Rambam - 1 Chapter a Day

Shevitat Yom Tov - Chapter Three

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Shevitat Yom Tov - Chapter Three


A person who has earth that has been prepared or ash that has been prepared and that may be carried1 may slaughter a fowl or a beast2 and cover their blood [on a holiday]. If he does not have earth that is prepared or ash that may be carried, he should not slaughter [a fowl or a beast on a holiday]. If he transgresses and does in fact slaughter [a fowl or a beast on a holiday], he should not cover its blood until the evening.3

Similarly, on a holiday one should not slaughter an animal concerning which there is a doubt whether it is a wild beast or a domestic animal.4 If a person does slaughter [such an animal on a holiday], he should not cover the blood until the evening.5 [This applies] even when one had earth that was prepared or ash [available],6 lest an observer conclude, "This animal is definitively categorized as a beast, and its blood was therefore covered on the holiday." The observer might then [err] and consider the fat of [this animal] to be permitted.7


מִי שֶׁהָיָה לוֹ עָפָר מוּכָן אוֹ אֵפֶר מוּכָן שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה שׁוֹחֵט חַיָּה וָעוֹף וּמְכַסֶּה דָּמָם. וְאִם אֵין לוֹ עָפָר מוּכָן אוֹ אֵפֶר הָרָאוּי לְטַלְטְלוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה לֹא יִשְׁחֹט וְאִם עָבַר וְשָׁחַט לֹא יְכַסֶּה דָּמָם עַד לָעֶרֶב. וְכֵן בְּרִיָּה שֶׁהוּא סָפֵק אִם חַיָּה הִיא אִם בְּהֵמָה אֵין שׁוֹחֲטִין אוֹתָהּ בְּיוֹם טוֹב וְאִם שָׁחַט לֹא יְכַסֶּה דָּמָהּ עַד לָעֶרֶב. אֲפִלּוּ הָיָה לוֹ עָפָר מוּכָן אוֹ אֵפֶר. שֶׁמָּא יֹאמַר הָרוֹאֶה חַיָּה וַדָּאִית הִיא וּלְפִיכָךְ כִּסָּה דָּמוֹ בְּיוֹם טוֹב וְיָבוֹא הָרוֹאֶה לְהַתִּיר חֶלְבּוֹ:


Similarly, if a person slaughtered a beast or a fowl before a holiday [and did not cover the blood at that time], he may not cover it on the holiday.

If a person slaughtered both a domestic animal and a beast or a fowl on a holiday,8 and their blood became mixed, he should not cover it until the evening [following the holiday]. If he had earth that was prepared or ash, and it is possible for him to cover all [the blood] with one shovelful,9 he should do so.


וְכֵן הַשּׁוֹחֵט חַיָּה וָעוֹף מֵעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב לֹא יְכַסֶּה דָּמָם בְּיוֹם טוֹב. שָׁחַט בְּהֵמָה חַיָּה וָעוֹף בְּיוֹם טוֹב וְנִתְעָרֵב דָּמָם לֹא יְכַסֶּה אוֹתוֹ עַד לָעֶרֶב. וְאִם הָיָה לוֹ עָפָר מוּכָן אוֹ אֵפֶר וְיָכוֹל לְכַסּוֹת הַכּל בִּדְקִירָה אַחַת הֲרֵי זֶה יְכַסֵּהוּ:


A person who slaughters an animal on a holiday is permitted to pull off the wool by hand10 from the place where he wishes to slaughter it, provided he does not remove it from its place, but rather leaves it there tangled with the remainder of the wool of the animal's neck.

[When slaughtering] a fowl, by contrast, one may not pull out the feathers, for [doing so by hand] is the usual procedure. Thus, one would be performing [the forbidden labor of] pulling out [feathers] on a holiday.


הַשּׁוֹחֵט בְּהֵמָה בְּיוֹם טוֹב מֻתָּר לוֹ לִתְלֹשׁ צֶמֶר לִמְקוֹם הַסַּכִּין בְּיָדוֹ. וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יְזִיזֶנּוּ מִמְּקוֹמוֹ אֶלָּא יִשָּׁאֵר שָׁם מְסֻבָּךְ כִּשְׁאָר צֶמֶר הַצַּוָּאר. אֲבָל בְּעוֹף לֹא יִמְרֹט מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא דַּרְכּוֹ וְנִמְצָא תּוֹלֵשׁ בְּיוֹם טוֹב:


When a person skins the hide of an animal on a holiday, he should not salt it. For [salting] is one of the leather-making processes,11 and thus one would be performing a forbidden labor that is not necessary for [the preparation of] food.

One may, however, deposit it12 in a place where people will tread on it,13 so that it will not spoil.14 This leniency was permitted only for the sake of the holiday celebrations, so that a person will not refrain from slaughtering [an animal].15

It is permitted to salt meat to be roasted on this hide. One may act with guile regarding this matter. What is implied? One may salt a small portion of meat on this place, another small portion in another place, until the entire hide has been salted.


הַמַּפְשִׁיט עוֹר בְּהֵמָה בְּיוֹם טוֹב לֹא יִמְלָחֶנּוּ שֶׁזֶּה עִבּוּד הוּא וְנִמְצָא עוֹשֶׂה מְלָאכָה שֶׁלֹּא לְצֹרֶךְ אֲכִילָה. אֲבָל נוֹתְנוֹ לִפְנֵי בֵּית הַדְּרִיסָה כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּדְרְסוּ עָלָיו וְלֹא יִפָּסֵד. וְלֹא הִתִּירוּ דָּבָר זֶה אֶלָּא מִפְּנֵי שִׂמְחַת יוֹם טוֹב כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִמָּנַע מִלִּשְׁחֹט. וּמֻתָּר לִמְלֹחַ בָּשָׂר לְצָלִי עַל גַּבֵּי הָעוֹר. וּמַעֲרִימִים בְּדָבָר זֶה. כֵּיצַד. מוֹלֵחַ מְעַט בָּשָׂר מִכָּאן וּמְעַט מִכָּאן עַד שֶׁיִּמְלַח הָעוֹר כֻּלּוֹ:


When does the above apply? When one is salting the meat for roasting, and much salt is not required. If, however, one [is salting it for] cooking, [and much salt is required],16 it is forbidden to salt [the meat] on a hide.

Similarly, it is forbidden to salt fats, nor may one flip them or spread them on staves in the wind, because they are not fit to be eaten.17


בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּמוֹלֵחַ לְצָלִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ מֶלַח הַרְבֵּה אֲבָל לִקְדֵרָה אָסוּר לִמְלֹחַ עַל הָעוֹר. וְכֵן אֵין מוֹלְחִין אֶת הַחֲלָבִים וְאֵין מְהַפְּכִין בָּהֶן וְאֵין שׁוֹטְחִין אוֹתָן בָּרוּחַ עַל גַּבֵּי יְתֵדוֹת מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵינָן רְאוּיִין לַאֲכִילָה:


When a person skins an animal on a holiday, he should not employ the technique referred to as regol. What is meant by regol? The person removes all the meat from [a hole made] at one foot, leaving the entire hide intact, without being torn. [This is forbidden] because this means of skinning involves great effort, and it is not necessary for the holiday.

Similarly, it is forbidden to cut a handle into the meat.18 [The prohibition applies] only when the handle is made with a knife, thus restricting [the butcher] from following his ordinary practice. [A butcher] may, however, make a sign in the meat.19


הַמַּפְשִׁיט אֶת הַבְּהֵמָה לֹא יַרְגִּיל בְּיוֹם טוֹב. כֵּיצַד הוּא הַמַּרְגִּיל. זֶה הַמּוֹצִיא כָּל בָּשָׂר מֵרֶגֶל אַחַת כְּדֵי שֶׁיּוֹצִיא כָּל הָעוֹר שָׁלֵם וְלֹא יִקָּרַע. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁטּוֹרֵחַ בְּהֶפְשֵׁט זֶה טֹרַח גָּדוֹל וְאֵין בּוֹ צֹרֶךְ לַמּוֹעֵד. וְכֵן אָסוּר לַעֲשׂוֹת בֵּית יָד בַּבָּשָׂר וְהוּא שֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂה בְּסַכִּין שֶׁלֹּא יַעֲשֶׂה כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁהוּא עוֹשֶׂה בְּחל. וּמֻתָּר לַעֲשׂוֹת סִימָן בַּבָּשָׂר:


We may pour hot water over the head and the feet [of a slaughtered animal] and singe it with fire [to remove its hair]. We may not, however, apply lime, clay, or loam [for that purpose]. Nor may we trim it with scissors.

We may not pare a vegetable in a decorative fashion. We may, however, trim food that has thorns - e.g., artichokes or cardoon - in a decorative fashion.


מוֹלְגִין אֶת הָרֹאשׁ וְאֶת הָרַגְלַיִם וּמְהַבְהֲבִין אוֹתָן בָּאוּר. אֲבָל אֵין טוֹפְלִין אוֹתָן בְּסִיד וּבְחַרְסִית וְלֹא בַּאֲדָמָה וְאֵין גּוֹזְזִין אוֹתָן בְּמִסְפָּרַיִם. וְכֵן אֵין גּוֹזְזִין אֶת הַיָּרָק בְּתִסְפֹּרֶת שֶׁלּוֹ אֲבָל מְתַקְּנִין אֶת הָאֹכֶל שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ קוֹצִים כְּגוֹן קֻנְדָּס וְעַכְּבִיּוֹת בְּתִסְפֹּרֶת:


It is permitted to knead a large dough on a holiday.20 If a person kneaded dough on the day before a holiday, he may not separate challah21 from it on the holiday.22 If he kneaded it on the holiday, he may separate challah and give it to a priest.23

If the dough is impure,24 or the challah became impure, the challah should not be baked, for we are allowed to bake on a holiday only for the sake of eating, and this [challah] must be burned.

We may not burn it on a holiday, because we do not burn sacred food that became impure on a holiday.25 For the burning of sacred food that became impure is a positive commandment, as [Leviticus 7:19] states: "And you shall burn it with fire"; and performing a [forbidden] labor [on a holiday] that is not necessary for the sake of [the preparation of] food and the like [nullifies] both a positive commandment and a negative commandment.26 And the fulfillment of a positive commandment does not override the fulfillment of both a positive commandment and a negative commandment.


מֻתָּר לָלוּשׁ עִסָּה גְּדוֹלָה בְּיוֹם טוֹב. וְהַלָּשׁ עִסָּה מֵעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב אֵינוֹ מַפְרִישׁ מִמֶּנָּה חַלָּה בְּיוֹם טוֹב. וְאִם לָשָׁהּ בְּיוֹם טוֹב מַפְרִישׁ מִמֶּנָּה חַלָּה וְנוֹתְנָהּ לַכֹּהֵן. וְאִם הָיְתָה עִסָּה טְמֵאָה אוֹ שֶׁנִּטְמֵאת הַחַלָּה לֹא יְבַשֵּׁל אֶת הַחַלָּה שֶׁאֵין מְבַשְּׁלִין בְּיוֹם טוֹב אֶלָּא לֶאֱכל וְזוֹ לִשְׂרֵפָה עוֹמֶדֶת. וְכֵן אֵין שׂוֹרְפִין אוֹתָהּ בְּיוֹם טוֹב שֶׁאֵין שׂוֹרְפִין קָדָשִׁים שֶׁנִּטְמְאוּ בְּיוֹם טוֹב. שֶׁשְּׂרֵפַת קָדָשִׁים שֶׁנִּטְמְאוּ מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא ז יט) "בָּאֵשׁ יִשָּׂרֵף" וַעֲשִׂיַּת מְלָאכָה שֶׁאֵינָהּ לְצֹרֶךְ אֲכִילָה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן עֲשֵׂה וְלֹא תַּעֲשֶׂה וְאֵין עֲשֵׂה דּוֹחֶה אֶת לֹא תַּעֲשֶׂה וַעֲשֵׂה:


What should one do with [this impure challah]? Leave it until the evening and burn it [then].27

On the holiday of Pesach, when leaving [the challah unburned until the day after the holiday] will cause it to become leavened, one should not separate the challah [from] the dough. Instead, one should bake the entire impure loaf, and then separate the challah after it has already [been baked as matzah].


כֵּיצַד יַעֲשֶׂה בָּהּ. יְנִיחֶנָּהּ עַד הָעֶרֶב וְיִשְׂרֹף אוֹתָהּ. הָיָה יוֹם טוֹב שֶׁל פֶּסַח שֶׁאִם יְנִיחֶנָּהּ תַּחֲמִיץ לֹא יַפְרִישׁ אֶת הַחַלָּה בָּצֵק אֶלָּא יֹאפֶה אֶת כָּל הָעִסָּה הַטְּמֵאָה וְאַחַר כָּךְ יַפְרִישׁ הַחַלָּה לֶחֶם:


We may not bake in a new earthenware oven on a holiday. [This is] a decree [instituted] lest [the oven] crack open, spoiling the bread, and tainting the person's festive joy.

We may not rake out [the coals and ash28] of an oven or a range; we may, however, press them down.29 If baking or roasting in it is impossible unless we rake out [the coals and ash], it is permitted to do so.30

We may seal the opening of an oven with mud or sediment from a river bank, provided it was made soft on the previous day. It is forbidden to mix mud on a holiday. We may, however, mix ashes with water [to form a clay-like mixture] to seal the opening of an oven.31


אֵין אוֹפִין בְּפוּרְנִי חֲדָשָׁה גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא תִּפָּחֵת וְתַפְסִיד הַלֶּחֶם וְיִמָּנַע מִשִּׂמְחַת יוֹם טוֹב. אֵין גּוֹרְפִין תַּנּוּר וְכִירַיִם אֲבָל מְכַבְּשִׁין אֶת הָאֵפֶר שֶׁבָּהֶן. וְאִם אִי אֶפְשָׁר לֶאֱפוֹת בּוֹ אוֹ לִצְלוֹת אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן גָּרַף מֻתָּר. וְסוֹתְמִין פִּי הַתַּנּוּר בְּטִיט וְרֶפֶשׁ שֶׁבִּסְבִיבוֹת הַנָּהָר וְהוּא שֶׁרִכְּכוֹ מֵאֶמֶשׁ אֲבָל לְגַבֵּל טִיט בְּיוֹם טוֹב אָסוּר. וּמֻתָּר לְגַבֵּל אֶת הָאֵפֶר לִסְתֹּם בּוֹ פִּי הַתַּנּוּר:


We may not apply oil to a new range or oven on a holiday, nor may we rub it with a cloth, nor apply cold water to it [after heating it] to seal it.32 When it is necessary [to apply cold water to lower an oven's temperature] so that one can bake [within], it is permitted to do so.33

We may not heat stones34 [with the intent] of roasting or baking upon them, because this seals them. We may heat or bake in an earthenware oven and heat water in a cauldron.35


תַּנּוּר וְכִירַיִם חֲדָשִׁים אֵין סָכִין אוֹתָן בְּשֶׁמֶן בְּיוֹם טוֹב. וְאֵין טָשִׁין אוֹתָן בְּמַטְלִית. וְאֵין מְפִיגִין אוֹתָן בְּצוֹנֵן כְּדֵי לְחָסְמָן וְאִם בִּשְׁבִיל לֶאֱפוֹת בָּהֶן מֻתָּר. אֵין מְלַבְּנִין אֶת הָאֲבָנִים לִצְלוֹת אוֹ לֶאֱפוֹת עֲלֵיהֶן מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמְּחַסְּמָן. וּמַסִּיקִין וְאוֹפִין בְּפוּרְנִי וּמְחִמִּין חַמִּין בְּאַנְטִיכִי:


We may not make cheese on a holiday. For cheese will not lose its flavor if it is prepared on the day before the holiday.36 In contrast, one may crush spices in the ordinary manner [on a holiday], for if they were crushed before the holiday, they would lose flavor. Salt, however, may not be crushed on a holiday unless one tilts the pestle, crushes it in a bowl, or deviates from the norm in another way. [This restriction was instituted] because salt will not lose its flavor if crushed before the holiday.

We may not grind pepper in a pepper mill.37 Instead, we must crush it in a pestle like other spices.


אֵין עוֹשִׂין גְּבִינָה בְּיוֹם טוֹב שֶׁאִם גִּבֵּן מֵעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב אֵין בָּזֶה חֶסְרוֹן טַעַם אֲבָל דָּכִין אֶת הַתַּבְלִין כְּדַרְכָּן שֶׁאִם יָדוּךְ אוֹתָן מִבָּעֶרֶב יָפוּג טַעֲמָן. אֲבָל מֶלַח אֵינוֹ נִדּוֹךְ בְּיוֹם טוֹב אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הִטָּה הַמַּכְתֵּשׁ אוֹ שֶׁיָּדוּךְ בִּקְעָרָה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהּ כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּשַׁנֶּה. שֶׁאִם שָׁחַק הַמֶּלַח מֵעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב לֹא יָפוּג טַעֲמוֹ. וְאֵין שׁוֹחֲקִין אֶת הַפִּלְפְּלִין בָּרֵחַיִם שֶׁלָּהֶן אֶלָּא דָּךְ אוֹתָן בִּמְדוּכָה כְּכָל הַתַּבְלִין:


We may not crush groats in a large grinder. We may, however, crush them in a small grinder,38 this being the [required] deviation from the norm. In Eretz Yisrael, it is forbidden to do so using even a small grinder, for the grain [that grows there] is of a higher quality, and will not lose [its flavor] if crushed before the holiday.39


אֵין כּוֹתְשִׁין אֶת הָרִיפוֹת בְּמַכְתֶּשֶׁת גְּדוֹלָה. אֲבָל כּוֹתְשִׁין בְּמַכְתֶּשֶׁת קְטַנָּה שֶׁזֶּה הוּא הַשִּׁנּוּי שֶׁלָּהּ. וּבְאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲפִלּוּ בִּקְטַנָּה אָסוּר שֶׁהַתְּבוּאָה שֶׁלָּהֶן טוֹבָה הִיא וְאִם כּוֹתְשִׁין אוֹתָם מֵעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב אֵין בְּכָךְ הֶפְסֵד:


Although flour was sifted on the day prior to the holiday, and its bran removed, it may not be sifted again on a holiday unless a pebble, a sliver of wood, or the like fell into it.40 This is permitted, however, if one deviates from the norm by sifting with the back of the sifter,41 sifting over the table, or the like.


הַקֶּמַח אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁרִקְּדוֹ מֵעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב וְהֵסִיר מִמֶּנּוּ הַסֻּבִּין אֵין מְרַקְּדִין אוֹתוֹ פַּעַם שְׁנִיָּה בְּיוֹם טוֹב אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן נָפַל בְּתוֹכוֹ צְרוֹר אוֹ קֵיסָם וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶם. וְאִם שִׁנָּה מֻתָּר. כֵּיצַד. כְּגוֹן שֶׁיְּרַקֵּד מֵאֲחוֹרֵי הַנָּפָה אוֹ שֶׁרִקֵּד עַל גַּבֵּי הַשֻּׁלְחָן וְכַיּוֹצֵא בְּשִׁנּוּי זֶה:


One may remove grain from husks, remove legumes from their pods, and blow air over them [to cause the husks to fall], using both hands with all one's power, and then partake of them. One may use a tray, or a pot with compartments,42 but not a sifter or a strainer.43

Similarly, a person who separates [the pods of legumes from] the legumes [themselves] on a holiday may separate them in an ordinary way44 in his bosom, and in a pot. He may not, however, use a strainer, a tablet, or a sifter.


מוֹלְלִין מְלִילוֹת וּמְפָרְכִין קִטְנִית בְּיוֹם טוֹב וּמְנַפֵּחַ עַל יָד עַל יָד בְּכָל כֹּחוֹ וְאוֹכֵל וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּקָנוֹן אוֹ בְּתַמְחוּי אֲבָל לֹא בְּנָפָה וְלֹא בִּכְבָרָה. וְכֵן הַבּוֹרֵר קִטְנִיּוֹת בְּיוֹם טוֹב בּוֹרֵר כְּדַרְכּוֹ בְּחֵיקוֹ וּבְתַמְחוּי אֲבָל לֹא בְּנָפָה וְלֹא בְּטַבְלָה וְלֹא בִּכְבָרָה:


When does the above apply? When there is more food than waste.45 When, however, there is more waste than food, one should separate the food and leave the waste. If, however, more difficulty is involved in separating the waste from the food than in separating the food from the waste,46 one should separate the food from the waste even when there is more food than waste.


בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים כְּשֶׁהָאֹכֶל מְרֻבֶּה עַל הַפְּסלֶת אֲבָל אִם הָיְתָה הַפְּסלֶת מְרֻבָּה עַל הָאֹכֶל בּוֹרֵר אֶת הָאֹכֶל וּמֵנִיחַ אֶת הַפְּסלֶת. וְאִם הָיָה טֹרַח בִּבְרֵרַת הַפְּסלֶת מִן הָאֹכֶל יֶתֶר מִטֹּרַח בִּבְרֵרַת הָאֹכֶל מִן הַפְּסלֶת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהָאֹכֶל מְרֻבֶּה בּוֹרֵר אֶת הָאֹכֶל וּמֵנִיחַ אֶת הַפְּסלֶת:


We may not filter mustard using a filter designated for that purpose, since it appears that one is [performing the forbidden labor of] selecting.47 We may, however, [mix] a raw egg [with mustard] in a mustard strainer, and [the mustard] will undergo a process of refinement naturally.48

If a filter was already hanging [over a container before the commencement of the holiday], it is permitted to filter wine through it on the holiday. By contrast, a person may not hang a filter on a holiday, so that he will not be following his weekday practice. One may, however, act with guile, and hang the filter to hold pomegranates, use it for that purpose,49 and then hang the dregs of wine in it [so that the wine will filter through].


אֵין מְסַנְּנִין אֶת הַחַרְדָּל בְּמִסְנֶנֶת שֶׁלָּהּ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנִּרְאֶה כְּבוֹרֵר. אֲבָל נוֹתְנִין בֵּיצָה בְּמִסְנֶנֶת שֶׁל חַרְדָּל וְהוּא מִסְתַּנֵּן מֵאֵלָיו. וְאִם הָיְתָה הַמְּשַׁמֶּרֶת תְּלוּיָה מֻתָּר לִתֵּן לָהּ יַיִן בְּיוֹם טוֹב. אֲבָל לֹא יִתְלֶה בַּתְּחִלָּה שֶׁלֹּא יַעֲשֶׂה כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁהוּא עוֹשֶׂה בְּחל. וּמַעֲרִים וְתוֹלֶה אֶת הַמְּשַׁמֶּרֶת לִתְלוֹת בָּהּ רִמּוֹנִים וְתוֹלֶה בָּהּ רִמּוֹנִים וְאַחַר כָּךְ נוֹתֵן לְתוֹכָהּ שְׁמָרִים:

Test Yourself on This Chapter


See the final halachah of the previous chapter.


In contrast to a behemah, a domesticated animal (e.g. a cow, sheep, or goat), when a fowl or wild animal (e.g., a deer) is slaughtered, its blood must be covered with earth. (See Hilchot Shechitah, Chapter 14.)


See the notes on the final halachah of the previous chapter, which touch on this issue.


Most authorities consider this to be referring to an animal that is a crossbreed between a goat and a deer. The Rambam (Commentary on the Mishnah, Chulin 6:1), however, considers this an independent species that the Sages were unable to classify as either an animal or a beast. (See also Hilchot Shechitah 14:4.)


The Ramah (Orach Chayim 498:18) states that this ruling applies only when the person slaughtered this animal in a corner. If, however, he slaughtered it in the middle of a courtyard and earth has been prepared and is available, it is permitted to cover its blood on the holiday, just as it is permitted to remove an unpleasant object from sight.


In his Commentary on the Mishnah (Bikkurim 2:9), the Rambam w rites that it is forbidden to take this earth, because there is a doubt regarding the animal's classification. This can be interpreted as an indication that even if earth was prepared for use, it may be carried only for a valid reason.


As the Rambam explains in Hilchot Ma'achalot Asurot 7:3, we are forbidden to eat only the fat of cows, sheep, and goats. The fat of all other kosher animals and beasts is permitted. Since the animal in question could be considered to be a goat, it is forbidden to eat its fat.


Although it is necessary to cover the blood of the beast or fowl, it is not necessary to cover the blood of the domestic animal.


Shulchan Aruch HaRav 498:36 and the Mishnah Berurah 498:103 explain that "one shovelful" need not be interpreted literally. The intent is that one would not have to engage in any additional effort to cover the extra blood coming from the animal.


This is the key to the leniency. Since one would normally cut the wool away with shears, pulling it away by hand represents a departure from one's ordinary procedure and is therefore permitted. Shearing the wool with a utensil is indeed prohibited.

The Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 498:12) rules more stringently, and forbids intentionally tearing the wool away. According to this view, one may merely smooth it to the sides with one's hands. If, however, it is torn off in the process, that is of no consequence.


See Hilchot Shabbat 11:5.


A hide from an animal slaughtered on a holiday, in contrast to the hide of an animal slaughtered before the holiday began (Maggid Mishneh; Shulchan Aruch, Orach Chayim 499:3).


By the people's treading on it, the tanning process will begin, and it will not spoil.


Similarly, one is permitted to place it in the shade or in a cool place so that it will not spoil (Shulchan Aruch HaRav 499:3; Mishnah Berurah 499:4).


Because of the fear that its hide will spoil. Our Sages feared that this financial loss would deter a person from slaughtering an animal on the holiday.


The Rambam describes the difference between the manner in which meat is salted for cooking and for roasting in Hilchot Ma'achalot Asurot 6:12.


Shulchan Aruch Harav 499:10 permits the fats to be carried to a cool shady place, lest their loss prevent the person from slaughtering.


To cut the meat in such a way that it will be easier for a customer to carry it home (Rashi, Beitzah 28a).


To distinguish meat purchased by one customer from that purchased by another (ibid.).


Although the School of Shammai forbids this, the halachah follows the School of Hillel, which rules that baking such a loaf is permitted (Beitzah 22b). The rationale is that a loaf tastes better when cooked in an oven which is full.


Numbers 15:20 requires us to separate a portion of dough and give it to the priest as challah. This offering is governed by the rules pertaining to terumah and hence may not be eaten when either the dough or the person partaking of it is impure. In such an instance, it must be burned.


On a holiday, one may, however, bring a priest challah that had been separated before the holiday (Chapter 4, Halachah 26; Ramah, Orach Chayim 506:3).

The Ramah also mentions that in the present age, in the diaspora, dough that has been kneaded before the holiday is permitted to be baked on the holiday, and a small portion of bread is left over, from which challah will be separated on the following day.


It is ordinarily forbidden to separate the consecrated articles that are due the priests on a holiday (Chapter 4, Halachah 26). Nevertheless, an exception was made in this instance, to allow people the option of eating fresh bread on a holiday.


This is the ruling that must be followed in the present age, for we are all ritually impure, and convey ritual impurity to the dough.


See Hilchot Pesulei HaMukdashim 19:5.


See Chapter 1, Halachah 2.


The Noda Biy'hudah (Vol. II, Orach Chayim, Responsum 96) notes that according to Hilchot Pesulei HaMukdashim, loc. cit., it is also forbidden to burn certain sacrificial meats that became disqualified - e.g., piggul and notar - at night. The Rambam does not mention such a restriction, however, with regard to consecrated articles that become impure.

There are, nevertheless, other authorities who differ and forbid the burning at night of consecrated articles that have become impure. (See Be'ur Halachah 506 and the sources mentioned there.)


Our translation follows the Rambam's Commentary on the Mishnah (Beitzah 4:5). Beitzah 32b and the Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 507:4) speak of an instance where a brick or part of the lime covering of the oven wall fell and disturbed the cooking process.


By hand (Rambam's Commentary on the Mishnah, loc. cit.), seemingly implying that it is forbidden to use a utensil unless necessary.


The Maggid Mishneh states that this is permitted even though in the process one will extinguish the coals. Although Chapter 4, Halachah 2, states that it is forbidden to extinguish a fire on a holiday, it is possible to explain that a distinction can be made in this instance, for by extinguishing the flame it becomes possible to cook.


This follows the Rambam's position (Hilchot Shabbat 8:16) that one is not liable for mixing clay if one uses ashes. The Ra'avad differs with the Rambam both in Hilchot Shabbat and in this halachah. The Shulchan Aruch (loc. cit.:7) follows the Rambam's view.


Contact with cold water after being heated will seal the walls of an earthenware oven.


These prohibitions are instituted because these tasks are mundane matters that are not directly associated with the preparation of food on a holiday.


All the commentaries see this as a reference to the Mishnah (Beitzah 4:7), which forbids heating "tiles." They question why the Rambam deviated from the wording used there.


This refers to a cauldron used during the Talmudic period, made of heavy copper. It was made up of two receptacles, the upper one for water, and the lower one for the coals used to heat the water (Rambam's Commentary on the Mishnah, Shabbat 3:3).

Since the cauldron is large and remains hot for a very long time, one might think that its use would be forbidden on a holiday, lest one create the impression that one is preparing hot water for the day following the holiday (Maggid Mishneh).


As mentioned in Chapter 1, Halachot 5-7, our Sages forbade the performance of any labors on a holiday even for the sake of the preparation of food, if it is possible to perform these labors before the holiday begins.


The Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 504:1) states that this is forbidden because it is a mundane activity that is inappropriate for a holiday. Others explain that, as stated in Chapter 1, Halachah 7, grinding is forbidden on a holiday.


The Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chayim 504:3) states that at present, we are unaware which is considered a small grinder and which a large grinder. Therefore, it is forbidden to use all grinders.


Although he accepts the law stated by the Rambam, the Ra'avad differs with the rationale, and explains that in Eretz Yisrael it was always customary to use a small grinder. Therefore, employing one on a holiday is not considered to be a deviation from the norm.


Although there are opinions that permit removing the pebble or the sliver by hand, Shulchan Aruch HaRav 506:4 and the Mishnah Berurah 506:12 forbid removing it by hand (for this would be removing waste matter from food as in Halachah 17), and require that the flour be sifted again.


If, however, the flour had not been sifted on the previous day, it may not be sifted on the holiday (Shulchan Aruch, Orach Chayim 506:2). It is, however, permissible to have a gentile sift the flour, provided he deviates from the ordinary practice (Ramah).


Our translation of these terms is taken from the Rambam's Commentary on the Mishnah (Keilim 16:3). Most other authorities follow different interpretations.


The Maggid Mishneh explains that since it is customary to prepare a large quantity using these utensils, it appears as if the person were preparing on the holiday for the weekdays that follow. The Rashba offers another rationale: Since performing this function with these utensils on the Sabbath violates the prohibition against a forbidden labor, the Sages did not want to allow this leniency on the holidays. These reasons are also given for the prohibitions in the clause that follows.


I.e., one is thus separating the waste matter from the food.


And thus it is likely to be easier to separate the small amount of waste matter, than to separate all the food.


When the waste matter is thin and difficult to separate.


Which our Rabbis prohibited on a holiday, even when it is performed for the purpose of preparing food.


In his Commentary on the Mishnah (Shabbat 20:2), the Rambam explains that when raw eggs are mixed with coarse foods, they cause the lighter matter to rise above the heavier, coarse matter. Thus, mixing the egg with the mustard will cause the dregs of the mustard to be separated.


If, however, one does not use the filter for another purpose, one may not use it to filter wine afterwards.

The Mishneh Torah was the Rambam's (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon) magnum opus, a work spanning hundreds of chapters and describing all of the laws mentioned in the Torah. To this day it is the only work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws which are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in place. Participating in one of the annual study cycles of these laws (3 chapters/day, 1 chapter/day, or Sefer Hamitzvot) is a way we can play a small but essential part in rebuilding the final Temple.
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