1

When partners desire to establish a partnership, how does each one acquire the assets invested by his colleague, so that they are considered partners? If they desire to establish a partnership with money, each one should bring his money and place it in a common pouch. Then each of them lifts up the pouch.

If, however, they composed a legal document detailing the partnership and had witnesses testify that they both performed a kinyan chalifin that each will bring 100 zuz for the partnership, the agreement is not binding and the partnership has not yet been established, for money is not acquired through chalifin.

Therefore, if they established their partnership with regard to other movable property, when they entered into a kinyan that one would bring his barrel of wine and the other his jug of honey and they would become partners, the partnership is established in this manner. Similarly, if they mixed their produce together or hired a property in partnership, and one left the jug and the other the barrel with which they desired to act as partners, the partnership is established.

The general principle is: All the means of acquisition that a purchaser employs to acquire property can be used by partners to acquire the assets that are contributed to the partnership.

א

כְּשֶׁיִּרְצוּ הַשֻּׁתָּפִין לְהִשְׁתַּתֵּף בְּמָה יִקְנֶה כָּל אֶחָד מֵהֶן מָמוֹן חֲבֵרוֹ לְהִשְׁתַּתֵּף בּוֹ. אִם בְּמָעוֹת נִשְׁתַּתְּפוּ יָבִיא זֶה מְעוֹתָיו וְיָבִיא זֶה מְעוֹתָיו וְיַטִּילוּ אוֹתָן לְכִיס אֶחָד וְיַגְבִּיהוּ אֶת הַכִּיס שְׁנֵיהֶם. אֲבָל אִם כָּתְבוּ שְׁטָר וְהֵעִידוּ עֵדִים אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁקָּנוּ מִיַּד שְׁנֵיהֶם שֶׁיָּבִיא זֶה מֵאָה וְזֶה מֵאָה וְיִשְׁתַּתְּפוּ בָּהֶן לֹא קָנוּ וַעֲדַיִן לֹא נַעֲשׂוּ שֻׁתָּפִין. שֶׁאֵין הַמַּטְבֵּעַ נִקְנֶה בַּחֲלִיפִין. לְפִיכָךְ אִם נִשְׁתַּתְּפוּ בִּשְׁאָר הַמִּטַּלְטְלִין כֵּיוָן שֶׁקָּנוּ מִיָּדָם שֶׁיָּבִיא זֶה חָבִיתוֹ שֶׁל יַיִן וְזֶה כַּדּוֹ שֶׁל דְּבַשׁ וַהֲרֵי נִשְׁתַּתְּפוּ בָּהֶן נַעֲשׂוּ שֻׁתָּפִין בָּהֶן. וְכֵן אִם עֵרְבוּ פֵּרוֹתֵיהֶן אוֹ שֶׁשָּׂכְרוּ מָקוֹם בְּשֻׁתָּפוּת וְהִנִּיחַ זֶה כַּדּוֹ וְזֶה חָבִיתוֹ שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּתְּפוּ בָּהֶן הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ שֻׁתָּפִין. כְּלָלוֹ שֶׁל דָּבָר בְּכָל הַדְּרָכִים שֶׁקּוֹנֶה הַלּוֹקֵחַ בְּאוֹתָן הַדְּרָכִים עַצְמָן קוֹנִין הַשֻּׁתָּפִין זֶה מִזֶּה הַמָּמוֹן הַמֻּטָּל בֵּינֵיהֶם לְהִשְׁתַּתֵּף בּוֹ:

2

When craftsmen join together in a professional partnership, even though they perform a kinyan with each other, they are not considered partners.

What is implied? If two tailors or two weavers stipulate between themselves that whatever either of them earns will be divided between them equally, they are not considered partners. For a person cannot transfer ownership to a colleague of an article that does not yet exist. If, however, they purchase the cloth for the garments with their common funds, sew them and sell them, or purchase the woof and warp with their common funds, weave garments and sell them, and a partnership has been established through the use of the money, they are partners. Whatever they earn as payment for their work and their commercial activity is divided equally.

ב

הָאֻמָּנִין שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּתְּפוּ בְּאֻמָּנוּת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁקָּנוּ מִיָּדָם אֵינָן שֻׁתָּפִין. כֵּיצַד שְׁנֵי חַיָּטִים אוֹ שְׁנֵי אוֹרְגִים שֶׁהִתְנוּ בֵּינֵיהֶם שֶׁכָּל שֶׁיִּקַּח זֶה וְזֶה בִּמְלַאכְתּוֹ יִהְיֶה בֵּינֵיהֶן בְּשָׁוֶה אֵין כָּאן שֻׁתָּפוּת כְּלָל שֶׁאֵין אָדָם מַקְנֶה לַחֲבֵרוֹ דָּבָר שֶׁלֹּא בָּא לָעוֹלָם. אֲבָל אִם הָיוּ לוֹקְחִין הַבְּגָדִים בְּמָמוֹן עַצְמָן וְתוֹפְרִין אוֹתָן וּמוֹכְרִין וְלוֹקְחִין הַשְּׁתִי וְהָעֵרֶב מִמְּעוֹתֵיהֶן וְאוֹרְגִים וּמוֹכְרִין וְנִשְׁתַּתְּפוּ בַּמָּעוֹת שֶׁלּוֹקְחִין בּוֹ הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ שֻׁתָּפִין וְכָל מַה שֶּׁיַּרְוִיחוּ בִּשְׂכַר מְלַאכְתָּן וּבְמַשָּׂאָן וּבְמַתָּנָן הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ לָאֶמְצַע:

3

When three partners enter into a partnership, one investing a maneh, the second 200 zuz, and the third 300, and they all do business with the money, whether they profit or lose, the profit or loss is divided among them according to their number, not according to the size of their investments. Even if they purchase a bull for slaughter in which instance, if they slaughter it, each one of them would take a portion of its flesh according to the size of his investment. If they sell the bull while it is alive and profit or lose, the profit or loss is divided equally among the partners.

When does the above apply? When they bought and sold with the money of the partnership. If, however, the money still exists within the treasury of the partnership, and was not spent, but its value rose or dropped because of currency fluctuations depending on the ruling authority or the local populace, the profit or the loss is divided according to the amount of money invested.

When does the above apply? When the partners entered into the partnership without making a specific agreement. If, however, it was stipulated that the person who invested 100 zuz should receive three fourths of the profit, and the person who invested 200, one fourth, and if they lose the person who would be given three fourths of the profit would not suffer more than one fourth of the loss, and the one who would gain one fourth of the profit should suffer three fourths of the loss, the money is divided according to their stipulation. For every stipulation made with regard to financial matters is binding.

ג

הַשֻּׁתָּפִין שֶׁהִטִּילוּ לְכִיס זֶה מָנֶה וְזֶה מָאתַיִם וְזֶה שְׁלֹשׁ מֵאוֹת וְנִתְעַסְּקוּ כֻּלָּן בַּמָּמוֹן וּפָחֲתוּ אוֹ הוֹתִירוּ הַשָּׂכָר אוֹ הַפְּחָת בֵּינֵיהֶם בְּשָׁוֶה לְפִי מִנְיָנָם וְלֹא לְפִי הַמָּעוֹת. וַאֲפִלּוּ לָקְחוּ שׁוֹר לִטְבִיחָה שֶׁאִלּוּ טְבָחוּהוּ הָיָה נוֹטֵל כָּל אֶחָד מִבְּשָׂרוֹ כְּפִי מְעוֹתָיו אִם מְכָרוּהוּ חַי וּפָחֲתוּ אוֹ הוֹתִירוּ הַשָּׂכָר אוֹ הַפְּחָת לָאֶמְצַע. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים כְּשֶׁנָּשְׂאוּ וְנָתְנוּ בַּמָּעוֹת שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּתְּפוּ בָּהֶן אֲבָל אִם הַמָּעוֹת קַיָּמִין וַעֲדַיִן לֹא הוֹצִיאוּ אוֹתָן וּפָחֲתוּ אוֹ הוֹתִירוּ מֵחֲמַת הַמַּטְבֵּעַ שֶׁשִּׁנָּה הַמֶּלֶךְ אוֹ אַנְשֵׁי הַמְּדִינָה חוֹלְקִין הַשָּׂכָר אוֹ הַהֶפְסֵד לְפִי הַמָּעוֹת. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בִּסְתָם אֲבָל אִם הִתְנוּ שֶׁיִּטּל בַּעַל הַמֵּאָה שְׁלֹשָׁה רְבָעִים מִן הַשָּׂכָר וְיִטּל בַּעַל הַמָּאתַיִם רְבִיעַ וְאִם נִפְחֲתוּ לֹא יִפְחֹת זֶה שֶׁיִּטּל שְׁלֹשָׁה רְבִיעֵי הַשָּׂכָר אֶלָּא רְבִיעַ הַהֶפְסֵד וְיַפְסִיד זֶה שֶׁנּוֹטֵל רְבִיעַ הַשָּׂכָר שְׁלֹשָׁה רְבָעִים מִן הַפְּחָת הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ חוֹלְקִין כְּפִי מַה שֶּׁהִתְנוּ. שֶׁכָּל תְּנַאי שֶׁבְּמָמוֹן קַיָּם:

4

When partners make a stipulation that they continue in the partnership for a specific duration of time, each them can prevent his colleague from dissolving the partnership. Neither one can withdraw until the set time arrives or the money in the partnership is exhausted. Neither can take his portion of the principal or of the profit until the end of that time.

If they established a partnership without making a stipulation and without establishing a set time, they may dissolve the partnership whenever any of them desires. This one should take his portion of the merchandise from the partnership, and this one should take his portion. If the merchandise is of the type that cannot be divided, or if making the division would cause a loss, the article should be sold and the money should be divided.

If there was a time when the merchandise of the partnership would ordinarily be sold, each partner can prevent his colleague from dissolving the partnership until the merchandise will be sold at the known time for such merchandise to be sold. Neither can take his portion of the principal or of the profit until the time of the division, unless a stipulation was made between them.

If the partnership was owed a debt by others, one partner cannot tell the other: "Let us not dissolve the partnership until we collect all the debts that are owed to us." Instead, the assets of the partnership should be divided. When the debts are repaid, each one should be given his portion.

The following rules apply when, by contrast, the partnership owes a debt to another person. If they are not responsible for each other, they should divide the assets of the partnership, and when the time for the debt comes, each one should pay his portion of the debt.

If they are responsible for each other, each one can prevent the other from dissolving the partnership until the time when the promissory note comes due and the debt is repaid. Why is each one given this right? Because one colleague can tell the other: "Since each of us can be required to pay the entire promissory note, let us continue to do business with the money until the date of payment comes."

If his colleague tells him: "Let us divide the assets, and you can receive all the money for the promissory note. Do business by yourself and pay the note when it comes due," the other colleague may still impede, saying "Maybe I will lose, for two people make greater profit than one."

ד

הַשֻּׁתָּפִין שֶׁהִתְנוּ בֵּינֵיהֶם שֶׁיַּעַמְדוּ בְּשֻׁתָּפוּת זְמַן קָצוּב כָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד מֵהֶן מְעַכֵּב עַל חֲבֵרוֹ וְאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לַחְלֹק עַד שֶׁיַּגִּיעַ הַזְּמַן אוֹ עַד שֶׁיִּכְלֶה מָמוֹן הַשֻּׁתָּפוּת וְאֵין אֶחָד מֵהֶן יָכוֹל לִטּל חֶלְקוֹ מִן הַקֶּרֶן וְלֹא בַּשָּׂכָר עַד סוֹף הַזְּמַן. נִשְׁתַּתְּפוּ סְתָם וְלֹא קָבְעוּ לָהֶם זְמַן הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ חוֹלְקִין כָּל זְמַן שֶׁיִּרְצֶה אֶחָד מֵהֶן וְזֶה נוֹטֵל חֶלְקוֹ מִן הַסְּחוֹרָה וְזֶה נוֹטֵל חֶלְקוֹ. וְאִם לֹא הָיְתָה בְּאוֹתָהּ סְחוֹרָה דִּין חֲלוּקָה אוֹ שֶׁהָיְתָה בַּחֲלוּקָתָהּ הֶפְסֵד הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מוֹכְרִין אוֹתָהּ וְחוֹלְקִין אֶת הַדָּמִים. הָיָה זְמַן יָדוּעַ לִמְכִירַת אוֹתָהּ סְחוֹרָה יֵשׁ לְכָל אֶחָד מֵהֶן לְעַכֵּב שֶׁלֹּא יַחֲלֹקוּ עַד שֶׁתִּמָּכֵר הַסְּחוֹרָה בַּזְּמַן הַיָּדוּעַ לִמְכִירָתָהּ. וְאֵין אֶחָד נוֹטֵל מִן הַקֶּרֶן וְלֹא מִן הָרֶוַח עַד זְמַן הַחֲלוּקָה אֶלָּא אִם הִתְנוּ בֵּינֵיהֶם. הָיָה לָהֶם חוֹב אֵצֶל אֲחֵרִים אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לוֹמַר לַחֲבֵרוֹ לֹא נַחְלֹק עַד שֶׁנִּגְבֶּה כָּל חוֹב שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָנוּ אֶלָּא חוֹלְקִין וּכְשֶׁיִּפְרְעוּ הַחוֹבוֹת יִטּל כָּל אֶחָד חֶלְקוֹ. הָיָה עֲלֵיהֶן חוֹב לְאַחֵר אִם אֵינָן אַחְרָאִין זֶה לָזֶה חוֹלְקִין וְלִכְשֶׁיַּגִּיעַ זְמַן הַחוֹב לְפָרְעוֹ יִתֵּן כָּל אֶחָד חֶלְקוֹ. וְאִם הֵן אַחְרָאִים כָּל אֶחָד מֵהֶן מְעַכֵּב לַחְלֹק עַד שֶׁיַּגִּיעַ זְמַן הַשְּׁטָר וְיִפְרְעוּ הַחוֹב. וְלָמָּה מְעַכֵּב שֶׁהֲרֵי חֲבֵרוֹ אוֹמֵר לוֹ הוֹאִיל וְכָל אֶחָד מִמֶּנּוּ חַיָּב לְשַׁלֵּם כָּל הַשְּׁטָר נִשָּׂא וְנִתֵּן בְּדָמִים אֵלּוּ עַד שֶׁיַּגִּיעַ הַזְּמַן. אָמַר לוֹ חֲבֵרוֹ נַחְלֹק וְטל אַתָּה דָּמִים כְּנֶגֶד כָּל הַשְּׁטָר וַעֲשֵׂה מֵהֶן סְחוֹרָה לְעַצְמְךָ וּתְשַׁלֵּם כָּל הַשְּׁטָר בִּזְמַנּוֹ יֵשׁ לוֹ לְעַכֵּב עֲדַיִן וְלוֹמַר לוֹ שֶׁמָּא נַפְסִיד וְהַשְּׁנַיִם יוֹתֵר מַרְוִיחִין מִן הָאֶחָד:

5

When a person gives a colleague money to go to a different country and buy merchandise, buy produce to sell as merchandise, or buy and sell merchandise while sitting in a store, the person who took the money may not retract and return the money to his partner until he goes to the place where the stipulation was made and returns, buys the produce and sells it, or sits in the store. The rationale is that this is considered as if he fixed a time to sell the merchandise.

ה

הַנּוֹתֵן מָעוֹת לַחֲבֵרוֹ לֵילֵךְ לִמְדִינָה פְּלוֹנִית לִסְחוֹרָה אוֹ לִקְנוֹת לוֹ פֵּרוֹת לִסְחוֹרָה אוֹ לֵישֵׁב בּוֹ בַּחֲנוּת אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לַחְזֹר בּוֹ וּלְהַחְזִיר הַמָּמוֹן מִיַּד הַשֻׁתָּף עַד שֶׁיֵּלֵךְ לַמָּקוֹם שֶׁהִתְנוּ וְיַחְזֹר אוֹ עַד שֶׁיִּקְנוּ אוֹתָן הַפֵּרוֹת וְיִמְכֹּר אוֹ עַד שֶׁיֵּשֵׁב בַּחֲנוּת שֶׁזֶּה כְּמִי שֶׁקָּבַע זְמַן הוּא: