1

When a revi'it of blood comes from two corpses, it is pure. To impart impurity, the entire revi'it must come from one corpse. When a backbone was put together from two corpses, e.g., some of the vertebrae came from one corpse and others, from another, when a skull was put together from two corpses, or a fourth of a kab of bones came from two corpses or a limb came from two corpses: in all these instances, impurity is not imparted when one is under the same structure, only through touching and carrying, as is true with regard to other bones.

א

רְבִיעִית דָּם הַבָּאָה מִשְּׁנֵי מֵתִים טְהוֹרָה עַד שֶׁתִּהְיֶה כָּל הָרְבִיעִית מִמֵּת אֶחָד. שִׁדְרָה שֶׁנִּגְמְרָה מִשְּׁנֵי מֵתִים כְּגוֹן שֶׁהָיוּ מִקְצָת הַחֻלְיוֹת מֵאֶחָד וְתַשְׁלוּמָן מִמֵּת אַחֵר וְכֵן הַגֻּלְגּלֶת שֶׁל שְׁנֵי מֵתִים וְרֹבַע עֲצָמוֹת מִשְּׁנֵי מֵתִים וְאֵיבָר מִן הַמֵּת מִשְּׁנֵי מֵתִים כָּל אֵלּוּ אֵינָן מְטַמְּאִין בְּאֹהֶל אֶלָּא בְּמַגָּע וּבְמַשָּׂא כִּשְׁאָר כָּל עֲצָמוֹת:

2

When a limb from a living person comes from two people, it is pure. Even if it comes from one person, it is pure if it was cut into two.

ב

אֵיבָר מִן הַחַי מִשְּׁנֵי אֲנָשִׁים טָהוֹר אֲפִלּוּ מֵאִישׁ אֶחָד אִם נֶחְלַק לִשְׁנַיִם טָהוֹר:

3

An olive-sized portion of flesh that comes from two corpses, an olive-sized portion of netzal that comes from two corpses, and two handfuls of rekev that come from two corpses when the laws of rekev apply to each one of them, can be combined. Similarly, a half of an olive-sized portion of flesh and a half an olive-sized portion of netzal can be combined with each other. All of the other sources of impurity stemming from a corpse are not combined with each other, because they are not of equal measures.

ג

כְּזַיִת בָּשָׂר מִשְּׁנֵי מֵתִים וּכְזַיִת נֶצֶל מִשְּׁנֵי מֵתִים וּמְלֹא חָפְנַיִם רֶקֶב מִשְּׁנֵי מֵתִים שֶׁכָּל אֶחָד מֵהֶן יֵשׁ לוֹ רֶקֶב הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מִצְטָרְפִין זֶה עִם זֶה. וְכֵן כַּחֲצִי זַיִת בָּשָׂר וְכַחֲצִי זַיִת נֶצֶל מִצְטָרְפִין זֶה עִם זֶה. וּשְׁאָר כָּל הַטֻּמְאוֹת שֶׁבַּמֵּת אֵין מִצְטָרְפִין זֶה עִם זֶה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁלֹּא שָׁווּ בְּשִׁעוּרֵיהֶן:

4

When a bone the size of a barley-corn is divided into two, it imparts impurity when carried. Similarly, when a quarter of a kab of bones were crushed, although none of them are the size of a barley-corn, they impart impurity when one is under the same shelter as if they were not crushed.

ד

עֶצֶם כִּשְׂעוֹרָה שֶׁנֶּחְלָק לִשְׁנַיִם מְטַמֵּא בְּמַשָּׂא. וְכֵן רֹבַע עַצְמוֹת מֵת אֶחָד שֶׁנִּדַּקְדְּקוּ וְאֵין בְּכָל אֶחָד מֵהֶם עֶצֶם כִּשְׂעוֹרָה מְטַמְּאִין בְּאֹהֶל כְּאִלּוּ לֹא נִדַּקְדְּקוּ:

5

When an olive-sized portion from a corpse was cut into small pieces, flattened, and pressed together, it imparts impurity when under the same shelter and when carried, but it does not impart impurity when one touches a portion of it, even when the pieces are joined together, because anything joined together by man is not considered as joined.

ה

כְּזַיִת מִן הַמֵּת שֶׁחֲתָכוֹ לַחֲלָקִים וְרִדְּדוֹ וְדִבְּקוֹ מְטַמֵּא בְּאֹהֶל וּבְמַשָּׂא וְאֵינוֹ מְטַמֵּא בְּמַגָּע קְצָתוֹ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁחִבְּרוֹ שֶׁאֵין חִבּוּרֵי אָדָם חִבּוּר:

6

When an olive-sized portion of fat that was intact was liquefied, it is impure. If it was separated and it was liquefied, it is pure.

ו

כְּזַיִת חֵלֶב שָׁלֵם שֶׁהִתִּיכוֹ טָמֵא. הָיָה מְפֹרָד וְהִתִּיכוֹ טָהוֹר:

7

When the majority of the vertebrae were taken from a backbone, it does not impart impurity when under the same shelter, even through its form remains. If it is in the grave, even if it is broken and even if it is crushed, it imparts impurity when under the same shelter. The rationale is that the grave joins it together.

ז

שִׁדְרָה שֶׁנִּגְרְרוּ מִמֶּנָּה רֹב חֻלְיוֹת שֶׁלָּהּ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁשִּׁלְדָּהּ קַיֶּמֶת אֵינָהּ מְטַמְּאָה בְּאֹהֶל. וּבַזְּמַן שֶׁהִיא בְּתוֹךְ הַקֶּבֶר אֲפִלּוּ מְשֻׁבֶּרֶת אֲפִלּוּ מְכֻתֶּתֶת מְטַמְּאָה בְּאֹהֶל מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַקֶּבֶר מְצָרְפָהּ:

8

Whenever a substance that imparts impurity when under the same shelter was divided and then both portions are brought into a house, it is considered as joined together by the shelter and impurity is imparted by them because of it.

ח

כָּל הַמְטַמְּאִין בְּאֹהֶל שֶׁנֶּחְלְקוּ וְהִכְנִיסָן בְּתוֹךְ הַבַּיִת הָאֹהֶל מְצָרְפָן וּמְטַמְּאִין בְּאֹהֶל:

9

When there is an olive-sized portion of flesh that grew on a bone through the influence of heaven, and a portion of that bone was brought inside a house, the house contracts ritual impurity. If the flesh had been pushed into the bones by humans, the house is pure. The rationale is that anything joined by man is not considered as joined.

ט

עֶצֶם שֶׁיֵּשׁ עָלָיו כְּזַיִת בָּשָׂר בִּידֵי שָׁמַיִם וְהִכְנִיס מִקְצָתוֹ לְפָנִים מִן הַבַּיִת נִטְמָא הַבַּיִת. שְׁנֵי עֲצָמוֹת וַעֲלֵיהֶם כִּשְׁנֵי חֲצָיֵי זֵיתִים בָּשָׂר וְהִכְנִיס מִקְצָתָן לִפְנִים הַבַּיִת טָמֵא. וְאִם הָיָה הַבָּשָׂר תָּחוּב בָּעֲצָמוֹת בִּידֵי אָדָם הַבַּיִת טָהוֹר שֶׁאֵין חִבּוּרֵי אָדָם חִבּוּר:

10

When two handfuls of rekev are spread out throughout a house, the house is impure.

י

מְלֹא חָפְנַיִם רֶקֶב שֶׁנִּתְפַּזֵּר בְּתוֹךְ הַבַּיִת הַבַּיִת טָמֵא:

11

When a revi'it is absorbed in a house, in the future, the house is pure. Anything that was in the house at the time the blood was absorbed in the earth, is impure.

יא

רְבִיעִית דָּם שֶׁנִּבְלְעָה בְּתוֹךְ הַבַּיִת הַבַּיִת טָהוֹר לְהַבָּא וְכָל שֶׁהָיָה בּוֹ בְּעֵת שֶׁנִּבְלְעָה הָרְבִיעִית בָּאָרֶץ טָמֵא:

12

When an olive-sized portion of a corpse was lost inside a house and it was searched for and not found, the house is assumed to be pure. If it is discovered afterwards, the house is deemed impure retroactively from the time it was lost until the time it was discovered.

יב

כְּזַיִת מִן הַמֵּת שֶׁאָבַד בְּתוֹךְ הַבַּיִת וּבִקֵּשׁ וְלֹא נִמְצָא, הַבַּיִת טָהוֹר. וְלִכְשֶׁיִּמָּצֵא הַבַּיִת טָמֵא לְמַפְרֵעַ מֵעֵת שֶׁאָבַד עַד שֶׁנִּמְצָא:

13

The following laws apply when a revi'it of blood was poured in an open space. If it coagulated or it was in a place where it could collect, i.e., a low place like a pit and an entity projects over even a portion of it, that entity is impure. If it was spilled on the doorstep which was on an incline, whether to the inside or outside, the house is pure. The rationale is that the blood did not come to rest on the doorstep. If the doorstep was a place where the blood could collect or it coagulated there, the house is impure.

The following laws apply when a revi'it of blood is absorbed in a garment. If it could be washed and a revi'it of blood would be discharged from it, the garment imparts impurity when touched, carried, or when one is under the same shelter. If not, it does not impart impurity when one is under the same shelter and it is considered as a garment that came into contact with a corpse. The rationale is that whenever something absorbed cannot be discharged, it is considered as pure.

How is the quantity of blood measured? The garment should be washed in water. Then an equal quantity of water should be brought and a revi'it of blood placed in it. If their appearance was the same or the water in which the garment was washed was of a redder hue than the mixture, it is apparent that a revi'it was discharged.

יג

רְבִיעִית דָּם שֶׁנִּשְׁפַּךְ בָּאֲוִיר אִם קָרַשׁ אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה בִּמְקוֹם אַשְׁבֹּרֶן וְהוּא הַמָּקוֹם הַנָּמוּךְ כְּמוֹ גֻּמָּא וְהֶאֱהִיל הַמַּאֲהִיל עַל מִקְצָתוֹ נִטְמָא. נִשְׁפַּךְ עַל הָאַסְקֻפָּה בַּמּוֹרָד בֵּין לְפָנִים בֵּין לַחוּץ הַבַּיִת טָהוֹר. שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא נָח הַדָּם עַל הָאַסְקֻפָּה. וְאִם הָיְתָה הָאַסְקֻפָּה אַשְׁבֹּרֶן אוֹ שֶׁקָּרַשׁ הַדָּם עָלֶיהָ הַבַּיִת טָמֵא. רְבִיעִית דָּם שֶׁנִּבְלְעָה בִּכְסוּת אִם מִתְכַּבֶּסֶת וְיוֹצְאָה מִמֶּנּוּ רְבִיעִית דָּם הֲרֵי זוֹ הַכְּסוּת מִתְטַמְּאָה בְּמַגָּע וּבְמַשָּׂא וּבְאֹהֶל וְאִם לָאו אֵינָהּ מִתְטַמְּאָה בְּאֹהֶל וַהֲרֵי הִיא כִּכְסוּת שֶׁנָּגְעָה בְּמֵת שֶׁכָּל הַבָּלוּעַ שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לָצֵאת טָהוֹר. כֵּיצַד מְשַׁעֲרִין אוֹתָהּ. מְכַבְּסִין אוֹתָהּ בְּמַיִם וּמֵבִיא מַיִם כְּמִדָּתָן וְנוֹתֵן לְתוֹכָן רְבִיעִית דָּם אִם הָיָה מַרְאֵיהֶן שָׁוֶה אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה מֵי הַכִּבּוּס אָדֹם יוֹתֵר מִמֵּי הַמֶּזֶג בְּיָדוּעַ שֶׁיָּצָא מִמֶּנָּה רְבִיעִית:

14

Carrying, touching, and being under the same structure are three different categories. Whenever activities come from one category, they can be combined and impart impurity. If they are from two categories, they are not combined and are pure.

What is implied? A person becomes impure in all of the following situations, for the activities that are combined are from the same category:

a) He touches two portions of a corpse that are half the size of an olive at the same time or carries two portions of a corpse that are half the size of an olive at the same time.

b) He stands over two portions of a corpse that are half the size of an olive.

c) He stands over a portion of a corpse that is half the size of an olive and has a similar portion hang over his body.

d) He and a portion of a corpse half the size of an olive were under one shelter and a portion of his body stood over another similar portion, or a similar portion was suspended over his body.

One is, by contrast, pure in all of the following situations. He touches a portion of a corpse half the size of an olive or carries such a portion and:

a) another entity covers both him and another such portion from a corpse;

b) another such portion was suspended over a portion of his body; c) he stood over such a portion, or

d) he touched such a portion and carried such a portion. The rationale is that a quantity that is touched is not combined with one that is carried, neither with regard to a corpse, nor with regard to other forms of impurity. Similarly, a quantity that is touched is not combined with one that is governed by the laws of ohel, nor is one governed by the laws of ohel combined with one that is carried, because they are not from the same category.

יד

הַמַּשָּׂא וְהַמַּגָּע וְהָאֹהֶל שְׁלֹשָׁה שֵׁמוֹת הֵם. וְכָל שֶׁהוּא מִשֵּׁם אֶחָד מִצְטָרֵף וּמְטַמֵּא. וּמִשְּׁנֵי שֵׁמוֹת אֵינוֹ מִצְטָרֵף וְטָהוֹר. כֵּיצַד. הַנּוֹגֵעַ בְּכִשְׁנֵי חֲצָאֵי זֵיתִים אוֹ שֶׁנָּשָׂא שְׁנֵי חֲצָאֵי זֵיתִים בְּבַת אַחַת. אוֹ שֶׁהֶאֱהִיל עַל כִּשְׁנֵי חֲצָאֵי זֵיתִים. אוֹ שֶׁהֶאֱהִיל עַל חֲצִי זַיִת וַחֲצִי זַיִת אַחֵר מַאֲהִיל עָלָיו. אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה הוּא וַחֲצִי זַיִת תַּחַת הָאֹהֶל וְהֶאֱהִיל בְּמִקְצָת גּוּפוֹ עַל חֲצִי זַיִת אַחֵר. אוֹ הֶאֱהִיל חֲצִי זַיִת עַל מִקְצָתוֹ. הַכּל טְמֵאִים מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא שֵׁם אֶחָד. אֲבָל הַנּוֹגֵעַ בַּחֲצִי זַיִת אוֹ הַנּוֹשֵׂא חֲצִי זַיִת וְדָבָר אַחֵר מַאֲהִיל עָלָיו וְעַל כַּחֲצִי זַיִת. אוֹ שֶׁהֶאֱהִיל עָלָיו חֲצִי זַיִת אַחֵר. אוֹ שֶׁהֶאֱהִיל הוּא עַל חֲצִי זַיִת אַחֵר. וְכֵן הַנּוֹשֵׂא כַּחֲצִי זַיִת וְנָגַע בַּחֲצִי זַיִת אַחֵר. הַכּל טְהוֹרִים. שֶׁאֵין הַמַּגָּע מִצְטָרֵף עִם הַמַּשָּׂא לֹא בְּמֵת וְלֹא בִּשְׁאָר טֻמְאוֹת. וְלֹא הַמַּגָּע מִצְטָרֵף עִם הָאֹהֶל וְלֹא הָאֹהֶל מִצְטָרֵף עִם הַמַּשָּׂא [לְפִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ שֵׁם אֶחָד]: