Vayikra (Leviticus) Chapter 27

1And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying,   אוַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶל־משֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר:
2Speak to the children of Israel and say to them: When a man expresses a vow, [pledging the] value of lives to the Lord,   בדַּבֵּ֞ר אֶל־בְּנֵ֤י יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ וְאָֽמַרְתָּ֣ אֲלֵהֶ֔ם אִ֕ישׁ כִּ֥י יַפְלִ֖א נֶ֑דֶר בְּעֶרְכְּךָ֥ נְפָשֹׁ֖ת לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
When a man expresses: Expresses verbally.   כִּי יַפְלִא: יַפְרִישׁ בְּפִיו:
[pledging the] value of lives: to give the valuation of his life, i.e., saying: “I take it upon myself [to donate to the Holy Temple] the value (בְּעֶרְכְּךָ) of a vital (נְפָשֹׁת) organ, [such as the head or the liver]” - [Torath Kohanim 26:57, Arachin 20a]   בְּעֶרְכְּךָ נְפָשֹׁת: לִתֵּן עֵרֶךְ נְפָשׁוֹת — לוֹמַר עֵרֶךְ דָּבָר שֶׁנַּפְשׁוֹ תְלוּיָה בוֹ עָלַי (עי' ספרא; ערכין ד'):
3the [fixed] value of a male shall be as follows: From twenty years old until sixty years old, the value is fifty silver shekels, according to the holy shekel;   גוְהָיָ֤ה עֶרְכְּךָ֙ הַזָּכָ֔ר מִבֶּן֙ עֶשְׂרִ֣ים שָׁנָ֔ה וְעַ֖ד בֶּן־שִׁשִּׁ֣ים שָׁנָ֑ה וְהָיָ֣ה עֶרְכְּךָ֗ חֲמִשִּׁ֛ים שֶׁ֥קֶל כֶּ֖סֶף בְּשֶׁ֥קֶל הַקֹּֽדֶשׁ:
the [fixed] value… shall be: The value stated here is not an expression of monetary value [the usual market value of a person sold as a slave], but, whether he has a high market value or a low one, the value fixed for him in this passage is according to his age.   וְהָיָה עֶרְכְּךָ וגו': אֵין עֵרֶךְ זֶה לְשׁוֹן דָּמִים, אֶלָּא בֵּין שֶׁהוּא יָקָר בֵּין שֶׁהוּא זוֹל, כְּפִי שָׁנָיו הוּא הָעֵרֶךְ הַקָּצוּב עָלָיו בְּפָרָשָׁה זוֹ:
the value: Heb. הָעֶרְכְּךָ [The last letter of this word, ךָ, is not the second person pronominal suffix, “your,” but rather, a double of the preceding letter כ, and therefore, this word is] the same as עֵרֶךְ, “value.” And I do not know what the double כ denotes here.   עֶרְכְּךָ: כְּמוֹ עֵרֶךְ, וְכֵפֶל הַכָּפִי"ן לֹא יָדַעְתִּי מֵאֵיזֶה לָשׁוֹן הוּא:
4And if she is a female, the value is thirty shekels;   דוְאִם־נְקֵבָ֖ה הִ֑וא וְהָיָ֥ה עֶרְכְּךָ֖ שְׁלשִׁ֥ים שָֽׁקֶל:
5And if [the person is] from five years old until twenty years old, the value of a male shall be twenty shekels, while that of a female shall be ten shekels;   הוְאִ֨ם מִבֶּן־חָמֵ֜שׁ שָׁנִ֗ים וְעַד֙ בֶּן־עֶשְׂרִ֣ים שָׁנָ֔ה וְהָיָ֧ה עֶרְכְּךָ֛ הַזָּכָ֖ר עֶשְׂרִ֣ים שְׁקָלִ֑ים וְלַנְּקֵבָ֖ה עֲשֶׂ֥רֶת שְׁקָלִֽים:
And if… five years old: Not that the one who is vowing is a minor, because a minor’s words have no validity. Rather, [our verse is speaking of] an adult who says: “I take upon myself [to donate to the Holy Temple] the value of this five-year-old” [i.e., the subject of our verse is the person who is to be evaluated].   וְאִם מִבֶּן־חָמֵשׁ שָׁנִים: לֹא שֶׁיְּהֵא הַנּוֹדֵר קָטָן — שֶׁאֵין בְּדִבְרֵי קָטָן כְּלוּם — אֶלָּא גָּדוֹל שֶׁאָמַר עֵרֶךְ קָטָן זֶה שֶׁהוּא בֶן חָמֵשׁ שָׁנִים עָלַי (עי' ערכין ב'):
6And if [the person is] from one month old until five years old, the value of a male shall be five silver shekels, while the value of a female shall be three silver shekels;   ווְאִ֣ם מִבֶּן־חֹ֗דֶשׁ וְעַד֙ בֶּן־חָמֵ֣שׁ שָׁנִ֔ים וְהָיָ֤ה עֶרְכְּךָ֙ הַזָּכָ֔ר חֲמִשָּׁ֥ה שְׁקָלִ֖ים כָּ֑סֶף וְלַנְּקֵבָ֣ה עֶרְכְּךָ֔ שְׁל֥שֶׁת שְׁקָלִ֖ים כָּֽסֶף:
7And if [the person is] sixty years old or over, if it is a male, the value shall be fifteen shekels, while for a female, it shall be ten shekels.   זוְ֠אִ֠ם מִבֶּן־שִׁשִּׁ֨ים שָׁנָ֤ה וָמַ֨עְלָה֙ אִם־זָכָ֔ר וְהָיָ֣ה עֶרְכְּךָ֔ חֲמִשָּׁ֥ה עָשָׂ֖ר שָׁ֑קֶל וְלַנְּקֵבָ֖ה עֲשָׂרָ֥ה שְׁקָלִֽים:
And if [the person is] sixty years old [or over]: When people reach a venerable age, a woman’s value becomes closer to that of a man. This is why a man decreases [in value] in his old age [to] beyond a third of his value [as an adult, namely, from 50 shekels to 15], while a woman [in her old age] decreases [to] only one third of her value [namely, from 30 shekels to 10]. As people say: “An old man in the house is a breach in the house (Rashi) [or] a snare in the house (Rabbenu Gershom), while an old woman in the house is a hidden treasure in the house and a good sign for the house.”- [Arachin 19a]   וְאִם מִבֶּן־שִׁשִּׁים שָׁנָה וגו': כְּשֶׁמַּגִּיעַ לִימֵי הַזִּקְנָה, הָאִשָּׁה קְרוֹבָה לְהֵחָשֵׁב כְּאִישׁ, לְפִיכָךְ הָאִישׁ פּוֹחֵת בְּהִזְדַּקְּנוֹ יוֹתֵר מִשְּׁלִישׁ בְּעֶרְכּוֹ, וְהָאִשָּׁה אֵינָהּ פוֹחֶתֶת אֶלָּא שְׁלִישׁ בְּעֶרְכָּהּ, דְּאָמְרֵי אִינְשֵׁי "סָבָא בְּבֵיתָא, פַּחָא בְּבֵיתָא, סָבְתָא בְּבֵיתָא סִימָא בְּבֵיתָא וְסִימָנָא טָבָא בְּבֵיתָא" (ערכין י"ט):
8But if he is [too] poor to [pay] the valuation [amount], he shall stand him up before the kohen, and the kohen shall evaluate him according to how much the one who is vowing his value can afford.   חוְאִם־מָ֥ךְ הוּא֙ מֵֽעֶרְכֶּ֔ךָ וְהֶֽעֱמִידוֹ֙ לִפְנֵ֣י הַכֹּהֵ֔ן וְהֶֽעֱרִ֥יךְ אֹת֖וֹ הַכֹּהֵ֑ן עַל־פִּ֗י אֲשֶׁ֤ר תַּשִּׂיג֙ יַ֣ד הַנֹּדֵ֔ר יַֽעֲרִיכֶ֖נּוּ הַכֹּהֵֽן:
But if he is [too] poor: that he cannot afford to pay this [fixed] valuation amount,   וְאִם־מָךְ הוּא: שֶׁאֵין יָדוֹ מַשֶּׂגֶת לִתֵּן הָעֵרֶךְ הַזֶּה.
he shall stand him up: [i.e., the one making the vow should stand up] the one whose value he pledged, before the kohen , [who] will then evaluate him in view of how much the one pledging the valuation, can afford. — [see next Rashi ; Torath Kohanim 27:62]   וְהֶֽעֱמִידוֹ: לַנֶּעֱרָךְ לִפְנֵי הַכֹּהֵן, וְיַעֲרִיכֶנּוּ לְפִי הַשָּׂגַת יָדוֹ שֶׁל מַעֲרִיךְ:
according to how much [the one who is vowing his value] can afford: [The kohen] shall estimate the valuation, with reference to how much [the one who is vowing] owns, leaving him his basic life necessities, namely, a bed, a bolster, a pillow, and tools of trade-e.g., if he is a donkey-driver, the kohen must [make the valuation such that he] leaves him his donkey. — [Arachin 23b]   עַל־פִּי אֲשֶׁר תַּשִּׂיג: לְפִי מַה שֶּׁיֶּשׁ לוֹ יְסַדְּרֶנּוּ, וְיַשְׁאִיר לוֹ כְּדֵי חַיָּיו: מִטָּה, כַּר וְכֶסֶת, וּכְלֵי אֻמָּנוּת; אִם הָיָה חַמָּר מַשְׁאִיר לוֹ חֲמוֹרוֹ (בבא מציעא קי"ד; ערכין כ"ג):
9Now, if an animal of whose type is [fit] to be brought as an offering to the Lord, whatever part of it the person donates to the Lord, shall become holy.   טוְאִ֨ם־בְּהֵמָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֨ר יַקְרִ֧יבוּ מִמֶּ֛נָּה קָרְבָּ֖ן לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה כֹּל֩ אֲשֶׁ֨ר יִתֵּ֥ן מִמֶּ֛נּוּ לַֽיהֹוָ֖ה יִֽהְיֶה־קֹּֽדֶשׁ:
[If… an animal…] whatever part of it the person donates [… shall become holy]: If a person says, “The leg of this animal shall be a burnt-offering,” his words have validity. [And how is his vow expedited?] The [entire] animal [except for its leg] should be sold to one who needs a burnt-offering, and the money [received from this sale] which excludes the value of that limb [as stated above], becomes non-consecrated, [and then the entire animal can be brought by both parties as a burnt-offering]. — [Arachin 5a, Temurah 11b, Raavad on Torath Kohanim]   כֹּל אֲשֶׁר יִתֵּן מִמֶּנּוּ: אָמַר רַגְלָהּ שֶׁל זוֹ עוֹלָה, דְּבָרָיו קַיָּמִין, וְתִמָּכֵר לְצָרְכֵי עוֹלָה, וְדָמֶיהָ חֻלִּין חוּץ מִדְּמֵי אוֹתוֹ הָאֵבֶר (ספרא; ערכין ה'):
10He shall not exchange it or offer a substitute for it, whether it be a good one for a bad one, or a bad one for a good one. But if he does substitute one animal for another animal, [both] that one and its replacement shall be holy.   ילֹ֣א יַֽחֲלִיפֶ֔נּוּ וְלֹֽא־יָמִ֥יר אֹת֛וֹ ט֥וֹב בְּרָ֖ע אוֹ־רַ֣ע בְּט֑וֹב וְאִם־הָמֵ֨ר יָמִ֤יר בְּהֵמָה֙ בִּבְהֵמָ֔ה וְהָֽיָה־ה֥וּא וּתְמֽוּרָת֖וֹ יִֽהְיֶה־קֹּֽדֶשׁ:
whether it be a good one for a bad one: i.e., an unblemished animal in place of a blemished one.   טוֹב בְּרָע: תָּם בְּבַעַל מוּם.
or a bad one in place of a good one: And how much more so [should he receive lashes if he replaced] a good [unblemished animal] for another good one, or if he replaced a bad [blemished animal] with another bad one [in which cases he did not raise the standard of the consecrated animal]. — [Torath Kohanim 27:71; Temurah 9a]   אוֹ־רַע בְּטוֹב: וְכָל שֶׁכֵּן טוֹב בְּטוֹב וְרַע בְּרַע (עי' תמורה ט'):
11And if it is any unclean animal, of whose type shall not be brought as an offering to the Lord, then he shall stand up the animal before the kohen.   יאוְאִם֙ כָּל־בְּהֵמָ֣ה טְמֵאָ֔ה אֲ֠שֶׁ֠ר לֹֽא־יַקְרִ֧יבוּ מִמֶּ֛נָּה קָרְבָּ֖ן לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה וְהֶֽעֱמִ֥יד אֶת־הַבְּהֵמָ֖ה לִפְנֵ֥י הַכֹּהֵֽן:
And if it is any unclean animal: [But the case of an unclean animal is stated later (verse 27); so what “unclean animal” is meant?] The text is speaking about a blemished animal, which is “unclean” [i.e., unfit] for sacrifice. And Scripture is teaching us that unblemished consecrated animals cannot leave [their holy status and enter] into a mundane status through redemption, unless they become blemished. — [Men. 101a, Temurah 32b, 33a]   וְאִם כָּל־בְּהֵמָה טְמֵאָה: בְּבַעֲלַת מוּם הַכָּתוּב מְדַבֵּר, שֶׁהִיא טְמֵאָה לְהַקְרָבָה, וְלִמֶּדְךָ הַכָּתוּב שֶׁאֵין קָדָשִׁים תְּמִימִים יוֹצְאִין לְחֻלִּין בְּפִדְיוֹן אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הֻמְּמוּ (שם ל"ג):
12The kohen shall then evaluate it whether it is good or bad; like the evaluation of the kohen, so shall it be.   יבוְהֶֽעֱרִ֤יךְ הַכֹּהֵן֙ אֹתָ֔הּ בֵּ֥ין ט֖וֹב וּבֵ֣ין רָ֑ע כְּעֶרְכְּךָ֥ הַכֹּהֵ֖ן כֵּ֥ן יִֽהְיֶֽה:
like the evaluation of the kohen, so shall it be: for anyone else [but the owner], who wishes to purchase it from the possession of the Temple treasury,   כְּעֶרְכְּךָ הַכֹּהֵן כֵּן יִֽהְיֶֽה: לִשְׁאָר כָּל אָדָם הַבָּא לִקְנוֹתָהּ מִיַּד הֶקְדֵּשׁ:
13But if he redeems it, he shall add its fifth to its value.   יגוְאִם־גָּאֹ֖ל יִגְאָלֶ֑נָּה וְיָסַ֥ף חֲמִֽישִׁת֖וֹ עַל־עֶרְכֶּֽךָ:
But if he redeems it: [i.e., if the owner himself redeems the animal]. Scripture is more stringent with the owner, [obligating him] to add a fifth [to its value (see B.M . 54a, regarding the meaning of fifth)]. Likewise, in the case of one who consecrates his house, and likewise, in the case of one who consecrates his field, and likewise, in the case of the redemption of the Second Tithe- [in all these cases,] the owners must add a fifth [to the value], but no one else [who redeems these items must add a fifth]. [Torath Kohanim 27:83]   וְאִם־גָּאֹל יִגְאָלֶנָּה: בַּבְּעָלִים הֶחֱמִיר הַכָּתוּב לְהוֹסִיף חֹמֶשׁ, וְכֵן בְּמַקְדִּישׁ בַּיִת, וְכֵן בְּמַקְדִּישׁ אֶת הַשָּׂדֶה, וְכֵן בְּפִדְיוֹן מַעֲשֵֹר שֵׁנִי — הַבְּעָלִים מוֹסִיפִין חֹמֶשׁ וְלֹא שְׁאָר כָּל אָדָם (שם כ"ה):
14And if a man consecrates his house [to be] holy to the Lord, the kohen shall evaluate it whether good or bad; as the kohen evaluates it, so shall it remain.   ידוְאִ֗ישׁ כִּֽי־יַקְדִּ֨שׁ אֶת־בֵּית֥וֹ קֹ֨דֶשׁ֙ לַֽיהֹוָ֔ה וְהֶֽעֱרִיכוֹ֙ הַכֹּהֵ֔ן בֵּ֥ין ט֖וֹב וּבֵ֥ין רָ֑ע כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֨ר יַֽעֲרִ֥יךְ אֹת֛וֹ הַכֹּהֵ֖ן כֵּ֥ן יָקֽוּם:
15But if the one who consecrated it redeems his house, he shall add to it a fifth of its valuation money, and it shall be his.   טווְאִם־הַ֙מַּקְדִּ֔ישׁ יִגְאַ֖ל אֶת־בֵּית֑וֹ וְ֠יָסַ֠ף חֲמִישִׁ֧ית כֶּֽסֶף־עֶרְכְּךָ֛ עָלָ֖יו וְהָ֥יָה לֽוֹ: