1

A person should not remove waste materials from his courtyard and place them in his field in the Sabbatical year, because it appears that he is fertilizing his field so that it will be improved for him to sow it.1 If he did remove them, but made a waste heap, it is permitted.2

He should not make a waste heap in his field until the time when it is common to fertilize the fields as is done when tilling the land passes, i.e., when the bitter3 [apples] become [very dried out and] knotted. He should not make a waste heap that contains less than 150 se'ah of waste, so that it will be obvious that it is a waste heap.4 If he wishes to add to it, he may. If he has a small amount [of waste matter placed in his field before the beginning of the Sabbatical year], he can continue to increase it [throughout the Sabbatical year]. One should not make more than three waste heaps in an area large enough to sow a se'ah of grain.5

א

לֹא יוֹצִיא אָדָם זְבָלִים מֵחֲצֵרוֹ וְיִתֵּן בְּתוֹךְ שָׂדֵהוּ בַּשְּׁבִיעִית מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנִּרְאֶה כִּמְזַבֵּל שָׂדֵהוּ שֶׁתִּהְיֶה יָפָה לִזְרִיעָה. וְאִם הוֹצִיא וְהֶעֱמִיד מִמֶּנּוּ אַשְׁפָּה מֻתָּר. וְלֹא יַעֲשֶׂה אַשְׁפָּה בְּתוֹךְ שָׂדֵהוּ עַד שֶׁיַּעֲבֹר זְמַן שֶׁמְּזַבְּלִין בּוֹ לַעֲבוֹדַת הָאָרֶץ וְהוּא מִשֶּׁיִּקְשֹׁר הַמָּתוֹק. וְלֹא יַעֲשֶׂה אַשְׁפָּה פְּחוּתָה מִמֵּאָה וַחֲמִשִּׁים סְאָה שֶׁל זֶבֶל כְּדֵי שֶׁתִּהְיֶה נִכֶּרֶת שֶׁהִיא אַשְׁפָּה. וְאִם יִרְצֶה לְהוֹסִיף מוֹסִיף. הָיָה לוֹ דָּבָר מֻעָט מוֹסִיף עָלָיו וְהוֹלֵךְ. וְלֹא יַעֲשֶׂה בְּכָל בֵּית סְאָה יֶתֶר מִשָּׁלֹשׁ אַשְׁפַּתּוֹת:

2

When a person desires to make waste heaps throughout his entire field, three in each area large enough to sow a se'ah, he may.6 If he desires to combine his waste into one large waste heap,7 he may.

ב

וְהָרוֹצֶה לַעֲשׂוֹת כָּל שָׂדֵהוּ שָׁלֹשׁ שָׁלֹשׁ אַשְׁפַּתּוֹת לְתוֹךְ בֵּית סְאָה עוֹשֶׂה. וְהָרוֹצֶה לַעֲשׂוֹת זִבְלוֹ אוֹצָר עוֹשֶׂה:

3

When a person would place waste on a rock, dug out three handbreadths of the earth and then made a heap of waste, or built [a platform] three handbreadths high above the earth and placed the waste upon them, there is no required measure. Even if he made several waste heaps in an area large enough to sow a se'ah of grain, it is permitted. [The rationale is] it is obvious that his intent is not to improve the land,8 but rather to collect his waste.9

ג

הָיָה מַעֲמִיד הַזֶּבֶל עַל הַסֶּלַע אוֹ שֶׁהֶעֱמִיק בָּאָרֶץ שְׁלֹשָׁה טְפָחִים וְהֶעֱרִים הַזֶּבֶל אוֹ שֶׁבָּנָה עַל הָאָרֶץ גֹּבַהּ שְׁלֹשָׁה וְהֶעֱמִיד עָלָיו הַזֶּבֶל. אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ שִׁעוּר. אֲפִלּוּ עָשָׂה כֵּן כַּמָּה אַשְׁפַּתּוֹת לְתוֹךְ בֵּית סְאָה בֵּין גְּדוֹלוֹת בֵּין קְטַנּוֹת מֻתָּר. שֶׁהֲרֵי הַדָּבָר נִכָּר שֶׁאֵינָן לַעֲבוֹדַת הָאָרֶץ אֶלָּא לִכְנִיסַת הַזֶּבֶל:

4

A person is permitted to remove waste from a corral of sheep and place it in his field as [is permitted to] all those who collect waste.10

When a person makes a corral in his field in the Sabbatical year,11 he should not make it larger than an area it takes to sow two se'ah.12 [When it is that size,] he may bring his sheep into it. When they have fertilized the entire corral, he may leave one wall of the corral and make another corral on its side, [and then bring his sheep there]. In this manner, he can fertilize a portion of his field large enough to sow four se'ah.

ד

מֻתָּר לְאָדָם לְהוֹצִיא זֶבֶל מִן הַסַּהַר שֶׁל צֹאן וְנוֹתֵן לְתוֹךְ שָׂדֵהוּ כְּדֶרֶךְ כָּל מַכְנִיסֵי זֶבֶל. וְהָעוֹשֶׂה דִּיר בְּתוֹךְ שָׂדֵהוּ בַּשְּׁבִיעִית לֹא יַעֲשֵׂהוּ יֶתֶר עַל בֵּית סָאתַיִם וְיַכְנִיס הַצֹּאן לְתוֹכוֹ. וּכְשֶׁיְּזַבְּלוּ אֶת כָּל הַדִּיר מֵנִיחַ דֹּפֶן אֶחָד מִדָּפְנֵי הַדִּיר וְעוֹשֶׂה דִּיר אַחֵר בְּצִדּוֹ. נִמְצָא מְזַבֵּל בְּתוֹךְ שָׂדֵהוּ בֵּית אַרְבַּעַת סְאִין:

5

If, however, his entire field was only large enough to sow four se'ah, he should leave a portion [unfertilized], because of the impression that might be created.13 [In this way,] everyone will know that the sheep deposited their wastes there and fertilized it and they will not say that the person fertilized his entire field in the Sabbatical year.

ה

הָיְתָה כָּל שָׂדֵהוּ בֵּית אַרְבַּעַת סְאִין מְשַׁיֵּר מִמֶּנָּה מִקְצָת מִפְּנֵי מַרְאִית הָעַיִן. כְּדֵי שֶׁיֵּדְעוּ הַכּל שֶׁהַצֹּאן הֵטִילוּ בָּהּ וְנִדַּיְירָה. וְלֹא יֹאמְרוּ זִבֵּל זֶה כָּל שָׂדֵהוּ בַּשְּׁבִיעִית:

6

A person should not open a quarry in his field14 at the outset in the Sabbatical year, lest it be said that he intended to improve his field by removing the rocks from it. If he began before the Sabbatical year and quarried from it 27 blocks - each block being one cubit by one cubit and one cubit high or larger - from a group of stones that were three cubits by three cubits and three cubits high, it is permitted to extract from it all one desires during the Sabbatical year.15

ו

לֹא יִפְתַּח אָדָם מֶחְצָב בַּתְּחִלָּה לְתוֹךְ שָׂדֵהוּ בַּשְּׁבִיעִית שֶׁמָּא יֹאמְרוּ לְתַקֵּן שָׂדֵהוּ נִתְכַּוֵּן שֶׁיָּסִיר מִמֶּנָּה הַסֶּלַע. וְאִם הִתְחִיל מִקֹּדֶם שְׁבִיעִית וּפִצֵּל מִמֶּנָּה שֶׁבַע וְעֶשְׂרִים אֲבָנִים בְּרִבּוּעַ שָׁלֹשׁ עַל שָׁלֹשׁ עַל רוּם שָׁלֹשׁ כָּל אֶבֶן מֵהֶן אַמָּה עַל אַמָּה בְּרוּם אַמָּה אוֹ גְּדוֹלוֹת מִזּוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר לְנַקֵּר מִמֶּנּוּ בַּשְּׁבִיעִית כָּל מַה שֶּׁיִּרְצֶה:

7

[The following rules apply when there is] a stone wall that is ten handbreadths or more high and one desired to remove all the stones. If it contained ten or more stones, each one at least [large enough to require] two people to carry it, he may take them,16 for an observer will know that he is taking them because he needs the stones.17 If the wall was less than ten handbreadths high, there were less than ten stones or the stones were smaller [and did not require] two people to carry it, he may take them, but must leave [a row] a handbreadth high above the ground.18

ז

גָּדֵר שֶׁל אֲבָנִים שֶׁיֵּשׁ בְּגָבְהוֹ עֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים אוֹ יֶתֶר וְרָצָה לִטּל כָּל אֲבָנָיו אִם הָיוּ בּוֹ עֶשֶׂר אֲבָנִים אוֹ יֶתֶר כָּל אַחַת מֵהֶן מַשּׂוֹי שְׁנַיִם אוֹ גְּדוֹלוֹת מִזּוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה נוֹטֵל שֶׁהָרוֹאֶה יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁלְּצֹרֶךְ הָאֲבָנִים הוּא נוֹטֵל. הָיָה פָּחוֹת מֵעֲשָׂרָה אוֹ שֶׁהָיוּ פָּחוֹת מֵעֶשֶׂר אֲבָנִים אוֹ שֶׁהָיוּ אֲבָנָיו קְטַנּוֹת מִמַּשּׂוֹי שְׁנַיִם נוֹטֵל עַד שֶׁיַּנִּיחַ טֶפַח סָמוּךְ לָאָרֶץ:

8

When does the above19 apply? When he intends to improve his field20 or he began to remove the stones in the Sabbatical year. If, however, he did not intend to improve his field21 or began removing them before the Sabbatical year,22 he may take everything he desires23 during the Sabbatical year, clearing away [the stones] until he reaches the earth. Similarly, if he was removing the stones from a colleague's field, even though he was a contractor,24 he may clear them away until he reaches the earth.25

ח

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּשֶׁנִּתְכַּוֵּן לְתַקֵּן שָׂדֵהוּ (אוֹ) שֶׁהִתְחִיל לִטּל בַּשְּׁבִיעִית. אֲבָל אִם לֹא נִתְכַּוֵּן לְתַקֵּן שָׂדֵהוּ אוֹ שֶׁהִתְחִיל מִקֹּדֶם שְׁבִיעִית נוֹטֵל בַּשְּׁבִיעִית כָּל מַה שֶּׁיִּרְצֶה מִכָּל מָקוֹם וּגוֹמֵם עַד לָאָרֶץ. וְכֵן אִם הָיָה נוֹטֵל מִשְּׂדֵה חֲבֵרוֹ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא קִבְּלָן גּוֹמֵם עַד לָאָרֶץ:

9

[The following rules apply when, in a field, there are] stones that would be dislocated by a plow or which were covered [by earth] and then uncovered. If there are two stones that are each large enough to require two people to carry them, it is permitted to remove them.26If they are smaller than this, he should not take them.27

ט

אֲבָנִים שֶׁרְאוּיוֹת שֶׁתְּזַעְזֵעַ אוֹתָן הַמַּחֲרֵשָׁה אוֹ שֶׁהָיוּ מְכֻסּוֹת וְנִתְגַּלּוּ. אִם יֵשׁ בָּהֶן שְׁתַּיִם שֶׁל מַשּׂוֹי שְׁנַיִם שְׁנַיִם הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר לִטּוֹל אוֹתָן. הָיוּ קְטַנּוֹת מִזֶּה לֹא יִנָּטְלוּ:

10

When a person removes stones from his field because he needs the stones [for construction], he should remove the upper ones and leave those in contact with the earth. Similarly, if he has a pile of pebbles or of stones in his field, he should take the upper one's and leave those in contact with the earth. If there is a large rock or straw beneath them, he may take all of them.28

י

הַמְסַקֵּל שָׂדֵהוּ בַּשְּׁבִיעִית מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא צָרִיךְ לָאֲבָנִים נוֹטֵל אֶת הָעֶלְיוֹנוֹת וּמַנִּיחַ אֶת הַנּוֹגְעוֹת בָּאָרֶץ. וְכֵן אִם הָיָה לוֹ בְּשָׂדֵהוּ גַּרְגֵּר שֶׁל צְרוֹרוֹת אוֹ גַּל שֶׁל אֲבָנִים נוֹטֵל אֶת הָעֶלְיוֹנוֹת וּמַנִּיחַ אֶת הַנּוֹגְעוֹת בָּאָרֶץ. וְאִם יֵשׁ תַּחְתֵּיהֶן סֶלַע אוֹ קַשׁ יִטּל אֶת כֻּלָּן:

11

A person should not fill a groove in the ground with earth or level it with earth, because he is improving his land.29 He may, however, make a divider before the groove, [separating it from the remainder of his field].30 He may take any stone [in the groove] that he can pick up if he stretches out his hand while he is standing at the edge of the groove.31

יא

לֹא יְמַלֵּא אָדָם גַּיא עָפָר אוֹ יְתַקְּנֶנּוּ בְּעָפָר מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמְּתַקֵּן אֶת הָאָרֶץ. אֲבָל עוֹשֶׂה הוּא חַיִץ עַל פְּנֵי הַגַּיא. וְכָל אֶבֶן שֶׁיָּכוֹל לִפְשֹׁט אֶת יָדוֹ וְלִטְּלָהּ וְהוּא עוֹמֵד עַל שְׂפַת הַגַּיא הֲרֵי זוֹ תִּנָּטֵל:

12

It is permitted to bring stones carried on one's shoulder - i.e., two or three are carried on one's shoulder at a time - from any place, whether from a colleague's field or from one's own field. Similarly, a contractor32 may bring stones, even small ones, from any place whether from the field he hired33 or from a field that he did not hire.

יב

אַבְנֵי כָּתֵף וְהֵם הַנִּטָּלוֹת שְׁתַּיִם שָׁלֹשׁ עַל הַכָּתֵף מֻתָּר לַהֲבִיאָן מִכָּל מָקוֹם בֵּין מִשְּׂדֵה חֲבֵרוֹ בֵּין מִשָּׂדֵהוּ. וְכֵן הַקַּבְּלָן מֵבִיא מִכָּל מָקוֹם וַאֲפִלּוּ אֲבָנִים גְּדוֹלוֹת בֵּין מִשָּׂדֶה שֶׁקִּבְּלָהּ בֵּין מִשָּׂדֶה שֶׁלֹּא קִבְּלָהּ:

13

[The following laws apply when there is] an open space [in a wall separating one's property from the public domain] that was filled with earth.34 If its [stones] do not create an obstacle block for people in the public domain, it is forbidden to rebuild it.35 If they create a stumbling block for people36 or it was not filled with earth, but instead open to the public domain,37 it is permitted to rebuild it.38

יג

פִּרְצָה שֶׁהִיא סוּגָה בְּעָפָר אִם אֵינָהּ מַכְשֶׁלֶת אֶת הָרַבִּים אָסוּר לִבְנוֹתָהּ. וְאִם הָיְתָה מַכְשֶׁלֶת אֶת הָרַבִּים אוֹ שֶׁלֹּא הָיְתָה סוּגָה בְּעָפָר אֶלָּא פְּתוּחָה לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים מֻתָּר לִבְנוֹתָהּ:

14

It is forbidden for a person to build a wall between his field and his colleague's field in the Sabbatical year. He may, however, build a wall between his field and the public domain.39 [When he builds the wall,] he is permitted to dig deeply until he reaches a stone.40 He may remove the earth and gather it in his field41 in the same manner as waste is gathered.42 Similarly, if a person dug out a cistern, a trench, or a storage cavity in the Sabbatical year, he may gather the earth in the same manner as all those who dig.

יד

אָסוּר לוֹ לִבְנוֹת גָּדֵר בַּשְּׁבִיעִית בֵּין שָׂדֵהוּ לִשְׂדֵה חֲבֵרוֹ. אֲבָל בּוֹנֶה גָּדֵר בֵּינוֹ וּבֵין רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים. וּמֻתָּר לְהַעֲמִיק עַד הַסֶּלַע וּמוֹצִיא אֶת הֶעָפָר וְצוֹבְרוֹ בְּתוֹךְ שָׂדֵהוּ כְּדֶרֶךְ כָּל מַעֲמִידִין זֶבֶל. וְכֵן אִם חָפַר בּוֹר וְשִׁיחַ וּמְעָרָה בַּשְּׁבִיעִית צוֹבֵר הֶעָפָר בְּתוֹךְ שָׂדֵהוּ כְּדֶרֶךְ כָּל הַחוֹפְרִים: