1

The following rules apply when a person entrusts an animal or articles to a colleague, and they were lost or stolen. If the watchman says, "I will pay," because he does not desire to take an oath, he acquires the rights to certain profits that come because of the article.

If the thief is discovered, he must pay twice the value of the article. If he slaughtered it or sold it, he should pay four or five times the value of the stolen animal. To whom should restitution be made? To the person who has the rights to the article i.e., the watchman, for he said that he would make restitution.

If the animal itself is returned, it should be returned to the owner - it, its shearings and its offspring. For the watchman does not acquire the profits that come from its body, but only the profits that come because of outside factors. We have already explained that the thief is required to return only the shearings and the offspring that preceded the owner's despair of the recovery of his property.

If the watchman took the oath because he did not desire to pay, and afterwards the thief is discovered, the thief must pay twice the value of the article. If he slaughtered it or sold it, he should pay four or five times the value of the stolen animal. To whom should restitution be made? To the owner of the entrusted article.

Similarly, when a person rents a cow from a colleague and it is stolen, if he says, "I am willing to pay and I will not take an oath," if the thief is discovered afterwards, he should pay double or four or five times to the renter. For had the renter desired, he could have taken an oath that the cow was stolen in a manner in which he could not control, and he would be released from liability.

א

הַמַּפְקִיד אֵצֶל חֲבֵרוֹ בְּהֵמָה אוֹ כֵּלִים וְנִגְנְבוּ אוֹ אָבְדוּ אָמַר הֲרֵינִי מְשַׁלֵּם וְאֵינִי נִשְׁבָּע וְנִמְצָא הַגַּנָּב מְשַׁלֵּם תַּשְׁלוּמֵי כֶּפֶל. טָבַח אוֹ מָכַר מְשַׁלֵּם תַּשְׁלוּמֵי אַרְבָּעָה וַחֲמִשָּׁה. לְמִי מְשַׁלֵּם לְמִי שֶׁהָיָה הַפִּקָּדוֹן אֶצְלוֹ שֶׁהֲרֵי אָמַר אֲשַׁלֵּם. חָזְרָה הַבְּהֵמָה עַצְמָהּ חוֹזֶרֶת לִבְעָלֶיהָ הִיא וְגִזּוֹתֶיהָ וּוַלְדוֹתֶיהָ שֶׁאֵין זֶה הַשּׁוֹמֵר קוֹנֶה שֶׁבַח הַבָּא מִגּוּפָהּ אֶלָּא שֶׁבַח הַבָּא מֵאֵלָיו. וּכְבָר בֵּאַרְנוּ שֶׁאֵין הַגַּנָּב מַחְזִיר גִּזּוֹת וּוְלָדוֹת אֶלָּא לִפְנֵי יֵאוּשׁ. נִשְׁבַּע הַשּׁוֹמֵר וְלֹא רָצָה לְשַׁלֵּם וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִמְצָא הַגַּנָּב מְשַׁלֵּם תַּשְׁלוּמֵי כֶּפֶל. טָבַח אוֹ מָכַר מְשַׁלֵּם תַּשְׁלוּמֵי אַרְבָּעָה וַחֲמִשָּׁה. לְמִי מְשַׁלֵּם לְבַעַל הַפִּקָּדוֹן. וְכֵן הַשּׂוֹכֵר פָּרָה מֵחֲבֵרוֹ וְנִגְנְבָה וְאָמַר הֲרֵינִי מְשַׁלֵּם וְאֵינִי נִשְׁבָּע וְאַחַר כָּךְ הֻכַּר הַגַּנָּב מְשַׁלֵּם תַּשְׁלוּמֵי כֶּפֶל וְתַשְׁלוּמֵי אַרְבָּעָה וַחֲמִשָּׁה לַשּׂוֹכֵר. שֶׁאִלּוּ רָצָה הַשּׂוֹכֵר הָיָה נִשְׁבָּע שֶׁנִּגְנְבָה בְּאֹנֶס וְנִפְטָר:

2

When an unpaid watchman says, "I was negligent," he acquires the right to the double payment because he obligated himself to make restitution. For had he said, "It was stolen," or "It was lost," he would not have been liable. Similarly, when a renter or a borrower says, "It was stolen," he acquires the right to the double payment because he obligated himself to make restitution. For had he said, "It died," he would not have been liable.

A borrower, by contrast, does not acquire the right to the double payment until he makes restitution on his own initiative. If afterwards the thief is discovered, he makes the payment of four or five times the animal's value to the borrower.

ב

שׁוֹמֵר חִנָּם שֶׁאָמַר פָּשַׁעְתִּי זָכָה בַּכֶּפֶל שֶׁהֲרֵי חִיֵּב עַצְמוֹ לְשַׁלֵּם וְאִלּוּ רָצָה אָמַר נִגְנְבָה אוֹ אָבְדָה וְהָיָה פָּטוּר. וְכֵן נוֹשֵׂא שָׂכָר וְהַשּׂוֹכֵר שֶׁאָמַר נִגְנְבָה קָנָה הַכֶּפֶל שֶׁהֲרֵי חִיֵּב עַצְמוֹ לְשַׁלֵּם וְאִלּוּ רָצָה אָמַר מֵתָה וְהָיָה נִפְטָר. אֲבָל הַשּׁוֹאֵל אֵינוֹ קוֹנֶה הַכֶּפֶל עַד שֶׁיְּשַׁלֵּם מֵעַצְמוֹ קָדַם וְשִׁלֵּם מֵעַצְמוֹ וְאַחַר כָּךְ הֻכַּר הַגַּנָּב מְשַׁלֵּם תַּשְׁלוּמֵי אַרְבָּעָה וַחֲמִשָּׁה לַשּׁוֹאֵל:

3

Whenever a watchman acquires the rights to the double payment, he also acquires the rights to any profit that comes as a matter of course.

What is implied? A person entrusts four se'ah, worth a sela, to his colleague. They were stolen or lost. The watchman says, "I will pay a sela; I do not desire to take the oath." If they were later discovered and at that time were worth four sela'im, they are granted to the watchman. He, however, is required to pay only a sela.

When does the above apply? When the watchman did not trouble the owner to undertake legal process to recover his money. Different rules apply, however, if the watchman admits that he was negligent and the court required him to pay, but he did not do so willingly and had to be compelled by the court, and it had to expropriate the money from him. If, afterwards, the thief is found or the entrusted article is discovered, it should be returned to the owner in its present condition. The money that was expropriated from the watchman should be returned to him. If the court expropriated utensils or land from the watchman after evaluating them, the watchman's utensils or land should be returned to him.

ג

כָּל הַקוֹנֶה הַכֶּפֶל קוֹנֶה הַשֶּׁבַח הַבָּא מֵאֵלָיו. כֵּיצַד. הִפְקִיד אַרְבַּע סְאִין אֵצֶל חֲבֵרוֹ וַהֲרֵי הֵן שָׁוִין סֶלַע וְנִגְנְבוּ אוֹ אָבְדוּ וְאָמַר הֲרֵינִי מְשַׁלֵּם סֶלַע וְאֵינִי נִשְׁבָּע וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִמְצְאוּ וַהֲרֵי הֵן שָׁוִין אַרְבָּעָה סְלָעִים הֲרֵי הֵן שֶׁל שׁוֹמֵר וְאֵינוֹ מְשַׁלֵּם אֶלָּא סֶלַע. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּשֶׁלֹּא הִטְרִיחָן לַבְּעָלִים בַּדִּין אֲבָל אִם הוֹדָה שֶׁפָּשַׁע וְחִיְּבוּהוּ בֵּית דִּין לִתֵּן וְלֹא נָתַן בִּרְצוֹנוֹ עַד שֶׁכָּפוּהוּ בֵּית דִּין עַל כָּרְחוֹ וְנָטְלוּ מִמֶּנּוּ וְאַחַר כָּךְ הֻכַּר הַגַּנָּב אוֹ נִמְצָא הַפִּקָּדוֹן יַחְזִיר לַבְּעָלִים כְּמוֹת שֶׁהוּא וּמַחְזִירִין לַשּׁוֹמֵר הַדָּמִים שֶׁלָּקְחוּ מִמֶּנּו. וְאִם כֵּלִים אוֹ קַרְקַע גָּבוּ בֵּית דִּין מִמֶּנּוּ בְּשׁוּמָא מַחְזִיר לַשּׁוֹמֵר כֵּלָיו אוֹ שָׂדֵהוּ:

4

When the owner demanded the return of the entrusted article from a watchman, the watchman took an oath to free himself of responsibility, but made restitution regardless, if the thief was discovered afterwards, since the watchman made restitution willingly, he acquires the right to the double payment.

This applies despite the fact that at the outset, he troubled the owner to take him to court until he took an oath. Similarly, if at first the watchman said, "I will not pay," and then he said, "I will pay," he acquires the right to the double payment.

ד

תְּבָעוּהוּ בְּעָלִים לַשּׁוֹמֵר וְנִשְׁבַּע וְאַחַר כָּךְ שִׁלֵּם וְהֻכַּר הַגַּנָּב הוֹאִיל וְשִׁלֵּם בִּרְצוֹנוֹ זָכָה בַּכֶּפֶל אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִטְרִיחוֹ בַּתְּחִלָּה לַדִּין עַד שֶׁנִּשְׁבַּע. אָמַר הַשּׁוֹמֵר בַּתְּחִלָּה אֵינִי מְשַׁלֵּם וְחָזַר וְאָמַר הֲרֵינִי מְשַׁלֵּם זָכָה בַּכֶּפֶל:

5

All the following situations represent questions left unresolved by the Talmud: The watchman said, "I will pay" and then said, "I refuse to pay";

the watchman said, "I will pay" and then died, and his children said, "We refuse to pay";

the owner was not able to demand payment from the watchman before the watchman died; he demanded payment of his sons and they paid;

the sons of the watchman paid the sons of the owner;

the watchman paid half the sum;

he borrowed two cows and paid for one of them;

he borrowed from partners and paid one of them;

partners borrowed and one of them paid;

he borrowed from a woman and paid her husband;

a woman borrowed and her husband paid.

There is unresolved doubt with regard to all the above instances. The ownership of the money is in doubt, and it is not in the hands of either of them. Therefore, the double payment or the increase in the value of the entrusted article is divided between the owner and the watchman. If, however, one of them took the initiative and seized the entire amount, it should not be expropriated from his possession. This applies even in the diaspora.

ה

אָמַר הֲרֵינִי מְשַׁלֵּם וְחָזַר וְאָמַר אֵינִי מְשַׁלֵּם. אוֹ שֶׁאָמַר הֲרֵינִי מְשַׁלֵּם וּמֵת וְאָמְרוּ הַבָּנִים אֵין אָנוּ מְשַׁלְּמִין. אוֹ שֶׁלֹּא הִסְפִּיק לִתְבֹּעַ אֶת הַשּׁוֹמֵר עַד שֶׁמֵּת וְתָבַע הַבָּנִים וְשִׁלְּמוּ בְּנֵי הַשּׁוֹמֵר. אוֹ שֶׁשִּׁלְּמוּ הַבָּנִים לַבָּנִים. אוֹ שֶׁשִּׁלֵּם הַשּׁוֹמֵר מֶחֱצָה. שָׁאַל שְׁתֵּי פָּרוֹת וְשִׁלֵּם אַחַת מֵהֶן. שָׁאַל מֵהַשֻּׁתָּפִין וְשִׁלֵּם לְאֶחָד מֵהֶן. שֻׁתָּפִין שֶׁשָּׁאֲלוּ וְשִׁלֵּם אֶחָד מֵהֶן. שָׁאַל מִן הָאִשָּׁה וְשִׁלֵּם לְבַעֲלָהּ. אִשָּׁה שֶׁשָּׁאֲלָה וְשִׁלֵּם בַּעְלָהּ. כָּל אֵלּוּ סָפֵק וַהֲרֵי הַכֶּפֶל מֻטָּל בְּסָפֵק וְאֵינוֹ תַּחַת יַד אֶחָד מֵהֶן לְפִיכָךְ חוֹלְקִין הַכֶּפֶל אוֹ הַשֶּׁבַח בֵּין בַּעַל הַפִּקָּדוֹן וּבֵין הַשּׁוֹמֵר. וְאִם קָדַם אֶחָד מֵהֶן וְתָפַס הַכּל אֵין מוֹצִיאִין מִיָּדוֹ וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּחוּצָה לָאָרֶץ:

6

When the entrusted article was stolen in a manner beyond the watchman's control, and afterwards the thief was discovered, both an unpaid watchman and a paid watchman must lodge a legal claim against the thief. The watchman is not required to take an oath.

The following rules apply when the watchman hurried and took the oath before the thief was discovered, and then the thief was discovered. If he is an unpaid watchman, he may remain content with his oath if he desires. If he desires, he may lodge a legal claim against the thief. If he is a paid watchman, he must lodge a legal claim against him.

There is a question when an animal that was deposited as an entrusted article is stolen in a manner beyond the watchman's control and then returned by the thief to the watchman's house, and it dies there because of the watchman's negligence. There is an unresolved question whether his responsibility as a watchman was concluded when the article was stolen, and hence he is absolved of liability or his responsibility did not conclude. Hence, the watchman is not required to make restitution. If the owner seizes the animal's worth, it is not expropriated from his possession.

ו

נִגְנַב הַפִּקָּדוֹן בְּאֹנֶס וְאַחַר כָּךְ הֻכַּר הַגַּנָּב אֶחָד שׁוֹמֵר חִנָּם וְאֶחָד שׁוֹמֵר שָׂכָר עוֹשֶׂה דִּין עִם הַגַּנָּב וְאֵינוֹ נִשְׁבָּע. קָדַם וְנִשְׁבָּע וְאַחַר כָּךְ הֻכַּר הַגַּנָּב אִם שׁוֹמֵר חִנָּם הוּא רָצָה עוֹמֵד בִּשְׁבוּעָתוֹ רָצָה עוֹשֶׂה דִּין עִם הַגַּנָּב וְאִם שׁוֹמֵר שָׂכָר הוּא עוֹשֶׂה עִמּוֹ דִּין. נִגְנַב הַפִּקָּדוֹן בְּאֹנֶס וְהֶחֱזִירוֹ הַגַּנָּב לְבֵית הַשּׁוֹמֵר וַהֲרֵי הוּא בְּהֵמָה וּמֵתָה שָׁם בִּפְשִׁיעָה יֵשׁ בַּדָּבָר סָפֵק אִם כָּלְתָה שְׁמִירָתוֹ וְנִפְטַר אוֹ עֲדַיִן לֹא כָּלְתָה שְׁמִירָתוֹ לְפִיכָךְ הַשּׁוֹמֵר פָּטוּר מִלְּשַׁלֵּם. וְאִם תָּפְסוּ הַבְּעָלִים אֵין מוֹצִיאִין מִיָּדָם: סְלִיקוּ לְהוּ הִלְכוֹת שְׁאֵלָה וּפִּקָדוֹן

With God's help, this concludes the Laws of Borrowing and Entrusted Objects

סליקו להו הלכות שאלה ופקדון: