes impure because it was touched by a person who touched a container that was not purified for the sake of this purification process. And the one containing the sacrificial food became impure because it was lifted up by a person who became impure by carrying sanctified water. For the water conveys impurity when carried, because it contracted impurity from the receptacle containing sacrificial food.

For this reason, if the receptacle containing the sacrificial food was wrapped in paper and he lifted it up in the paper without touching the receptacle itself, and he lifted up the receptacle containing the sanctified water in his other hand, they are both pure. He did not contract impurity with regard to the purification process involving the ashes of the red heifer since he did not touch the other receptacle. If, however, he touched the receptacle containing the sacrificial food with his hand, they both contract impurity even though the receptacle containing the sanctified water was wrapped in paper.

ז

הִגְבִּיהַּ שְׁנֵי הַכֵּלִים בִּשְׁתֵּי יָדָיו שְׁנֵיהֶן טְמֵאִין זֶה שֶׁל חַטָּאת נִטְמָא מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנָּגַע בּוֹ אָדָם שֶׁנָּגַע בִּכְלִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ טָהוֹר לְחַטָּאת וְשֶׁל קֹדֶשׁ נִטְמָא מִפְּנֵי זֶה שֶׁהִגְבִּיהוֹ וְהוּא טָמֵא בִּנְשִׂיאַת מֵי נִדָּה שֶׁהֵן מְטַמְּאִין בְּמַשָּׂא מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנִּטְמְאוּ מֵחֲמַת הַכְּלִי שֶׁל קֹדֶשׁ. לְפִיכָךְ אִם הָיָה הַכְּלִי שֶׁל קֹדֶשׁ כָּרוּךְ בִּנְיָר וְהִגְבִּיהַּ בַּנְּיָר וְלֹא נָגַע בּוֹ וְהִגְבִּיהַּ הַחַטָּאת בְּיָדוֹ שְׁנִיָּה שְׁנֵיהֶן טְהוֹרִין שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא נָגַע בַּכְּלִי וְלֹא נִטְמָא לְחַטָּאת. אֲבָל אִם הָיָה נוֹגֵעַ בִּכְלִי הַקֹּדֶשׁ בְּיָדוֹ אֲפִלּוּ הָיָה שֶׁל חַטָּאת בִּנְיָר שְׁנֵיהֶם טְמֵאִין:

8

If he moved the two receptacles with his hands simultaneously without touching them, they are both pure. For a receptacle that was not purified for this purification process does not impart impurity to a person who purified himself for that purpose unless he touches it with his hands unless it is fit to contract impurity when a zav lies or sits upon it, as we explained.

ח

הֵסִיט אֶת שְׁנֵי הַכֵּלִים בְּיָדוֹ וְלֹא נָגַע בָּהֶן שְׁנֵיהֶן טְהוֹרִין שֶׁאֵין הַכְּלִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ טָהוֹר לְחַטָּאת מְטַמֵּא אֶת הַטָּהוֹר לְחַטָּאת עַד שֶׁיָּגַע בּוֹ בְּיָדוֹ אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הָיָה רָאוּי לְמִדְרָס כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

9

In all of the situations where there is a question with regard to impurity and the ruling is that one is pure with regard to terumah, as will be explained, he is also considered pure with regard to this purification process. With regard to all of the situations where terumah is left for its status to be determined, were such a situation to occur with regard to the water or the ashes designated for this process, they should be disposed of.

If pure entities were used on the above utensils or if a person became involved in such a situation where the doubt causes the ashes and/or the water to be disposed of, the status of the pure entities is left in the balance. Rafters are not considered as utensils. Hence, they are pure with regard to terumah, sacrificial foods, and the purification process involving the ashes of the red heifer.

ט

כָּל סְפֵק הַטֻּמְאוֹת שֶׁהוּא טָהוֹר לְגַבֵּי תְּרוּמָה כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר הֲרֵי הוּא טָהוֹר לְחַטָּאת. וְכָל הַסְּפֵקוֹת שֶׁתּוֹלִין בָּהֶן אֶת הַתְּרוּמָה אִם נוֹלְדוּ בְּחַטָּאת הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ נִשְׁפָּכִין. וְאִם נַעֲשׂוּ טָהֳרוֹת עַל גַּבֵּי אוֹתָן כֵּלִים וְאָדָם שֶׁנּוֹלְדוּ לָהֶן סְפֵקוֹת אֵלּוּ שֶׁהַחַטָּאוֹת נִשְׁפָּכִין עֲלֵיהֶן הֲרֵי אוֹתָן הַטָּהֳרוֹת תְּלוּיוֹת. וְהָרְפָפוֹת אֵינָן כְּכֵלִים וַהֲרֵי הֵן טְהוֹרוֹת לִתְרוּמָה וּלְקֹדֶשׁ וּלְחַטָּאת:

10

The following laws apply when a dried fig that is terumah fell into water sanctified for this purification process and then it was taken out and eaten. If it is the size of an egg, the water becomes impure whether the fig was impure or pure. The rationale is that all foods, even sanctified foods, are not pure with regard to this purification process. One who partakes of it is liable for death, because he partook of terumah after contracting impurity from the sanctified water. If the fig is not the size of an egg, the water remains pure, because food does not impart impurity to other entities unless it is the size of an egg. This applies with regard to terumah, to sacrificial foods, and to this purification process.

י

דְּבֵלָה שֶׁל תְּרוּמָה שֶׁנָּפְלָה לְתוֹךְ מֵי חַטָּאת וּנְטָלָהּ וַאֲכָלָהּ אִם יֵשׁ בָּהּ כְּבֵיצָה הַמַּיִם טְמֵאִין. בֵּין שֶׁהָיְתָה הַדְּבֵלָה טְמֵאָה בֵּין שֶׁהָיְתָה טְהוֹרָה. שֶׁכָּל הָאֳכָלִין אֲפִלּוּ אֹכֶל קֹדֶשׁ אֵינוֹ טָהוֹר לְחַטָּאת. וְהָאוֹכְלָהּ חַיָּב מִיתָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאָכַל תְּרוּמָה טְמֵאָה. וְאִם אֵין בָּהּ כְּבֵיצָה הַמַּיִם בְּטָהֳרָתָן. שֶׁאֵין הָאֹכֶל מְטַמֵּא אֲחֵרִים עַד שֶׁיִּהְיֶה בּוֹ כְּבֵיצָה בֵּין לִתְרוּמָה בֵּין לְקֹדֶשׁ בֵּין לְחַטָּאת: