The following laws apply when a person brought sheep into a corral, they began to depart one by one with him counting them as we explained, and he erred in numbering them, and called the eighth lamb or a lesser number, the tenth. In such a situation and, similarly, if he called the twelfth or a greater number, the tenth, those animals are not consecrated. If, however, he called the ninth or the eleventh, the tenth, they become consecrated.

This matter is a halachah, [communicated by the Oral Tradition:] that an error when tithing causes one greater than the tenth or one lesser than the tenth to be consecrated, but not those greater or lesser than they.

Even if one called the ninth, the tenth, the tenth, the ninth, and the eleventh, the tenth, whether in error or intentionally, all three are consecrated.


הַמַּכְנִּיס צֹאן לַדִּיר וְהִתְחִילוּ לָצֵאת אַחַת אַחַת וְהוּא מוֹנֶה כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ וְטָעָה בַּמִּנְיָן וְקָרָא לַשְּׁמִינִי אוֹ לְשֶׁלְּמַטָּה מִמֶּנּוּ עֲשִׂירִי אוֹ שֶׁקָּרָא לַשְּׁנֵים עָשָׂר אוֹ שֶׁלְּמַעְלָה מִמֶּנּוּ עֲשִׂירִי לֹא נִתְקַדְּשׁוּ. אֲבָל אִם קָרָא לַתְּשִׁיעִי אוֹ לָאַחַד עָשָׂר עֲשִׂירִי נִתְקַדְּשׁוּ. וְדָבָר זֶה הֲלָכָה מִפִּי הַקַּבָּלָה נִשְׁמַע שֶׁהַטָּעוּת מִתְקַדְּשׁוֹת לְמַעֲשֵׂר שֶׁלְּמַעְלָה מִמֶּנּוּ וְשֶׁלְּמַטָּה מִמֶּנּוּ אֲבָל לֹא שֶׁלִּפְנֵיהֶם וְשֶׁלְּאַחֲרֵיהֶם. אֲפִלּוּ קָרָא לַתְּשִׁיעִי עֲשִׂירִי וְלַעֲשִׂירִי תְּשִׁיעִי וְלָאַחַד עָשָׂר עֲשִׂירִי בֵּין בְּטָעוּת בֵּין בְּכַוָּנָה שְׁלָשְׁתָּן מֻקְדָּשִׁים:


What are the laws that apply to them? The ninth is not sacrificed. Instead, it should be eaten after it becomes blemished. The tenth is the tithe offering and the eleventh should be offered as a peace offering. Accompanying offerings are required to be brought with it. Its holiness may not be transferred to another animal, because it is considered as an animal to which holiness has been transferred itself.

When does the above apply? When the person counting was the owner of the animals. When, however, a person appoints an agent to tithe for him and the agent errs with regard to the ninth or the eleventh, only the true tenth one is consecrated, for he was not appointed as an agent to err and to cause him a loss, only to consecrate the animals in the appropriate manner.


וְהֵיאַךְ דִּינָם. הַתְּשִׁיעִי אֵינוֹ קָרֵב אֶלָּא נֶאֱכָל בְּמוּמוֹ. וְהָעֲשִׂירִי מַעֲשֵׂר. וְהָאַחַד עָשָׂר יִקָּרֵב שְׁלָמִים וְטָעוּן נְסָכִים כִּשְׁלָמִים וְאֵינוֹ עוֹשֶׂה תְּמוּרָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא עַצְמוֹ כִּתְמוּרָה. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים כְּשֶׁהָיָה הַמּוֹנֶה הוּא בַּעַל הַבְּהֵמוֹת אֲבָל הָעוֹשֶׂה שָׁלִיחַ לְעַשֵּׂר לוֹ וְטָעָה בֵּין בַּתְּשִׁיעִי בֵּין בָּאַחַד עָשָׂר אֵין מְקַדֵּשׁ אֶלָּא הָעֲשִׂירִי הַוַּדַּאי בִּלְבַד. שֶׁלֹּא עֲשָׂאָהוּ שָׁלִיחַ לִטְעוֹת וּלְהַפְסִיד אֶלָּא לְקַדֵּשׁ כָּרָאוּי:


The statement that if one called the eleventh animal "the tenth," it becomes consecrated applies when one called the tenth, "the ninth." If, however, he called the tenth "the tenth," and called the eleventh, "the tenth," the eleventh is not consecrated. The rationale is that the name "tenth" was not removed from the true tenth animal.

Moreover, even if the owner was silent when the tenth animal departed and did not call it "the tenth" or "the eleventh" and when the eleventh departed, he called it "the tenth," it is not consecrated. The rationale is that the tenth is consecrated as a matter of course, even though it was not explicitly called "the tenth." Hence, since the name "tenth" was not removed from the appropriate animal, the eleventh is not consecrated.


זֶה שֶׁאָמַרְנוּ שֶׁאִם קָרָא לָאַחַד עָשָׂר עֲשִׂירִי נִתְקַדֵּשׁ כְּשֶׁקָּרָא לָעֲשִׂירִי תְּשִׁיעִי אֲבָל אִם קָרָא לָעֲשִׂירִי עֲשִׂירִי וְקָרָא אַחֲרָיו לָאַחַד עָשָׂר עֲשִׂירִי לֹא נִתְקַדֵּשׁ אַחַד עָשָׂר שֶׁהֲרֵי הָעֲשִׂירִי הַוַּדַּאי לֹא עָקַר שֵׁם עֲשִׂירִי מֵעָלָיו. וַאֲפִלּוּ יָצָא הָעֲשִׂירִי וְלֹא קְרָאָהוּ לֹא עֲשִׂירִי וְלֹא אַחַד עָשָׂר אֶלָּא שָׁתַק וְאַחַר כָּךְ יָצָא אַחַד עָשָׂר וּקְרָאָהוּ עֲשִׂירִי לֹא נִתְקַדֵּשׁ שֶׁהָעֲשִׂירִי מֵעַצְמוֹ נִתְקַדֵּשׁ. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא קְרָאָהוּ עֲשִׂירִי הוֹאִיל וְלֹא עָקַר שֵׁם עֲשִׂירִי מֵעָלָיו אֵין אַחַד עָשָׂר מְקֻדָּשׁ:


The following rules apply when the ninth and the tenth depart together. Whether the owner called both of them "the ninth" or both of them "the tenth," they are both consecrated. They both, however, should be eaten after they contract blemishes and neither should be sacrificed.

Similarly, if the tenth and the eleventh departed together, if he called them "the tenth," the tenth and the eleventh are considered as intermingled. It is as if a tithe offering becomes intermingled with a peace-offering, in which instance, the law is that they should be eaten after they contract blemishes, as we explained in Hilchot Pesulei HaMukdashim. If he called them "the eleventh," it is considered as if the tenth animal and an ordinary animal are intermingled and they should be eaten after they contract blemishes.


יָצְאוּ תְּשִׁיעִי וַעֲשִׂירִי כְּאֶחָד בֵּין שֶׁקָּרָא שְׁנֵיהֶם עֲשִׂירִי. בֵּין שֶׁקְּרָאָם תְּשִׁיעִי. שְׁנֵיהֶם מֻקְדָּשִׁין וְיֵאָכְלוּ בְּמוּמָן וְאֵינָן קְרֵבִין. וְכֵן אִם יָצָא עֲשִׂירִי וְאַחַד עָשָׂר כְּאֶחָד. אִם קְרָאָן עֲשִׂירִי הֲרֵי עֲשִׂירִי וְאַחַד עָשָׂר מְעֹרָבִים זֶה בָּזֶה וְהֵם כְּמוֹ מַעֲשֵׂר שֶׁנִּתְעָרֵב בִּשְׁלָמִים שֶׁיֵּאָכְלוּ בְּמוּמָן כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ בְּהִלְכוֹת פְּסוּלֵי הַמֻּקְדָּשִׁין. וְאִם קְרָאָן אַחַד עָשָׂר הֲרֵי הָעֲשִׂירִי וְהַחֻלִּין מְעֹרָבִין זֶה בָּזֶה וְיֵאָכְלוּ בְּמוּמָן:


If, when the owner began counting, two animals, the first and the second, departed together, he should count all the animals in pairs and consecrate the tenth pair. Similarly, if he counted them all in sets of three or in sets of five, the tenth set becomes consecrated.


הִתְחִיל לִמְנוֹת וְיָצְאוּ תְּחִלָּה שְׁנַיִם שֶׁהֵן רִאשׁוֹן וְשֵׁנִי הֲרֵי זֶה מוֹנֶה הַכּל זוּג זוּג וּמְקַדֵּשׁ זוּג עֲשִׂירִי. וְכֵן אִם מְנָאָן שְׁלֹשָׁה שְׁלֹשָׁה בְּכָל פַּעַם וּפַעַם אוֹ חֲמִשָּׁה חֲמִשָּׁה מְקַדֵּשׁ הַכַּת הָעֲשִׂירִית:

Mishneh Torah (Moznaim)

Featuring a modern English translation and a commentary that presents a digest of the centuries of Torah scholarship which have been devoted to the study of the Mishneh Torah by Maimonides.


If, at the outset, two departed and he counted them as one, and then he called the third that departed after them, "the second," and continued counting one by one in the ordinary manner, the ninth and the tenth are both consecrated and should be eaten after they contract blemishes. The rationale is that the ninth is the true tenth, because two animals departed at the outset. And the one that he called "the tenth" is really, the eleventh and when the eleventh is called "the tenth," it is consecrated, as we explained.


יָצְאוּ בַּתְּחִלָּה שְׁנַיִם וּמְנָאָן אֶחָד וְקָרָא הַשְּׁלִישִׁי שֶׁיָּצָא אַחֲרֵיהֶן שֵׁנִי וּמָנָה כְּדַרְכּוֹ אֶחָד אֶחָד הֲרֵי הַתְּשִׁיעִי וְהָעֲשִׂירִי מֻקְדָּשִׁין וְיֵאָכְלוּ בְּמוּמָן. הַתְּשִׁיעִי מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא הָעֲשִׂירִי הַוַּדַּאי שֶׁהֲרֵי שְׁנַיִם יָצְאוּ בַּתְּחִלָּה. וְזֶה שֶׁקְּרָאוֹ עֲשִׂירִי הוּא אַחַד עָשָׂר וְהַקּוֹרֵא לְאַחַד עָשָׂר עֲשִׂירִי נִתְקַדֵּשׁ כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:


If one counted backwards, i.e., when the first one departed, he counted it "ten;" when the second departed, he counted "nine;" until the tenth departed and he counted "one," it is consecrated, because the tenth is consecrated on its own accord.


מְנָאָן לְמַפְרֵעַ כְּגוֹן שֶׁיָּצָא רִאשׁוֹן וְאָמַר עֲשִׂירִי וְיָצָא שֵׁנִי וְאָמַר תְּשִׁיעִי עַד שֶׁיָּצָא הָעֲשִׂירִי וּמָנָה אַחַת הֲרֵי זֶה קָדַשׁ שֶׁהָעֲשִׂירִי מֵאֵלָיו נִתְקַדֵּשׁ:


If one mistakenly called the ninth, "the tenth" and the tenth remained in the corral, the ninth should be eaten after becoming blemished and the one that remained in the corral is the tithe. This applies even though it did not depart, nor was it designated as the tenth, because the tenth is consecrated on its own accord.

If the tenth died in the corral, the ninth should be eaten after becoming blemished and the eight which departed after being counted are exempt even though the tenth among them was not consecrated to be offered, but instead, died before departing, because once animals have been counted in a manner that was fitting for them to be tithed, they are exempt.


קָרָא לַתְּשִׁיעִי עֲשִׂירִי וְנִשְׁאַר הָעֲשִׂירִי בַּדִּיר. הַתְּשִׁיעִי יֵאָכֵל בְּמוּמוֹ וְזֶה שֶׁנִּשְׁאַר בַּדִּיר מַעֲשֵׂר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא יָצָא וְלֹא בֵּרְרוֹ שֶׁהָעֲשִׂירִי מֵאֵלָיו נִתְקַדֵּשׁ. מֵת הָעֲשִׂירִי בַּדִּיר הַתְּשִׁיעִי יֵאָכֵל בְּמוּמוֹ וְכָל הַשְּׁמוֹנָה שֶׁיָּצְאוּ וְנִמְנוּ פְּטוּרִין וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא נִתְקַדֵּשׁ עֲשִׂירִי שֶׁלָּהֶן לִקָּרֵב אֶלָּא מֵת קֹדֶם שֶׁיָּצָא. שֶׁהַמִּנְיָן הָרָאוּי פּוֹטֵר:


When one brought ten lambs into a corral and proceeded to count, if one of those counted died, he should continue counting and complete the reckoning in its ordinary manner, consecrating the tenth, even though there are only nine that are alive at the time.


הִכְנִיס עֲשָׂרָה טְלָאִים לַדִּיר וְהָיָה מוֹנֶה וְהוֹלֵךְ. מֵת אֶחָד מִן הַמְּנוּיִין מוֹנֶה וּמַשְׁלִים כְּדַרְכּוֹ וּמְקַדֵּשׁ עֲשִׂירִי אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין שָׁם עַתָּה חַיִּים אֶלָּא תִּשְׁעָה:


If after a person began counting, one of the animals in the corral died, those which were counted are exempt, because once animals have been counted in a manner that was fitting for them to be tithed even though one was not separated for them, they are exempt, as stated. Those that remained in the corral should be left for a later "threshing floor" until others are added to them.

Similar concepts apply when one had fourteen lambs and brought all of them into a corral and four departed through one opening and were counted, then six departed through another opening and were counted and four remained in the corral. If the four depart through the opening that the six departed, one should be taken as the tithe and all the others are exempt. The four that departed at first through the first opening are exempt, because once animals have been counted in a manner that was fitting for them to be tithed, they are exempt.

If the remaining four departed from the opening through which the first four departed, the four that departed at the outset and the six that departed afterwards through the second opening are exempt, because each one of them was counted in a manner that was fitting for them to be tithed. For at the time each of the groups departed, others remained in the corral to complete the counting and the tithing. The four that remained, however, although they departed through the first opening and were counted, were not counted in a manner appropriate for tithing. Therefore they must be included in another "threshing floor."

The following laws apply if four departed through one opening, four departed through another opening, and six remained. If all six departed from the same one of the two openings, one should be taken as a tithe and all the lambs are exempt from being tithed again. If, however, the six departed from both openings, some from one and some from the other, the six are included in another "threshing floor." The eight that departed from the two openings at the outset, however, are exempt, for each set of four was counted in a manner appropriate for ten to be counted and the tithe taken, for there were six remaining in the corral.


מֵת אֶחָד מֵאֵלּוּ שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַדִּיר אֵלּוּ שֶׁנִּמְנוּ פְּטוּרִין מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַמִּנְיָן הָרָאוּי לְמַעֲשֵׂר פּוֹטֵר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא הִפְרִישׁ עֲלֵיהֶן כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. וְאֵלּוּ שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַדִּיר מַנִּיחָן לְגֹרֶן אַחֵר עַד שֶׁיִּצְטָרְפוּ לַאֲחֵרִים. וְכֵן מִי שֶׁהָיוּ לוֹ אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר טְלָאִים וְהִכְנִיסָן לַדִּיר וְיָצְאוּ אַרְבָּעָה וּמְנָאָן בְּפֶתַח זֶה וְיָצְאוּ שִׁשָּׁה וּמְנָאָן בְּפֶתַח אַחֵר וְנִשְׁאֲרוּ שָׁם אַרְבָּעָה בְּתוֹךְ הַדִּיר. אִם יָצְאוּ הָאַרְבָּעָה הַנִּשְׁאָרִים מִן הַפֶּתַח שֶׁיָּצְאוּ בּוֹ הַשִּׁשָּׁה נוֹטֵל מֵהֶן אֶחָד וְכֻלָּן פְּטוּרִין. שֶׁאוֹתָן הָאַרְבָּעָה שֶׁיָּצְאוּ תְּחִלָּה מִפֶּתַח רִאשׁוֹן מִנְיָן הָרָאוּי פְּטָרָן. וְאִם יָצְאוּ אֵלּוּ הָאַרְבָּעָה הַנִּשְׁאָרִים מִן הַפֶּתַח שֶׁיָּצְאוּ בּוֹ הָאַרְבָּעָה תְּחִלָּה. הֲרֵי אוֹתָם הָאַרְבָּעָה שֶׁיָּצְאוּ בַּתְּחִלָּה וְאוֹתָן הַשִּׁשָּׁה שֶׁיָּצְאוּ אַחֲרֵיהֶן בְּפֶתַח שֵׁנִי פְּטוּרִין שֶׁכָּל אֶחָד מֵהֶן נִמְנֶה מִנְיָן הָרָאוּי לְמַעֲשֵׂר שֶׁהֲרֵי נִשְׁאֲרוּ שָׁם בַּדִּיר אֲחֵרִים לְהַשְׁלִים הַמִּנְיָן וּלְעַשֵּׂר. אֲבָל אֵלּוּ הָאַרְבָּעָה שֶׁנִּשְׁאֲרוּ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיָּצְאוּ וְנִמְנוּ מִפֶּתַח הָרִאשׁוֹן אֵינוֹ מִנְיָן הָרָאוּי לְפִיכָךְ מִצְטָרְפִין לְגֹרֶן אַחֵר. יָצְאוּ אַרְבָּעָה מִפֶּתַח זֶה וְאַרְבָּעָה מִפֶּתַח שֵׁנִי וְנִשְׁאֲרוּ שָׁם שִׁשָּׁה. אִם יָצְאוּ הַשִּׁשָּׁה מֵאֶחָד מִשְּׁנֵי הַפְּתָחִים נוֹטֵל מֵהֶן אֶחָד מַעֲשֵׂר וְכֻלָּן פְּטוּרִין. וְאִם יָצְאוּ הַשִּׁשָּׁה בִּשְׁנֵי הַפְּתָחִים הֲרֵי הַשִּׁשָּׁה מִצְטָרְפִין לְגֹרֶן אַחֵר וְהַשְּׁמוֹנָה שֶׁיָּצְאוּ תְּחִלָּה מִכָּאן וּמִכָּאן פְּטוּרִין שֶׁכָּל אַרְבָּעָה מֵהֶן נִמְנוּ מִנְיָן הָרָאוּי לְהַשְׁלִים עָלָיו עֲשָׂרָה וּלְעַשֵּׂר שֶׁהֲרֵי שִׁשָּׁה הָיוּ שָׁם נִשְׁאָרִים בְּתוֹךְ הַדִּיר:


If there were nineteen lambs in the corral and nine departed from one opening and nine departed from the other opening, the last one should be taken as the tithes and all the previous are exempt, for both sets of nine were counted in a manner appropriate for tithing.


הָיוּ לוֹ תִּשְׁעָה עָשָׂר טְלָאִים בְּתוֹךְ הַדִּיר וְיָצְאוּ תִּשְׁעָה בְּפֶתַח זֶה וְתִשְׁעָה בְּפֶתַח שֵׁנִי נוֹטֵל הָאַחֲרוֹן לְשֵׁם מַעֲשֵׂר וְכֻלָּן פְּטוּרִין. שֶׁאוֹתָן הַתִּשְׁעָה נִמְנוּ מִנְיָן הָרָאוּי:


If one was counting and a lamb stuck out its head and the majority of its body from the corral and then returned, it is considered as having been counted in all contexts.


הָיָה מוֹנֶה וְהוֹצִיא הַטָּלֶה רֹאשׁוֹ וְרֻבּוֹ מִן הַדִּיר וְחָזַר הֲרֵי הוּא כְּמָנוּי לְכָל דָּבָר:


If a person was counting and interrupted the reckoning because his colleague spoke to him or because night fell beginning the Sabbath, he should continue and complete his counting afterwards.


הָיָה מוֹנֶה וְהִפְסִיק הַמִּנְיָן מִפְּנֵי חֲבֵרוֹ שֶׁדִּבֵּר עִמּוֹ אוֹ שֶׁחָשְׁכָה לֵיל שַׁבָּת הֲרֵי זֶה חוֹזֵר וּמַשְׁלִים מִנְיָנוֹ אַחַר כָּךְ:


When one was counting those that departed one by one and one consecrated the tenth and one of those which had been counted jumped back into the corral, becoming intermingled with those which had not been counted as of yet and which were not tithed, all of those in the corral are exempt. The rationale is that there is a doubt concerning every lamb in the corral: Is the one that was counted and jumped back in or is it another one? And we have already stated, that all those which were counted are exempt.


הָיָה מוֹנֶה הַיּוֹצְאִין אֶחָד אֶחָד וּמְקַדֵּשׁ עֲשִׂירִי וְקָפַץ אֶחָד מִן הַמְּנוּיִין לְתוֹךְ הַדִּיר לְתוֹךְ אֵלּוּ שֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא נִמְנוּ וְלֹא נִתְעַשְּׂרוּ. נִפְטְרוּ הַכּל. שֶׁכָּל אֶחָד מֵהֶן סָפֵק אִם הוּא הַמָּנוּי שֶׁקָּפַץ אוֹ אַחֵר. וּכְבָר בֵּאַרְנוּ שֶׁכָּל הַמְּנוּיִין פְּטוּרִין:


If one of the animals selected as the tithes jumped back into the corral and became intermingled with the remaining animals, they should all be left to pasture until they contract a disqualifying blemish. Then they should be eaten after acquiring the blemish.


קָפַץ אֶחָד מִן הָעֲשִׂירִיִּים לְתוֹךְ הַדִּיר. כֻּלָּן יִרְעוּ עַד שֶׁיִּפּל בָּהֶן מוּם וְיֵאָכְלוּ בְּמוּמָן:

Blessed be the Merciful One Who grants assistance.

סליקו להו הלכות בכורות בס"ד: