Chapter 17

1And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying:   אוַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהוָֹ֖ה אֶל־משֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר:
2Speak to Aaron and to his sons, and to all the children of Israel, and say to them: This is the thing the Lord has commanded, saying:   בדַּבֵּ֨ר אֶל־אַֽהֲרֹ֜ן וְאֶל־בָּנָ֗יו וְאֶל֙ כָּל־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וְאָֽמַרְתָּ֖ אֲלֵיהֶ֑ם זֶ֣ה הַדָּבָ֔ר אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּ֥ה יְהוָֹ֖ה לֵאמֹֽר:
3Any man of the House of Israel, who slaughters an ox, a lamb, or a goat inside the camp, or who slaughters outside the camp,   גאִ֥ישׁ אִישׁ֙ מִבֵּ֣ית יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל אֲשֶׁ֨ר יִשְׁחַ֜ט שׁ֥וֹר אוֹ־כֶ֛שֶׂב אוֹ־עֵ֖ז בַּמַּֽחֲנֶ֑ה א֚וֹ אֲשֶׁ֣ר יִשְׁחָ֔ט מִח֖וּץ לַמַּֽחֲנֶֽה:
Who slaughters an ox, a lamb, [or a goat]: Scripture is speaking of [slaughtering] holy sacrifices [not of slaughtering ordinary animals], for Scripture continues, “to offer up as a sacrifice” (next verse). - [Torath Kohanim 17:91]   אשר ישחט שור או כשב: במוקדשין הכתוב מדבר, שנאמר להקריב קרבן:
inside the camp: But outside the Courtyard. — [Torath Kohanim 17:89; Zev. 107b]   במחנה: חוץ לעזרה:
4but does not bring it to the entrance of the Tent of Meeting to offer up as a sacrifice to the Lord before the Mishkan of the Lord, this [act] shall be counted for that man as blood he has shed blood, and that man shall be cut off from among his people;   דוְאֶל־פֶּ֜תַח אֹ֣הֶל מוֹעֵד֘ לֹ֣א הֱבִיאוֹ֒ לְהַקְרִ֤יב קָרְבָּן֙ לַֽיהֹוָ֔ה לִפְנֵ֖י מִשְׁכַּ֣ן יְהוָֹ֑ה דָּ֣ם יֵֽחָשֵׁ֞ב לָאִ֤ישׁ הַהוּא֙ דָּ֣ם שָׁפָ֔ךְ וְנִכְרַ֛ת הָאִ֥ישׁ הַה֖וּא מִקֶּ֥רֶב עַמּֽוֹ:
shall be counted [for that man] as blood: As though he had shed human blood, for which one is liable to the death penalty.   דם יחשב: כשופך דם האדם שמתחייב בנפשו:
He has shed blood: [This comes] to include one who dashes the blood [of a holy sacrifice] outside [the Temple Courtyard]. — [Zev. 107a]   דם שפך: לרבות את הזורק דמים בחוץ:
5in order that the children of Israel should bring their offerings which they slaughter on the open field, and bring them to the Lord, to the entrance of the Tent of Meeting, to the kohen, and slaughter them as peace offerings to the Lord.   הלְמַ֩עַן֩ אֲשֶׁ֨ר יָבִ֜יאוּ בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל אֶת־זִבְחֵיהֶם֘ אֲשֶׁ֣ר הֵ֣ם זֹֽבְחִים֘ עַל־פְּנֵ֣י הַשָּׂדֶה֒ וֶֽהֱבִיאֻ֣ם לַֽיהֹוָ֗ה אֶל־פֶּ֛תַח אֹ֥הֶל מוֹעֵ֖ד אֶל־הַכֹּהֵ֑ן וְזָ֨בְח֜וּ זִבְחֵ֧י שְׁלָמִ֛ים לַֽיהוָֹ֖ה אוֹתָֽם:
which they slaughter: which they are accustomed to slaughter.   אשר הם זבחים: אשר הם רגילים לזבוח:
6And the kohen shall dash the blood upon the altar of the Lord at the entrance of the Tent of Meeting, and he shall cause the fat to go up in smoke, as a pleasing fragrance to the Lord.   ווְזָרַ֨ק הַכֹּהֵ֤ן אֶת־הַדָּם֙ עַל־מִזְבַּ֣ח יְהֹוָ֔ה פֶּ֖תַח אֹ֣הֶל מוֹעֵ֑ד וְהִקְטִ֣יר הַחֵ֔לֶב לְרֵ֥יחַ נִיחֹ֖חַ לַֽיהוָֹֽה:
7And they shall no longer slaughter their sacrifices to the satyrs after which they stray. This shall be an eternal statute for them, for [all] their generations.   זוְלֹֽא־יִזְבְּח֥וּ עוֹד֙ אֶת־זִבְחֵיהֶ֔ם לַשְּׂעִירִ֕ם אֲשֶׁ֛ר הֵ֥ם זֹנִ֖ים אַֽחֲרֵיהֶ֑ם חֻקַּ֥ת עוֹלָ֛ם תִּֽהְיֶה־זֹּ֥את לָהֶ֖ם לְדֹֽרֹתָֽם:
to the satyrs: Heb. לַשְּׂעִירִים, to the demons, like, “and satyrs (וּשְּׂעִירִים) will dance there” (Isa. 13:21). - [Torath Kohanim 17:100]   לשעירם: לשדים, כמו (ישעיה יג כא) ושעירים ירקדו שם:
8And you should say to them: Any man of the House of Israel or of the strangers who will sojourn among them, who offers up a burnt offering or [any other] sacrifice,   ח וַֽאֲלֵהֶ֣ם תֹּאמַ֔ר אִ֥ישׁ אִישׁ֙ מִבֵּ֣ית יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וּמִן־הַגֵּ֖ר אֲשֶׁר־יָג֣וּר בְּתוֹכָ֑ם אֲשֶׁר־יַֽעֲלֶ֥ה עֹלָ֖ה אוֹ־זָֽבַח:
Who offers up a burnt-offering: [This passage] comes to make liable one who causes the limbs [of a sacrifice] to go up in smoke outside [the Temple Courtyard] like the one who slaughters [a sacrifice] outside [the Courtyard. Consequently,] if one person slaughtered [the sacrifice] and his fellow offered it up [outside the Courtyard], they are both liable [to the penalty of excision]. — [Torath Kohanim 17:103; Zev. 106a]   אשר יעלה עלה: לחייב על המקטיר איברים בחוץ כשוחט בחוץ, שאם שחט אחד והעלה חבירו שניהם חייבין:
9but does not bring it to the entrance of the Tent of Meeting to make it [a sacrifice] to the Lord, that man shall be cut off from his people.   טוְאֶל־פֶּ֜תַח אֹ֤הֶל מוֹעֵד֙ לֹ֣א יְבִיאֶ֔נּוּ לַֽעֲשׂ֥וֹת אֹת֖וֹ לַֽיהוָֹ֑ה וְנִכְרַ֛ת הָאִ֥ישׁ הַה֖וּא מֵֽעַמָּֽיו:
[that man] will be cut off [from his people]: Heb. מֵעַמָּיו, lit. from his peoples. [The plural form of “peoples” teaches us that] his offspring will be cut off as well as his own days being cut off.   ונכרת: זרעו נכרת וימיו נכרתין:
10And any man of the House of Israel or of the strangers that sojourn among them, who eats any blood, I will set My attention upon the soul who eats the blood, and I will cut him off from among his people.   יוְאִ֨ישׁ אִ֜ישׁ מִבֵּ֣ית יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל וּמִן־הַגֵּר֙ הַגָּ֣ר בְּתוֹכָ֔ם אֲשֶׁ֥ר יֹאכַ֖ל כָּל־דָּ֑ם וְנָֽתַתִּ֣י פָנַ֗י בַּנֶּ֨פֶשׁ֙ הָֽאֹכֶ֣לֶת אֶת־הַדָּ֔ם וְהִכְרַתִּ֥י אֹתָ֖הּ מִקֶּ֥רֶב עַמָּֽהּ:
any blood: Since Scripture says, “[For it is the blood] that atones for the soul” (next verse), one might think that a person is liable only for [eating] the blood of sanctified things, [which effects atonement]. Scripture, therefore, says here, “any blood” [to include even the blood of ordinary animals]. — [Kereithoth 4b]   כל דם: לפי שנאמר בנפש יכפר, יכול לא יהא חייב אלא על דם המוקדשים, תלמוד לומר כל דם:
I will set my attention: Heb. פָנַי. [The word פָנַי here is to be understood to mean] My פְּנַאי, i.e., My leisure. [God is saying,] “I will make Myself free (פּוֹנֶה) from all My affairs, and I will deal with this person!” - [Torath Kohanim 17:108]   ונתתי פני: פנאי שלי, פונה אני מכל עסקי ועוסק בו:
11For the soul of the flesh is in the blood, and I have therefore given it to you [to be placed] upon the altar, to atone for your souls. For it is the blood that atones for the soul.   יאכִּי־נֶ֣פֶשׁ הַבָּשָׂר֘ בַּדָּ֣ם הִוא֒ וַֽאֲנִ֞י נְתַתִּ֤יו לָכֶם֙ עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּ֔חַ לְכַפֵּ֖ר עַל־נַפְשֹֽׁתֵיכֶ֑ם כִּֽי־הַדָּ֥ם ה֖וּא בַּנֶּ֥פֶשׁ יְכַפֵּֽר:
For the soul of the flesh: of every creature is dependent upon the blood, and therefore, I have given it to atone for the soul of man. [In this way,] one “soul” [namely, the blood of a sacrifice] shall come and atone for another soul.   כי נפש הבשר: של כל בריה בדם היא תלויה, ולפיכך נתתיו על המזבח לכפר על נפש האדם. תבוא נפש ותכפר על הנפש:
12Therefore, I said to the children of Israel: None of you shall eat blood, and the stranger who sojourns among you shall not eat blood.   יבעַל־כֵּ֤ן אָמַ֨רְתִּי֙ לִבְנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל כָּל־נֶ֥פֶשׁ מִכֶּ֖ם לֹא־תֹ֣אכַל דָּ֑ם וְהַגֵּ֛ר הַגָּ֥ר בְּתֽוֹכְכֶ֖ם לֹא־יֹ֥אכַל דָּֽם:
None of you: [This phrase] comes to warn adults regarding minors [not to feed them blood]. — [Torath Kohanim 17:110; Yev. 114a]   כל נפש מכם: להזהיר גדולים על הקטנים:
13And any man of the children of Israel or of the strangers who sojourn among them, who traps a quarry of a wild animal or bird that may be eaten, and sheds its blood, he shall cover it [the blood] with dust.   יגוְאִ֨ישׁ אִ֜ישׁ מִבְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל וּמִן־הַגֵּר֙ הַגָּ֣ר בְּתוֹכָ֔ם אֲשֶׁ֨ר יָצ֜וּד צֵ֥יד חַיָּ֛ה אוֹ־ע֖וֹף אֲשֶׁ֣ר יֵֽאָכֵ֑ל וְשָׁפַךְ֙ אֶת־דָּמ֔וֹ וְכִסָּ֖הוּ בֶּֽעָפָֽר:
who traps: [Had the verse stated only this phrase,] we would know only [that this law applies to] creatures that require trapping. But how would we know [that the law includes also] geese and roosters, [which do not require trapping]? Scripture, therefore, adds [the word] צֵיד -a quarry, meaning in any way [even if not trapped]. But if so, why is it stated, “who traps”? [To teach us] that one should not eat flesh except with this preparation, [meaning, that just as one does not go out to trap every day, neither should one eat meat regularly at all his meals, as if he had to go out and trap it]. — [Torath Kohanim 17:111; Chul. 84a]   אשר יצוד: אין לי אלא ציד, אווזין ותרנגולין מנין, תלמוד לומר ציד, מכל מקום. אם כן למה נאמר אשר יצוד, שלא יאכל בשר אלא בהזמנה הזאת:
that may be eaten: [This comes] to exclude unclean creatures [which are prohibited to be eaten, that their blood does not require covering]. — [Torath Kohanim 17:112]   אשר יאכל: פרט לטמאים:
14For [regarding] the soul of all flesh its blood is in its soul, and I said to the children of Israel: You shall not eat the blood of any flesh, for the soul of any flesh is its blood all who eat it shall be cut off.   ידכִּי־נֶ֣פֶשׁ כָּל־בָּשָׂ֗ר דָּמ֣וֹ בְנַפְשׁוֹ֘ הוּא֒ וָֽאֹמַר֙ לִבְנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל דַּ֥ם כָּל־בָּשָׂ֖ר לֹ֣א תֹאכֵ֑לוּ כִּ֣י נֶ֤פֶשׁ כָּל־בָּשָׂר֙ דָּמ֣וֹ הִ֔וא כָּל־אֹֽכְלָ֖יו יִכָּרֵֽת:
its blood is in its soul: Its blood is in the place of its very soul, because the soul is dependent upon it.   דמו בנפשו הוא: דמו הוא לו במקום הנפש, שהנפש תלויה בו:
for the soul of any flesh is its blood: [The word הִוא, meaning here “it is,” is feminine in gender.] “for the soul […] is the blood.” [For] the words דָּם and בָּשָׂר are masculine in gender, while the word נֶפֶשׁ is feminine in gender. [Hence, the antecedent of הִוא is נֶפֶשׁ.]   כי נפש כל בשר דמו הוא: הנפש היא הדם. דם ובשר לשון זכר, נפש לשון נקבה:
15And any person, whether a native or a stranger, who eats carrion or what was torn, shall immerse his garments and immerse himself in the waters, and shall remain unclean until evening, and then he shall become clean.   טווְכָל־נֶ֗פֶשׁ אֲשֶׁ֨ר תֹּאכַ֤ל נְבֵלָה֙ וּטְרֵפָ֔ה בָּֽאֶזְרָ֖ח וּבַגֵּ֑ר וְכִבֶּ֨ס בְּגָדָ֜יו וְרָחַ֥ץ בַּמַּ֛יִם וְטָמֵ֥א עַד־הָעֶ֖רֶב וְטָהֵֽר:
who eats carrion or what was torn: Scripture is speaking about the carcass of a clean bird [i.e., a kosher species of bird], which transmits defilement only at the time it is swallowed into the esophagus. And it teaches you here, that it defiles [the person], when he eats it. [The trefah, the bird mortally wounded by a wild beast, or stricken with a terminal illness, however, does not transmit defilement. Consequently,] the torn one mentioned here was written only to expound upon it. Thus we learned: One might think that the carcass of an unclean bird [also] defiles when it is swallowed into the esophagus. Scripture, therefore, says, “or what was torn,” [referring to a type of bird] that may fall under the category of טְרֵפָה [i.e., a kosher bird, which is prohibited only if it is torn], thus, excluding the case of an unclean bird, which can never fall under the category of טְרֵפָה, [because it is prohibited in any case]. - [Torath Kohanim 17:126]   אשר תאכל נבלה וטרפה: בנבלת עוף טהור דבר הכתוב, שאין לה טומאה אלא בשעה שנבלעת בבית הבליעה, ולמדך כאן שמטמאה באכילתה, ואינה מטמאה במגע. וטרפה האמורה כאן לא נכתבה אלא לדרוש. וכן שנינו יכול תהא נבלת עוף טמא מטמאה בבית הבליעה, תלמוד לומר טרפה, מי שיש במינו טרפה, יצא עוף טמא שאין במינו טרפה:
16But if he does not immerse [his garments] or immerse his flesh, he shall bear his sin.   טזוְאִם֙ לֹ֣א יְכַבֵּ֔ס וּבְשָׂר֖וֹ לֹ֣א יִרְחָ֑ץ וְנָשָׂ֖א עֲו‍ֹנֽוֹ:
he shall bear his sin: If he [subsequently] eats holy sacrifices or enters the Sanctuary [in his unclean state], he is punished by excision because of this uncleanness, like all other cases of uncleanness. — [Torath Kohanim 17: 129]   ונשא עונו: אם יאכל קדש או יכנס למקדש חייב על טומאה זו ככל שאר טומאות:
[But if he does not]…immerse his flesh, he shall bear his sin: For [not] immersing his body he is punished by excision. However, for [not] immersing his garments, [and entering the Mishkan wearing them,] he is punished by lashes. — [Torath Kohanim 17:129]   ובשרו לא ירחץ ונשא עונו: על רחיצת גופו ענוש כרת ועל כבוס בגדים במלקות: