Chapter 11

1And the Lord spoke to Moses and to Aaron, to say to them:   אוַיְדַבֵּ֧ר יְהֹוָ֛ה אֶל־משֶׁ֥ה וְאֶל־אַֽהֲרֹ֖ן לֵאמֹ֥ר אֲלֵהֶֽם:
[And the Lord spoke] to Moses and to Aaron: He told Moses that he should [in turn] tell Aaron. — [Torath Kohanim 1:4]   אל משה ואל אהרן: למשה אמר שיאמר לאהרן:
to say to them: [Whom does “to them” refer to?] The Lord said that [Aaron] should tell Eleazar and Ithamar. Or perhaps it means only to tell the Israelites? However, when [Scripture] says (verse 2),“Speak to the children of Israel,” speaking to Israel is already mentioned. So how do I understand “to say to them”? [That Aaron was to say] to his sons, to Eleazar and to Ithamar [who, in turn, were to tell the children of Israel the laws that follow]. — [Torath Kohanim 11:61]   לאמר אליהם: אמר שיאמר לאלעזר ולאיתמר, או אינו אלא לאמר לישראל, כשהוא אומר דברו אל בני ישראל, הרי דבור אמור לישראל, הא מה אני מקיים לאמר אליהם, לבניו לאלעזר ולאיתמר:
2Speak to the children of Israel, saying: These are the creatures that you may eat among all the animals on earth:   בדַּבְּר֛וּ אֶל־בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל לֵאמֹ֑ר זֹ֤את הַֽחַיָּה֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר תֹּֽאכְל֔וּ מִכָּל־הַבְּהֵמָ֖ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר עַל־הָאָֽרֶץ:
Speak to the children of Israel: God made them all [namely Moses, Aaron, Eleazar, and Ithamar] equal messengers for [relaying] the following speech. [And why did Aaron and his sons deserve this special honor?] Because they all equally remained silent, accepting the Omnipresent’s decree [to put Nadab and Abihu to death] with love.   דברו אל בני ישראל: את כולם השוה להיות שלוחים בדבור זה, לפי שהושוו בדמימה וקבלו עליהם גזירת המקום באהבה:
These are the creatures: [The word חַיָּה, “living creature”] denotes חַיִּים, “life.” [In the context of this passage, which sets out the clean and unclean creatures, the meaning is expounded as follows:] Since the Israelites cleave to the Omnipresent and are therefore worthy of being alive, accordingly, God separated them from uncleanness and decreed commandments upon them [so that through these commandments Israel would live]. For the other nations, however, He prohibited nothing. This is comparable to a physician who went to visit a patient [who was incurable, and allowed him to eat anything he wished, whereas when he went to his patient who was to recover, the physician imposed restrictions on his diet that would ensure that the recoverable patient would live. So too, the nations and Israel…], etc. as is found in the Midrash of Rabbi Tanchuma (6).   זאת החיה: לשון חיים, לפי שישראל דבוקים במקום וראויין להיות חיים, לפיכך הבדילם מן הטומאה וגזר עליהם מצות, ולאומות העולם לא אסר כלום. משל לרופא שנכנס לבקר את החולה וכו', כדאיתא במדרש רבי תנחומא:
These are the creatures: [When the verse says “These are…,” the word זֹאת] teaches us that Moses would hold up an animal and show it to the Israelites, saying, “This one you may eat,” and “This one you may not eat.” “You may eat the following!” (verse 9) even with the creatures of the water-he held up [one] of every species and showed it to them. And likewise with birds [as stated in verse 13], “you shall hold these in abomination….” Similarly with creeping creatures, (שְׁרָצִים) [as stated in verse 29], “these are unclean….” - [Torath Kohanim 11:62]   זאת החיה: מלמד שהיה משה אוחז בחיה ומראה אותה לישראל, זאת תאכלו וזאת לא תאכלו. את זה תאכלו וגו', אף בשרצי המים אחז מכל מין ומין והראה להם. וכן בעוף ואת אלה תשקצו מן העוף. וכן בשרצים וזה לכם הטמא:
These are the creatures…among all the animals: [The word חַיָּה, although usually denoting an undomesticated animal, such as a deer, also has the meaning of “living (חַי) creatures” in general; the word בְּהֵמָה, usually denoting domesticated animals like cattle, also has the meaning of large land animals, or mammals. We see this in our verse, for it says here, "These are the creatures (חַיָּה) that you may eat among all the animals (בְּהֵמָה) on earth, thus,] teaching that [the term] בְּהֵמָה is included in [the more general term] חַיָּה. - [Torath Kohanim 11:66; and see Rashi Chul. 70b]   זאת החיה מכל הבהמה: מלמד שהבהמה בכלל חיה:
3Any animal that has a cloven hoof that is completely split into double hooves, and which brings up its cud that one you may eat.   גכֹּ֣ל | מַפְרֶ֣סֶת פַּרְסָ֗ה וְשֹׁסַ֤עַת שֶׁ֨סַע֙ פְּרָסֹ֔ת מַֽעֲלַ֥ת גֵּרָ֖ה בַּבְּהֵמָ֑ה אֹתָ֖הּ תֹּאכֵֽלוּ:
which has a cloven: Heb. מַפְרֶסֶת. [Although resembling the following word, פַּרְסָה, the word, מַפְרֶסֶת, is to be understood] as the Targum [Onkelos] renders it: סְדִיקָא, “split.”   מפרסת: כתרגומו סדיקא:
hoof: Heb. פַּרְסָה, plante in French [meaning “ sole” or “hoof.” Thus, מַפְרֶסֶת פַּרְסָה means: “split or cloven hoof”].   פרסה: פלאנט"ה בלע"ז [כף רגל]:
that is completely separated into double hooves: Heb. וְשֹׁסַעַת שֶׁסַע [meaning that the hoof] is completely separated [i.e., split] from top to bottom, into two nails, as the Targum [Onkelos] renders it: וּמְטַלְפָא טִילְפִין, meaning “split into hooves” [i.e., split into two hoof sections,] because there are animals whose hooves are split at the top, but are not completely split and separated [into two hoof sections], since the bottom [sections of the hoof] are connected.   ושסעת שסע: שמובדלת מלמעלה ומלמטה בשתי צפרנין, כתרגומו ומטלפא טלפין, שיש שפרסותיו סדוקות מלמעלה ואינן שסועות ומובדלות לגמרי, שמלמטה מחוברות:
which brings up its cud: It brings up and regurgitates the [ingested] food from its stomach, returning the food to its mouth, in order to thoroughly crush it and grind it thoroughly.   מעלת גרה: מעלה ומקיאה האוכל ממעיה ומחזרת אותו לתוך פיה לכתשו ולטחנו הדק:
cud: Heb. גֵּרָה. This is its name. [I.e., the name of the food that an animal regurgitates.] It possibly stems from the root [נגר, “to drag” or “flow,” as in the verse] “and as water which has flowed (הַנִּגָּרִים) ” (II Sam. 14:14), for the regurgitated food “flows back” to the mouth. Targum [Onkelos] renders the word גֵּרָה as פִּישְׁרָא, dissolved, since, through its being regurgitated, the food is dissolved and melted.   גרה: כך שמו. ויתכן להיות מגזרת מים הנגרים (ש"ב יד יד), שהוא נגרר אחר הפה. ותרגומו פשרא שעל ידי הגרה האוכל נפשר ונמוח:
among the animals: Heb. בַּבְּהֵמָה, lit. in the animal. This is an extra word from which to derive that [if a pregnant animal is slaughtered properly,] the fetus inside its mother’s innards is permitted [to be eaten]. — [Torath Kohanim 11:67]   בבהמה: תיבה זו יתירה היא לדרשה, להתיר את השליל הנמצא במעי אמו:
that one you may eat: but not an unclean animal. However, is this [negative inference] not already included in the [explicit] prohibition [stated in verse 4, “…you must not eat…”]? Notwithstanding, [this positive statement is included here] so that [one who eats an unclean animal] transgresses a positive and a negative commandment [i.e., a negative inference of a positive commandment]. — [Torath Kohanim 11:69]   אתה תאכלו: ולא בהמה טמאה. והלא באזהרה היא, אלא לעבור עליה בעשה ולא תעשה:
4But these you shall not eat among those that bring up the cud and those that have a cloven hoof: the camel, because it brings up its cud, but does not have a [completely] cloven hoof; it is unclean for you.   דאַ֤ךְ אֶת־זֶה֙ לֹ֣א תֹֽאכְל֔וּ מִמַּֽעֲלֵי֙ הַגֵּרָ֔ה וּמִמַּפְרִסֵ֖י הַפַּרְסָ֑ה אֶת־הַ֠גָּמָ֠ל כִּי־מַֽעֲלֵ֨ה גֵרָ֜ה ה֗וּא וּפַרְסָה֙ אֵינֶ֣נּוּ מַפְרִ֔יס טָמֵ֥א ה֖וּא לָכֶֽם:
5And the hyrax, because it brings up its cud, but will not have a [completely] cloven hoof; it is unclean for you;   הוְאֶת־הַשָּׁפָ֗ן כִּי־מַֽעֲלֵ֤ה גֵרָה֙ ה֔וּא וּפַרְסָ֖ה לֹ֣א יַפְרִ֑יס טָמֵ֥א ה֖וּא לָכֶֽם:
6And the hare, because it brings up its cud, but does not have a [completely] cloven hoof; it is unclean for you;   ווְאֶת־הָֽאַרְנֶ֗בֶת כִּֽי־מַֽעֲלַ֤ת גֵּרָה֙ הִ֔וא וּפַרְסָ֖ה לֹ֣א הִפְרִ֑יסָה טְמֵאָ֥ה הִ֖וא לָכֶֽם:
7And the pig, because it has a cloven hoof that is completely split, but will not regurgitate its cud; it is unclean for you.   זוְאֶת־הַֽ֠חֲזִ֠יר כִּֽי־מַפְרִ֨יס פַּרְסָ֜ה ה֗וּא וְשֹׁסַ֥ע שֶׁ֨סַע֙ פַּרְסָ֔ה וְה֖וּא גֵּרָ֣ה לֹֽא־יִגָּ֑ר טָמֵ֥א ה֖וּא לָכֶֽם:
8You shall not eat of their flesh, and you shall not touch their carcasses; they are unclean for you.   חמִבְּשָׂרָם֙ לֹ֣א תֹאכֵ֔לוּ וּבְנִבְלָתָ֖ם לֹ֣א תִגָּ֑עוּ טְמֵאִ֥ים הֵ֖ם לָכֶֽם:
You shall not eat of their flesh: I know only [that] these [animals possessing one sign of cleanness are prohibited to be eaten]. How do we know that any other unclean animal, which has no sign of cleanness altogether [may also not be eaten]? Here, we can infer from a kal vachomer [i.e., an inference from minor to major]: If those animals that have part of the signs of cleanness are prohibited, [how much more so are those animals that lack both signs of cleanness!]- [Torath Kohanim 11:69]   מבשרם לא תאכלו: אין לי אלא אלו, שאר בהמה טמאה שאין לה שום סימן טהרה מנין, אמרת קל וחומר ומה אלו שיש בהן קצת סימני טהרה אסורות וכו':
of their flesh: The [Scriptural] prohibition applies [only] to the “flesh” [of an unclean animal], but not its bones, sinews, horns, or hooves. — [Torath Kohanim 11:74]   מבשרם: על בשרם באזהרה, ולא על עצמות וגידין וקרנים וטלפים:
and you shall not touch their carcasses: One might think that Israelites are prohibited to touch a carcass. Scripture, however, says, “Say to the kohanim …[(a kohen) shall not defile himself for a (dead) person among his people]” (Lev. 21:1); thus, kohanim are prohibited [from defiling themselves by human corpses], but ordinary Israelites are not prohibited. Now a kal vachomer can be made: Since in the more stringent case of defilement by a human corpse, only kohanim are prohibited, then in the more lenient case of defilement by animal carcasses, how much more so [should only kohanim be prohibited! If so,] what does Scripture mean by, “you shall not touch their carcasses”? [It means that Israelites may not touch animal carcasses] on the Festivals [since at those times they deal with holy sacrifices and enter the Temple]. This is what [the Sages] said: A person is obligated to cleanse himself on Festivals. - [R.H. 16b, Torath Kohanim 11:74]   ובנבלתם לא תגעו: יכול יהו ישראל מוזהרים על מגע נבלה, תלמוד לומר אמור אל הכהנים וגו' (ויקרא כא א), כהנים מוזהרין ואין ישראל מוזהרין. קל וחומר מעתה ומה טומאת מת חמורה, לא הזהיר בה אלא כהנים, טומאת נבלה קלה לא כל שכן. ומה תלמוד לומר לא תגעו, ברגל. זהו שאמרו חייב אדם לטהר עצמו ברגל:
9Among all [creatures] that are in the water, you may eat these: Any [of the creatures] in the water that has fins and scales, those you may eat, whether [it lives] in the waters, in the seas or in the rivers.   טאֶת־זֶה֙ תֹּֽאכְל֔וּ מִכֹּ֖ל אֲשֶׁ֣ר בַּמָּ֑יִם כֹּ֣ל אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ֩ סְנַפִּ֨יר וְקַשְׂקֶ֜שֶׂת בַּמַּ֗יִם בַּיַּמִּ֛ים וּבַנְּחָלִ֖ים אֹתָ֥ם תֹּאכֵֽלוּ:
fins: Heb. סְנַפִּיר. These are [the wing-like appendages] with which it swims [namely, fins].   סנפיר: אלו ששט בהם:
scales: Heb. קַשְׂקֶשֶׂת. These are the scales that are affixed to it, as it is said: “And he was wearing a coat of mail (קַשְׂקַשִּׂים) ” (I Sam. 17:5), [lit. armor of scales]. — [Chul. 66b]   קשקשת: אלו קליפים הקבועים בו, כמו שנאמר (ש"א יז ה) ושריון קשקשים הוא לבוש:
10But any [creatures]that do not have fins and scales, whether in the seas or in the rivers, among all the creeping creatures in the water and among all living creatures that [live] in the water, are an abomination for you.   יוְכֹל֩ אֲשֶׁ֨ר אֵין־ל֜וֹ סְנַפִּ֣יר וְקַשְׂקֶ֗שֶׂת בַּיַּמִּים֙ וּבַנְּחָלִ֔ים מִכֹּל֙ שֶׁ֣רֶץ הַמַּ֔יִם וּמִכֹּ֛ל נֶ֥פֶשׁ הַֽחַיָּ֖ה אֲשֶׁ֣ר בַּמָּ֑יִם שֶׁ֥קֶץ הֵ֖ם לָכֶֽם:
creeping creatures: שֶׁרֶץ. Anywhere this [term] appears [in Scripture], it denotes a low creature that slithers and moves on the ground.   שרץ: בכל מקום משמעו דבר נמוך שרוחש ונע ונד על הארץ:
11And they shall be an abomination for you. You shall not eat of their flesh, and their dead bodies you shall hold in abomination.   יאוְשֶׁ֖קֶץ יִֽהְי֣וּ לָכֶ֑ם מִבְּשָׂרָם֙ לֹ֣א תֹאכֵ֔לוּ וְאֶת־נִבְלָתָ֖ם תְּשַׁקֵּֽצוּ:
And they shall be an abomination: [The statement is repeated] to prohibit their mixtures [i.e., if the flesh of an unclean water creature was mixed with food of another type,] if there is enough [unclean flesh] to impart its taste [to the mixture]. — [See Torath Kohanim 11:82]   ושקץ יהיו: לאסור את עירוביהן, אם יש בו בנותן טעם:
[You shall not eat] of their flesh: [Only their flesh is prohibited,] but one is not prohibited [to eat] the fins or the bones. — [Torath Kohanim 11:82]   מבשרם: אינו מוזהר על הסנפירים ועל העצמות:
and their dead bodies you shall hold in abomination: [This clause comes] to include midges (יַבְחוּשִׁין) that he has filtered out [of water or other liquids. One may ingest these creatures together with water, but once they have been separated from their original source, they are prohibited]. יַבְחוּשִׁין are moucherons in French, midges. — [Torath Kohanim 11:83]   ואת נבלתם תשקצו: לרבות יבחושין שסיננן. יבחושין מושקירונ"ש בלע"ז [יבחושין]:
12Any [creature] that does not have fins and scales in the water is an abomination for you.   יבכֹּ֣ל אֲשֶׁ֥ר אֵֽין־ל֛וֹ סְנַפִּ֥יר וְקַשְׂקֶ֖שֶׂת בַּמָּ֑יִם שֶׁ֥קֶץ ה֖וּא לָכֶֽם:
Any [(creature)] that does not have [fins and scales in the water is an abomination for you]: What does Scripture come to teach us here? [In verse 10, Scripture has already stated, “any (creatures) that do not have fins and scales…are an abomination for you.” However, without this verse] I might think that [a water creature] is permitted only if it brings up its signs [of cleanness, namely fins and scales,] onto dry land; but if [it sheds them in the water, how do we know [that the creature is still permitted]? Scripture therefore, says here, “Any [creature] that does not have fins and scales in the water….,” but if it had them while in the water, even if it shed them in its emergence [onto dry land], it is permitted. — [Torath Kohanim 11:84]   כל אשר אין לו וגו': מה תלמוד לומר, שיכול אין לי שיהא מותר אלא המעלה סימנין שלו ליבשה, השירן במים מנין, תלמוד לומר כל אשר אין לו סנפיר וקשקשת במים, הא אם היו לו במים אף על פי שהשירן בעלייתו מותר:
13And among birds, you shall hold these in abomination; they shall not be eaten; they are an abomination: The eagle [or the griffin vulture], the kite, the osprey,   יגוְאֶת־אֵ֨לֶּה֙ תְּשַׁקְּצ֣וּ מִן־הָע֔וֹף לֹ֥א יֵאָֽכְל֖וּ שֶׁ֣קֶץ הֵ֑ם אֶת־הַנֶּ֨שֶׁר֙ וְאֶת־הַפֶּ֔רֶס וְאֵ֖ת הָֽעָזְנִיָּֽה:
They shall not be eaten: Heb. לֹא יֵאָכְלוּ. [Scripture is telling us that] one may not feed them to minors. [We derive this from the passive voice, “be eaten,”] meaning that these birds may not “be eaten” through you. Or perhaps it is not so, but [it is telling us that in addition to not eating them,] one may not derive any benefit from them? Scripture, therefore, states: “you shall not eat (לֹא תֹּאכְלוּ),” (Deut. 14:12) [in the active voice to teach us that] one is prohibited to eat them but permitted to derive benefit from them. Now, in every [mention of] birds where Scripture says לְמִינָהּ, לְמִינוֹ, לְמִינֵהוּ [“ to its…species,” it does so because] within that species, there are some that resemble each other neither in appearance nor in name, but they are [nevertheless] all one species.   לא יאכלו: לחייב את המאכילן לקטנים. שכך משמעו לא יהיו נאכלים על ידך. או אינו אלא לאסרן בהנאה, תלמוד לומר (דברים יד יב) לא תאכלו, באכילה אסורין בהנאה מותרין. כל עוף שנאמר בו למינה, למינו, למינהו, יש באותו המין שאין דומין זה לזה, לא במראיהם ולא בשמותם, וכולן מין אחד:
14the kestrel, and the vulture after its species,   ידוְאֶת־הַ֨דָּאָ֔ה וְאֶת־הָֽאַיָּ֖ה לְמִינָֽהּ:
15and the raven after its species,   טואֵ֥ת כָּל־עֹרֵ֖ב לְמִינֽוֹ:
16the ostrich, the jay, and the sparrow hawk, and the goshawk after its species;   טזוְאֵת֙ בַּ֣ת הַיַּֽעֲנָ֔ה וְאֶת־הַתַּחְמָ֖ס וְאֶת־הַשָּׁ֑חַף וְאֶת־הַנֵּ֖ץ לְמִינֵֽהוּ:
the sparrow hawk: הַנֵּץ, esprevier in Old French, [epervier in modern French]. [Note that, according to some editions of Rashi , the reading is ostor, which is translated by Greenberg as goshawk, autour in modern French. This is corroborated by other editions that render הַשָּׁחַף in verse 16 as esprevier..]   הנץ: אישפרויי"ר [נץ]:
17The owl, the gull, the little owl;   יזוְאֶת־הַכּ֥וֹס וְאֶת־הַשָּׁלָ֖ךְ וְאֶת־הַיַּנְשֽׁוּף:
the gull: Heb. הַשָּׁלָךְ Our Rabbis explained: “The שָׁלָךְ is a bird that draws up (שׁוֹלָה) fish out of the sea” (Chul. 63a). And this is the meaning of Onkelos’ translation of שָׁלָךְ: וְשַׁלֵינוּנָא, “fish catcher.”   השלך: פירשו רבותינו זה השולה דגים מן הים. וזהו שתרגם אונקלוס ושלינונא:
The owl… and the little owl: Heb. כּוֹס וְיַנְשׁוּף. These are chouettes [in French, i.e., “owls”] that shriek at night, which have cheeks like those of a human. There is another [bird] similar to it called hibou [in French].   כוס וינשוף: הם צואיטי"ש [כוס] הצועקים בלילה ויש להם לסתות כאדם. ועוד אחר דומה לו שקורין יב"ן [לילית]:
18The bat, the starling, the magpie;   יחוְאֶת־הַתִּנְשֶׁ֥מֶת וְאֶת־הַקָּאָ֖ת וְאֶת־הָֽרָחָֽם:
The bat: Heb. הַתִּנְשֶׁמֶת. That is calve soriz [in Old French, chauve-souris in modern French]. It resembles a mouse and flies about at night. The תִּנְשֶׁמֶת mentioned among the creeping animals (verse 30), resembles this one, insofar as it has no eyes. That [one] is called talpe [in Old French, taupe in modern French, mole in English].   התנשמת: היא קלב"א שורי"ץ [עטלף] ודומה לעכבר ופורחת בלילה. ותנשמת האמורה בשרצים היא דומה לה, ואין לה עינים וקורין לה טלפ"א [חפרפרת]:
19the stork, the heron after its species; the hoopoe and the atalef [bat?];   יטוְאֵת֙ הַֽחֲסִידָ֔ה הָֽאֲנָפָ֖ה לְמִינָ֑הּ וְאֶת־הַדּֽוּכִיפַ֖ת וְאֶת־הָֽעֲטַלֵּֽף:
The stork: Heb. הַחֲסִידָה. This is a white dayah, [called] zigoyne [in Old French, cigogne in modern French]. And why is it called חֲסִידָה ? Because it does kindness (חִסִידוּת) with its fellow birds [by sharing] its food (Chul. 63a).   החסידה: זו דיה לבנה ציגוני"ה [חסידה]. ולמה נקרא שמה חסידה, שעושה חסידות עם חברותיה במזונות:
the heron: Heb. הָאֲנָפָה. This is the hot-tempered dayah (Chul.. 63a), and it appears to me that this is the bird called héyron [in Old French, heron in modern French, heron in English].   האנפה: היא דיה רגזנית. ונראה לי שזו היא שקורין לה היירו"ן [אנפה]:
the hoopoe: Heb. הַדּוּכִיפַת, the wild-rooster, which has a doubled crest. [It is called] herupe [in Old French]. And why is it called דּוּכִיפַת ? Because its glory (הוֹדוֹ), namely its crest, is bound up (כָּפוּת). [I.e., its comb is double and appears to be folded into the head and bound up there (Rashi, Chul. 63a) [Onkelos renders it:] נַגַּר טוּרָא, “mountain carpenter,” named so for what it does, as explained by our rabbis in Tractate Gittin, chapter 7, entitled מִי שֶׁאֲחָזוֹ (folio 68b).   הדוכיפת: תרנגול הבר וכרבלתו כפולה ובלע"ז הירופ"א [דוכיפת], ולמה נקרא שמו דוכיפת, שהודו כפות, וזו היא כרבלתו. ונגר טורא נקרא על שם מעשיו, כמו שפירשו רבותינו במסכת גיטין בפרק מי שאחזו (דף סח ב):
20Any flying insect that walks on four, is an abomination for you.   ככֹּ֚ל שֶׁ֣רֶץ הָע֔וֹף הַֽהֹלֵ֖ךְ עַל־אַרְבַּ֑ע שֶׁ֥קֶץ ה֖וּא לָכֶֽם:
among all the flying insects: These are the delicate and small creatures that crawl on the ground, like flies, hornets, mosquitoes, and locusts.   שרץ העוף: הם הדקים הנמוכים הרוחשין על הארץ, כגון זבובים וצרעין ויתושין וחגבים:
21However, among all the flying insects that walk on four [legs], you may eat [from] those that have jointed [leg like] extensions above its [regular] legs, with which they hop on the ground.   כאאַ֤ךְ אֶת־זֶה֙ תֹּֽאכְל֔וּ מִכֹּל֙ שֶׁ֣רֶץ הָע֔וֹף הַֽהֹלֵ֖ךְ עַל־אַרְבַּ֑ע אֲשֶׁר־ל֤וֹ (כתיב אשׁר־לא) כְרָעַ֨יִם֙ מִמַּ֣עַל לְרַגְלָ֔יו לְנַתֵּ֥ר בָּהֵ֖ן עַל־הָאָֽרֶץ:
on four: on four legs.   על ארבע: על ארבע רגלים:
above its [regular] legs: [“Above,” meaning high up on the creature’s body, namely] near its neck, it has two leg-like extensions besides its [regular] four legs. When it wishes to fly or hop from the ground, it bolsters itself firmly with these appendages and flies. [In our regions,] we have many of this sort [of flying creature] called langouste [in Old French] (sea-locusts), but we are no [longer] proficient [in identifying] which ones [are clean and which are unclean. And what is the specific problem we have with this identification?] There are four signs of cleanness enumerated regarding these creatures: a) four legs, b) four wings, c) קַרְסוּלִים, which are the jointed leg-like extensions described above, and d) wings that cover the majority of its body (Chul. 59a; Torath Kohanim 11:91). All of these signs are indeed found in the creatures among us today, but some [creatures] have long heads and some do not have tails, [according to Maharsha (Chul. 66a), the reading is, “and some have tails”] and they must bear the name חָגָב (Chul. 65b). Concerning this [requirement namely, which type is officially called חָגָב and which is not], we no longer know how to distinguish between them.   ממעל לרגליו: סמוך לצוארו יש לו כמין שתי רגלים לבד ארבע רגליו, וכשרוצה לעוף ולקפוץ מן הארץ מתחזק באותן שתי כרעים ופורח, ויש הרבה מהם במקומינו בינותינו, כאותן שקורין לנגושט"א [ארבה], אבל אין אנו בקיאין בהן, שארבעה סימני טהרה נאמרו בהם ארבע רגלים, וארבע כנפים, וקרסולין אלו כרעים הכתובים כאן, וכנפיו חופין את רובו. וכל סימנים הללו מצויין באותן שבינותינו, אבל יש שראשן ארוך ויש שאין להם זנב וצריך שיהא שמו חגב, ובזה אין אנו יודעים להבדיל ביניהם:
22From this [locust] category, you may eat the following: The red locust after its species, the yellow locust after its species, the spotted gray locust after its species and the white locust after its species.   כבאֶת־אֵ֤לֶּה מֵהֶם֙ תֹּאכֵ֔לוּ אֶת־הָֽאַרְבֶּ֣ה לְמִינ֔וֹ וְאֶת־הַסָּלְעָ֖ם לְמִינֵ֑הוּ וְאֶת־הַֽחַרְגֹּ֣ל לְמִינֵ֔הוּ וְאֶת־הֶֽחָגָ֖ב לְמִינֵֽהוּ:
23But any [other] flying insect that has four legs, is an abomination for you.   כגוְכֹל֙ שֶׁ֣רֶץ הָע֔וֹף אֲשֶׁר־ל֖וֹ אַרְבַּ֣ע רַגְלָ֑יִם שֶׁ֥קֶץ ה֖וּא לָכֶֽם:
But any [other] flying insect [that has four legs is an abomination for you]: [In verse 20, it already says, “Any flying insect that walks on four is an abomination for you.” Why is this repeated here?] It comes to teach us that if it has five [legs], it is clean.   וכל שרץ העוף וגו': בא ללמד שאם יש לו חמש טהור:
24And through these you will become unclean; anyone who touches their dead bodies will be unclean until evening;   כדוּלְאֵ֖לֶּה תִּטַּמָּ֑אוּ כָּל־הַנֹּגֵ֥עַ בְּנִבְלָתָ֖ם יִטְמָ֥א עַד־הָעָֽרֶב:
through these: [I.e., you will become unclean] through those animals that are to be enumerated below. — [Torath Kohanim 11:95]   ולאלה: העתידין להאמר למטה בענין:
you will become unclean: I.e., in touching them, there is uncleanness [not that you are commanded to become unclean].   תטמאו: כלומר בנגיעתם יש טומאה:
25And anyone who carries their carcass shall immerse his garments, and he shall be unclean until evening:   כהוְכָל־הַנֹּשֵׂ֖א מִנִּבְלָתָ֑ם יְכַבֵּ֥ס בְּגָדָ֖יו וְטָמֵ֥א עַד־הָעָֽרֶב:
And anyone who carries their carcass: Any place in Scripture that mentions טֻמְאַת מַשָּׂא [uncleanness acquired by carrying (נוֹשֵׂא) an unclean item], it is more stringent than טֻמְאַת מַגָּע [uncleanness acquired by touching (נֹגֵע) an unclean item], insofar as it requires immersion of the garments [in a mikvah, in addition to the immersion of the person].   וכל הנשא מנבלתם: כל מקום שנאמרה טומאת משא, חמורה מטומאת מגע, שהיא טעונה כבוס בגדים:
26Any animal that has a cloven hoof that is not completely split, and which does not bring up its cud, is unclean for you. Anyone who touches them shall become unclean.   כולְכָל־הַבְּהֵמָ֡ה אֲשֶׁ֣ר הִוא֩ מַפְרֶ֨סֶת פַּרְסָ֜ה וְשֶׁ֣סַע | אֵינֶ֣נָּה שֹׁסַ֗עַת וְגֵרָה֙ אֵינֶ֣נָּה מַֽעֲלָ֔ה טְמֵאִ֥ים הֵ֖ם לָכֶ֑ם כָּל־הַנֹּגֵ֥עַ בָּהֶ֖ם יִטְמָֽא:
[Any animal that has] a cloven hoof that is not completely split: for instance, a camel, whose hoof is split on the top, but on the bottom it is connected. Here [Scripture] teaches you that the carcass of an unclean animal defiles, while in the section at the end of this parashah (verse 39), [Scripture] explains [that a carcass of] a clean animal [defiles as well. However, Scripture deals with these separately since there is a difference between the two: in the case of a clean animal, its carcass defiles only if it dies, but if it was slaughtered properly, even if it was a טְרֵפָה, i.e., it had a fatal disease or injury, its carcass does not defile. This is derived from verse 39, which reads, “If an animal that you (normally) eat dies…” i.e., only when it dies, its carcass defiles].   מפרסת פרסה ושסע איננה שוסעת: כגון גמל שפרסתו סדוקה למעלה, אבל למטה היא מחוברת. כאן למדך שנבלת בהמה טמאה מטמאה, ובענין שבסוף הפרשה פירש על בהמה טהורה:
27And among all the animals that walk on four legs, any [animal] that walks on its paws is unclean for you. Anyone who touches their carcass will be unclean until evening.   כזוְכֹ֣ל | הוֹלֵ֣ךְ עַל־כַּפָּ֗יו בְּכָל־הַֽחַיָּה֙ הַֽהֹלֶ֣כֶת עַל־אַרְבַּ֔ע טְמֵאִ֥ים הֵ֖ם לָכֶ֑ם כָּל־הַנֹּגֵ֥עַ בְּנִבְלָתָ֖ם יִטְמָ֥א עַד־הָעָֽרֶב:
on its paws: such as a dog, a bear, or a cat.   על כפיו: כגון כלב ודוב וחתול:
are unclean for you: i.e., to touch.   טמאים הם לכם: למגע:
28And one who carries their carcass shall immerse his garments, and he will be unclean until evening. They are unclean for you.   כחוְהַנֹּשֵׂא֙ אֶת־נִבְלָתָ֔ם יְכַבֵּ֥ס בְּגָדָ֖יו וְטָמֵ֣א עַד־הָעָ֑רֶב טְמֵאִ֥ים הֵ֖מָּה לָכֶֽם:
29And this is unclean for you among creeping creatures that creep on the ground: The weasel, the mouse, and the toad after its species;   כטוְזֶ֤ה לָכֶם֙ הַטָּמֵ֔א בַּשֶּׁ֖רֶץ הַשֹּׁרֵ֣ץ עַל־הָאָ֑רֶץ הַחֹ֥לֶד וְהָֽעַכְבָּ֖ר וְהַצָּ֥ב לְמִינֵֽהוּ:
And this is unclean for you: All these statements of uncleanness are not referring to the prohibition of eating, but rather, to actual uncleanness, i.e., that [the person] will become unclean by touching them, and he will [consequently] be prohibited from eating terumah [the portion of one’s produce given to the kohen] and holy [sacrifices], and from entering the sanctuary.   וזה לכם הטמא: כל טומאות הללו אינן לאיסור אכילה אלא לטומאה ממש, להיות טמא במגען ונאסר לאכול תרומה וקדשים וליכנס במקדש:
The weasel: Heb. הַחֹלֶד, moustele [in Old French], weasel, beach-marten.   החלד: מושטיל"ה [נמיה]:
and the toad: Heb. וְהַצָּב, bot [in Old French], which resembles a frog. [Rashi in Mikraoth Gedoloth reads: froit, which, according to Rashi on Niddah 56a, is the same as bot. According to Berliner and Greenberg, this is a ferret. According to Gukevitzky and Catane, it is a toad. In view of Rashi 's comment that it resembles a frog, this appears to be the correct translation.]   והצב: פרוי"ט [קרפדה] שדומה לצפרדע:
30The hedgehog, the chameleon, the lizard, the snail, and the mole.   לוְהָֽאֲנָקָ֥ה וְהַכֹּ֖חַ וְהַלְּטָאָ֑ה וְהַחֹ֖מֶט וְהַתִּנְשָֽׁמֶת:
the hedgehog: Heb. הָאֲנָקָה, herisson [in French].   אנקה: היריצו"ן [קיפוד]:
and the lizard: Heb. וְהַלְּטָאָה, lezard [in French].   הלטאה: לישרד"ה [לטאה]:
and the snail: Heb. וְהַחֹמֶט, limace [in French].   החמט: לימצ"ה [חילזון]:
and the mole: וְהַתִּנְשֶׁמֶת, talpe [in Old French, taupe in modern French].   והתנשמת: טלפ"א [חפרפרת]:
31These are the ones that are unclean for you, among all creeping creatures; anyone who touches them when they are dead will be unclean until evening.   לאאֵ֛לֶּה הַטְּמֵאִ֥ים לָכֶ֖ם בְּכָל־הַשָּׁ֑רֶץ כָּל־הַנֹּגֵ֧עַ בָּהֶ֛ם בְּמֹתָ֖ם יִטְמָ֥א עַד־הָעָֽרֶב:
32And if any of these dead [creatures] falls upon anything, it will become unclean, whether it is any wooden vessel, garment, hide or sack, any vessel with which work is done; it shall be immersed in water, but will remain unclean until evening, and it will become clean.   לבוְכֹ֣ל אֲשֶׁר־יִפֹּ֣ל־עָלָיו֩ מֵהֶ֨ם | בְּמֹתָ֜ם יִטְמָ֗א מִכָּל־כְּלִי־עֵץ֙ א֣וֹ בֶ֤גֶד אוֹ־עוֹר֙ א֣וֹ שָׂ֔ק כָּל־כְּלִ֕י אֲשֶׁר־יֵֽעָשֶׂ֥ה מְלָאכָ֖ה בָּהֶ֑ם בַּמַּ֧יִם יוּבָ֛א וְטָמֵ֥א עַד־הָעֶ֖רֶב וְטָהֵֽר:
it shall be immersed in water: Even after its immersion, the item remains unclean for [coming into contact with] terumah.   במים יובא: ואף לאחר טבילתו טמא הוא לתרומה:
until evening: And afterwards,   עד הערב: ואחר כך:
it will become clean: when the sun sets. — [Yev. 75a]   וטהר: בהערב השמש:
33But any earthenware vessel, into whose interior any of them falls, whatever is inside it shall become unclean, and you shall break [the vessel] itself.   לגוְכָ֨ל־כְּלִי־חֶ֔רֶשׂ אֲשֶׁר־יִפֹּ֥ל מֵהֶ֖ם אֶל־תּוֹכ֑וֹ כֹּ֣ל אֲשֶׁ֧ר בְּתוֹכ֛וֹ יִטְמָ֖א וְאֹת֥וֹ תִשְׁבֹּֽרוּ:
into whose interior: An earthenware vessel becomes unclean only through [the defiling item entering] its inner space [even if it does not touch the vessel wall. If it touches the outer wall, however, the vessel does not become unclean]. — [Chul. 24b]   אל תוכו: אין כלי חרס מיטמא אלא מאוירו:
whatever is inside it becomes unclean: The vessel in turn defiles whatever is in its inner space (other editions: in its interior).   כל אשר בתוכו יטמא: הכלי חוזר ומטמא מה שבאוירו:
and you shall break [the vessel] itself: This teaches us that it [an earthenware vessel] cannot be purified in a mikvah. [Consequently, if you wish to use it, you must break it so that it cannot be used for its original use.]- [Torath Kohanim 11:132]   ואתו תשבורו: למד שאין לו טהרה במקוה:
34Of any food that is [usually] eaten, upon which water comes will become unclean, and any beverage that is [usually] drunk, which is in any vessel, shall become unclean.   לדמִכָּל־הָאֹ֜כֶל אֲשֶׁ֣ר יֵֽאָכֵ֗ל אֲשֶׁ֨ר יָב֥וֹא עָלָ֛יו מַ֖יִם יִטְמָ֑א וְכָל־מַשְׁקֶה֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר יִשָּׁתֶ֔ה בְּכָל־כְּלִ֖י יִטְמָֽא:
Of any food that is [usually] eaten: This refers back to the preceding verse, [as if to say]: whatever is inside it shall become unclean… of any food that is [usually] eaten, upon which water comes-if it is inside an unclean earthenware vessel-will become unclean. Likewise, any liquid that is [usually] drunk, in any vessel, meaning that it is in the inner space of an unclean earthenware vessel, will become unclean. From here we learn many things. We learn that food becomes predisposed and prepared to contract uncleanness only if water had, at one time, come upon it. And once water has come upon it, the food can contract uncleanness forever, even if it is dry. Wine, oil, and whatever is called a beverage (מַשְׁקֶה) predisposes seeds to receive uncleanness, just as water [does] (Torath Kohanim 11:135). [The liquids that fall under the category of מַשְׁקֶה are: water, dew, oil, wine, milk, blood, and bee-honey.] For our verse [here] is to be expounded as follows: “upon which water comes will become unclean, or any beverage that is [usually] drunk, which is in any vessel, it shall become unclean.” [I.e.] the food [will become unclean]. Our rabbis also learned from this verse that an item with a secondary degree of uncleanness does not defile vessels, for we learned (Shab. 138b): One might think that all vessels would become defiled [when they enter] the inner space of an [unclean] earthenware vessel; Scripture, therefore, says (verses 33-34): כֹּל אֲשֶׁר בְּתוֹכוֹ יִטְמָא [lit., “anything inside it becomes unclean]… מִכָּל הָאֹכֶל [lit., of any food]”; i.e., food and liquid are defiled by the inner space of an [unclean] earthenware vessel, but [other] vessels do not become defiled by the inner space of an [unclean] earthenware vessel. Because a שֶׁרֶץ is a primary source of uncleanness (אָב הַטֻּמְאָה), and the vessel that becomes defiled by it is a secondary source of uncleanness (וְלָד הַטֻּמְאָה). Consequently, it does not in turn defile [other] vessels contained within it. We also learned [from this verse] that if a שֶׁרֶץ fell into the inner space of an [earthenware] oven that contained bread, and the שֶׁרֶץ did not touch the bread, the oven becomes [defiled with] first degree [uncleanness], while the bread is [defiled with] second degree [uncleanness. In this case,] we do not say that the oven is perceived as though it were “filled with uncleanness,” so that the bread contained within becomes [defiled as well with] first degree [uncleanness], for if we were to say so, no vessel would be excluded from becoming defiled by the inner space of an earthenware vessel since uncleanness itself has directly touched the surface of this second vessel (Shab. 138b). We also learned [from this verse] about the contact of water [with food]-that this predisposes seeds [to receive uncleanness] only if the water wetted the seeds after they had been detached from the earth. For, if one were to say that they become predisposed [to contract uncleanness] while still attached [to the ground], there is [no food produce] upon which no water has come [at one time or another]. In that case, why would [Scripture] tell us: “upon which water comes”? [It must therefore mean: after it has been detached from the earth] (Torath Kohanim 11:150). We also learned [from this verse] that [unclean] food will defile other items only if the food has a [minimum] volume equal to a [hen’s] egg, as it is said, “[Any food] that is [usually] eaten,” meaning: [the amount of] food that can be eaten at one time. And our Sages estimated that the pharynx cannot hold more than [the volume of] a hen’s egg" (Yoma 80a).   מכל האכל אשר יאכל: מוסב על מקרא העליון, כל אשר בתוכו יטמא, מכל האוכל אשר יאכל אשר יבא עליו מים והוא בתוך כלי חרס הטמא, יטמא. וכן כל משקה אשר ישתה בכל כלי, והוא בתוך כלי חרס הטמא, יטמא. למדנו מכאן דברים הרבה למדנו שאין אוכל מוכשר ומתוקן לקבל טומאה עד שיבאו עליו מים פעם אחת, ומשבאו עליו מים פעם אחת מקבל טומאה לעולם ואפילו נגוב. והיין והשמן וכל הנקרא משקה מכשיר זרעים לטומאה כמים. שכך יש לדרוש המקרא אשר יבא עליו מים או כל משקה אשר ישתה בכל כלי יטמא האוכל. ועוד למדו רבותינו מכאן, שאין ולד הטומאה מטמא כלים, שכך שנינו יכול יהיו כל הכלים מיטמאין מאויר כלי חרס, תלמוד לומר כל אשר בתוכו יטמא מכל האוכל, אוכל מיטמא מאויר כלי חרס, ואין כל הכלים מיטמאין מאויר כלי חרס, לפי שהשרץ אב הטומאה והכלי, שנטמא ממנו, ולד הטומאה, לפיכך אינו חוזר ומטמא כלים שבתוכו. ולמדנו עוד, שהשרץ שנפל לאויר תנור והפת בתוכו, ולא נגע השרץ בפת, התנור ראשון והפת שנייה. ולא נאמר רואין את התנור כאלו מלא טומאה ותהא הפת תחלה, שאם אתה אומר כן לא נתמעטו כל הכלים מלהטמא מאויר כלי חרס, שהרי טומאה עצמה נגעה בהן מגבן. ולמדנו עוד על ביאת מים, שאינה מכשרת זרעים אלא אם כן נפלו עליהן משנתלשו, שאם אתה אומר מקבלין הכשר במחובר, אין לך שלא באו עליו מים, ומהו אומר אשר יבוא עליו מים, משנתלשו. ולמדנו עוד שאין אוכל מטמא אחרים אלא אם כן יש בו כביצה, שנאמר אשר יאכל, אוכל הנאכל בבת אחת, ושיערו חכמים אין בית הבליעה מחזיק יותר מביצת תרנגולת:
35And anything upon which any of their carcasses of these [animals] fall, will become unclean. [Thus,] an oven or stove shall be demolished; they are unclean, and, they shall be unclean for you.   להוְכֹ֠ל אֲשֶׁר־יִפֹּ֨ל מִנִּבְלָתָ֥ם | עָלָיו֘ יִטְמָא֒ תַּנּ֧וּר וְכִירַ֛יִם יֻתָּ֖ץ טְמֵאִ֣ים הֵ֑ם וּטְמֵאִ֖ים יִֽהְי֥וּ לָכֶֽם:
oven or stove: They are movable objects, made of earthenware, and they have a hollow inside [i.e., an inner space]; and one places the pot over the opening of the cavity. Both have their openings on the top [rather than on the side. See Shab. 38b.]   תנור וכירים: כלים המטלטלין הם, והם של חרס ויש להן תוך, ושופת את הקדרה על נקב החלל ושניהם פיהם למעלה:
shall be demolished: Because an earthenware vessel cannot be purified by immersion [in a mikvah].   יתץ: שאין לכלי חרס טהרה בטבילה:
and they shall be unclean for you: Lest you say, “I am commanded to demolish them,” Scripture says, “they shall be unclean for you” [meaning that] if you wish to keep them in their unclean state, you are permitted [to do so]. — [Torath Kohanim 11:142]   וטמאים יהיו לכם: שלא תאמר מצווה אני לנותצם, תלמוד לומר וטמאים יהיו לכם, אם רצה לקיימן בטומאתן רשאי:
36But a spring or a cistern, a gathering of water remains clean. However, one who touches their carcass shall become unclean.   לואַ֣ךְ מַעְיָ֥ן וּב֛וֹר מִקְוֵה־מַ֖יִם יִֽהְיֶ֣ה טָה֑וֹר וְנֹגֵ֥עַ בְּנִבְלָתָ֖ם יִטְמָֽא:
But a spring or a cistern, a gathering of water: which are attached to the ground, do not contract uncleanness. We also learn from the phrase יִהְיֶה טָהוֹר [lit., “he will be clean”] that anyone who immerses in these [collections of water] “will become clean” from his uncleanness. — [see Pes. 16a]   אך מעין ובור מקוה מים: המחוברים לקרקע, אין מקבלין טומאה. ועוד יש לך ללמוד יהיה טהור הטובל בהם מטומאתו:
However, one who touches their carcass shall become unclean: If someone touches the uncleanness [of their carcasses] even while he is inside a spring or a cistern, he becomes unclean. Lest you say, [It can be derived from a] kal vachomer : “If [these collections of water] purify defiled [people] from their uncleanness, how much more so should they prevent a clean [person standing inside them] from becoming defiled!” Therefore, [Scripture] says, “ one who touches their carcass shall become unclean.” - [Torath Kohanim 11:146]   ונוגע בנבלתם יטמא: אפילו הוא בתוך מעין ובור ונוגע בנבלתם יטמא, שלא תאמר קל וחומר אם מטהר את הטמאים מטומאתם, קל וחומר שיציל את הטהור מליטמא, לכך נאמר ונוגע בנבלתם יטמא:
37And if of their carcass falls upon any sowing seed which is to be sown, it remains clean.   לזוְכִ֤י יִפֹּל֙ מִנִּבְלָתָ֔ם עַל־כָּל־זֶ֥רַע זֵר֖וּעַ אֲשֶׁ֣ר יִזָּרֵ֑עַ טָה֖וֹר הֽוּא:
a sowing seed which is to be sown: [This refers to] the sowing of [various] kinds of seeds (זֵרוּעַ). [The word] זֵרוּעַ [lit., “something which is planted,”] is a noun, as in the verse, “and let them give us some pulse (הַזֵּרֹעִים) ” (Dan. 1:12).   זרע זרוע: זריעה של מיני זרעונין. זרוע שם דבר הוא, כמו (דניאל א יב) ויתנו לנו מן הזרועים:
it remains clean: Scripture teaches you that it is not predisposed and prepared to be regarded as “food [fit] to receive uncleanness” until water has come upon it.   טהור הוא: למדך הכתוב שלא הוכשר ונתקן לקרות אוכל לקבל טומאה, עד שיבואו עליו מים:
38But if water is put upon seeds, and any of their carcass falls on them, they are unclean for you.   לחוְכִ֤י יֻתַּן־מַ֨יִם֙ עַל־זֶ֔רַע וְנָפַ֥ל מִנִּבְלָתָ֖ם עָלָ֑יו טָמֵ֥א ה֖וּא לָכֶֽם:
But if water is put upon seeds: after they have been detached [from the ground]. For if you say that [produce] attached [to the ground] can become predisposed [to receive uncleanness], then there would be no seed that would remain unprepared [to receive uncleanness, since all plants are watered]. — [Chul. 118b]   וכי יתן מים על זרע: לאחר שנתלש, שאם תאמר יש הכשר במחובר, אין לך זרע שלא הוכשר:
water…upon seeds: [The law applies] both to water and to other beverages, whether they fell on the seed or the seed fell into them. All this is expounded on in Torath Kohanim (11:151, 152).   מים על זרע: בין מים בין שאר משקין, בין נפלו הם על הזרע, בין הזרע נפל לתוכן, הכל נדרש בתורת כהנים:
and any of their carcass falls on them: even if they have dried, for the Torah was particular only it should be regarded as “food,” then as soon as it has become predisposed to contract uncleanness once [by becoming wet], this predisposition can never be removed from it.   ונפל מנבלתם עליו: אף משנגב מן המים, שלא הקפידה תורה אלא להיות עליו שם אוכל, ומשירד עליו הכשר קבלת טומאה פעם אחת, שוב אינו נעקר הימנו:
39If an animal that you [normally] eat, dies, one who touches its carcass shall be unclean until evening.   לטוְכִ֤י יָמוּת֙ מִן־הַבְּהֵמָ֔ה אֲשֶׁר־הִ֥יא לָכֶ֖ם לְאָכְלָ֑ה הַנֹּגֵ֥עַ בְּנִבְלָתָ֖הּ יִטְמָ֥א עַד־הָעָֽרֶב:
[one who touches] its carcass: [but] not its bones or its sinews, nor its horns, hooves or hide [unless they are attached to the carcass]. — [Torath Kohanim 11:159]   בנבלתה: ולא בעצמות וגידים ולא בקרנים וטלפים ולא בעור:
40And one who eats of its carcass shall immerse his garments, and he shall be unclean until evening. And one who carries its carcass shall immerse his garments, and he shall be unclean until evening.   מוְהָֽאֹכֵל֙ מִנִּבְלָתָ֔הּ יְכַבֵּ֥ס בְּגָדָ֖יו וְטָמֵ֥א עַד־הָעָ֑רֶב וְהַנֹּשֵׂא֙ אֶת־נִבְלָתָ֔הּ יְכַבֵּ֥ס בְּגָדָ֖יו וְטָמֵ֥א עַד־הָעָֽרֶב:
And one who carries its carcass: טֻמְאַת מַשָּׂא [uncleanness resulting from lifting up an unclean item, even without touching it, e.g., by lifting it up with a stick,] is more stringent than טֻמְאַת מַגָּע [uncleanness resulting from touching an unclean item], for one who lifts [a carcass, in addition to becoming unclean himself, also] defiles his garments, but one who [merely] touches it does not defile his garments, for regarding him it does not say, “he shall immerse his garments.”   והנשא את נבלתה: חמורה טומאת משא מטומאת מגע, שהנושא מטמא בגדים, והנוגע אין בגדיו טמאין, שלא נאמר בו יכבס בגדיו:
And one who eats of its carcass: One might think that his eating renders him unclean. However, when [Scripture] says, regarding the carcass of a clean bird, “He shall not eat carrion or one stricken by a fatal disease or injury, to be defiled through it” (Lev. 22:8), [the seemingly superfluous word] בָהּ [“through it,” is explained as follows]: One defiles his garments “through it,” [i.e.,] through eating it, but the carcass of an animal does not defile if one eats it without lifting it up. For example, if someone else forced it down his pharynx. If so, why does it say, “And one who eats [of its carcass]”? To specify the [minimum] volume [needed to render someone unclean] through his touching or lifting up [an unclean carcass], namely, the volume that one [normally] eats [at a time], namely, the size of an olive," [half the volume of a hen’s egg] (Torath Kohanim 11:16). [One should note that, for food to defile other items, it must have a minimum volume possibly edible at one time, namely, equal to that of a hen’s egg. See Rashi on Lev. 11:34].   והאכל מנבלתה: יכול תטמאנו אכילתו, כשהוא אומר בנבלת עוף טהור (ויקרא כב ח) נבלה וטרפה לא יאכל לטמאה בה, אותה מטמאה בגדים באכילתה, ואין נבלת בהמה מטמאה בגדים באכילתה בלא משא, כגון אם תחבה לו חבירו בבית הבליעה, אם כן מה תלמוד לומר האוכל, ליתן שיעור לנושא ולנוגע כדי אכילה והוא כזית:
and he shall be unclean until evening: Even though he has already immersed himself, he requires sunset [in order to be completely clean].   וטמא עד הערב: אף על פי שטבל צריך הערב שמש:
41And any creeping creature that creeps on the ground is an abomination; it shall not be eaten.   מאוְכָל־הַשֶּׁ֖רֶץ הַשֹּׁרֵ֣ץ עַל־הָאָ֑רֶץ שֶׁ֥קֶץ ה֖וּא לֹ֥א יֵֽאָכֵֽל:
that creeps on the ground: This comes to exclude mites founds in chickpeas and in beans, and the pea-beetles found in lentils, since they did not creep on the ground but within the food [which was already detached from the ground]. However, when they exit into the air and creep, they become prohibited [because they fall into the category of שֶׁרֶץ, those that “creep on the ground”]. — [Torath Kohanim 11:161]   השרץ על הארץ: להוציא את היתושין שבכליסין ושבפולין ואת הזיזין שבעדשים, שהרי לא שרצו על הארץ אלא בתוך האוכל, אבל משיצאו לאויר ושרצו הרי נאסרו:
it shall not be eaten: [This phrase comes] to render guilty someone who feeds a person [with the flesh of a creeping animal] just as if he would have eaten it [himself] (Torath Kohanim 11:162). A שֶׁרֶץ means a low, short-legged creature, which appears [in its motion] only as if slithering and moving.   לא יאכל: לחייב על המאכיל כאוכל. ואין קרוי שרץ אלא דבר נמוך קצר רגלים, שאינו נראה אלא כרוחש ונד:
42Any [creature] that goes on its belly, and any [creature] that walks on four [legs] to any [creature] that has many legs, among all creeping creatures that creep on the ground, you shall not eat, for they are an abomination.   מבכֹּל֩ הוֹלֵ֨ךְ עַל־גָּח֜וֹן וְכֹ֣ל | הוֹלֵ֣ךְ עַל־אַרְבַּ֗ע עַ֚ד כָּל־מַרְבֵּ֣ה רַגְלַ֔יִם לְכָל־הַשֶּׁ֖רֶץ הַשֹּׁרֵ֣ץ עַל־הָאָ֑רֶץ לֹ֥א תֹֽאכְל֖וּם כִּי־שֶׁ֥קֶץ הֵֽם:
that goes on its belly: This is the snake (Torath Kohanim 11:163). The word גָּחוֹן denotes “bending low” [and it is used to describe the snake] because it moves while bent a prostrated posture, prostrated on its belly.   הולך על גחון: זה נחש, ולשון גחון שחייה, שהולך שח ונופל על מעיו:
Any [creature] that goes: [This comes] to include earthworms and what resembles those that resemble them [i.e., that have tiny legs, but nevertheless slither like a worm on their bellies]. — [Torath Kohanim 11:163]   כל הולך: להביא השלשולין ואת הדומה לדומה:
that walks on four [legs]: This [refers to] a scorpion. — [Torath Kohanim 11:163]   הולך על ארבע: זה עקרב:
any [creature]: [This word comes] to include the beetle, called escarbot in French, and what resembles those that resemble them. — [Torath Kohanim 11:163]   כל: להביא את החפושית אישקרבו"ט בלע"ז [חיפושית] ואת הדומה לדומה:
any [creature] that has many legs: This is the centipede, a creature with legs from its head to its tail, on either side, called centipede [in French]. — [Torath Kohanim 11:163]   מרבה רגלים: זה נדל שרץ שיש לו רגלים מראשו ועד זנבו לכאן ולכאן, וקורין ציינפיי"ש [נדל]:
43You shall not make yourselves abominable with any creeping creature that creeps, and you shall not defile yourselves with them, that you should become unclean through them.   מגאַל־תְּשַׁקְּצוּ֙ אֶת־נַפְשֹׁ֣תֵיכֶ֔ם בְּכָל־הַשֶּׁ֖רֶץ הַשֹּׁרֵ֑ץ וְלֹ֤א תִטַּמְּאוּ֙ בָּהֶ֔ם וְנִטְמֵתֶ֖ם בָּֽם:
You shall not make [yourselves] abominable: By eating them, for it says: נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם, “your souls” [lit., “Do not make your souls abominable”], and merely touching [an unclean item] does not cause “abomination of the soul” [whereas eating it does. See Me’ilah 16b, Rashi there]; similarly, “and you shall not defile yourselves” [means] by eating them.   אל תשקצו: באכילתן, שהרי כתיב נפשותיכם, ואין שיקוץ נפש במגע, וכן ולא תטמאו באכילתן:
that you should become unclean through them: [God says:] “If you defile yourselves through these [creatures] on earth, I too will defile you in the world to come and in the heavenly academy.” - [Yoma 39a]   ונטמתם בם: אם אתם מטמאין בהם בארץ אף אני מטמא אתכם בעולם הבא ובישיבת מעלה:
44For I am the Lord your God, and you shall sanctify yourselves and be holy, because I am holy, and you shall not defile yourselves through any creeping creature that crawls on the ground.   מדכִּ֣י אֲנִ֣י יְהֹוָה֘ אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶם֒ וְהִתְקַדִּשְׁתֶּם֙ וִֽהְיִיתֶ֣ם קְדשִׁ֔ים כִּ֥י קָד֖וֹשׁ אָ֑נִי וְלֹ֤א תְטַמְּאוּ֙ אֶת־נַפְשֹׁ֣תֵיכֶ֔ם בְּכָל־הַשֶּׁ֖רֶץ הָֽרֹמֵ֥שׂ עַל־הָאָֽרֶץ:
For I am the Lord your God: Just as I am holy, for I am the Lord your God, so too, you shall make yourselves holy, [i.e.,] sanctify yourselves below [on earth]. — [Torath Kohanim 11:168]   כי אני ה' אלהיכם: כשם שאני קדוש שאני ה' אלהיכם, כך והתקדשתם קדשו עצמכם למטה:
and be holy: before Me, for I will make you holy above and in the world to come. — [Yoma 39a]   והייתם קדשים: לפי שאני אקדש אתכם למעלה ובעולם הבא:
and you shall not defile yourselves: [This prohibition is written to make a transgressor guilty of] transgressing many negative commandments. And for [the transgression of] each negative commandment, [the perpetrator receives] lashes. This is what [the Sages said in the Talmud (Mak. 16): “If one eats a פּוּטִיתָא [a small unclean aquatic creature], one receives four series of lashes [i.e., four separate series of lashes for the four negative commandments transgressed by eating that one creature]; if one eats an ant, one receives five series of lashes; if one eats a hornet, [he receives] six series of lashes” (Mak. 16b).   ולא תטמאו וגו': לעבור עליהם בלאוין הרבה. וכל לאו מלקות, וזהו שאמרו בתלמוד [מכות טז] אכל פוטיתא לוקה ארבע, נמלה לוקה חמש, צרעה לוקה שש:
45For I am the Lord Who has brought you up from the land of Egypt to be your God. Thus, you shall be holy, because I am holy.   מהכִּ֣י | אֲנִ֣י יְהֹוָ֗ה הַמַּֽעֲלֶ֤ה אֶתְכֶם֙ מֵאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרַ֔יִם לִֽהְיֹ֥ת לָכֶ֖ם לֵֽאלֹהִ֑ים וִֽהְיִיתֶ֣ם קְדשִׁ֔ים כִּ֥י קָד֖וֹשׁ אָֽנִי:
For I am the Lord Who has brought you up: On the condition that you accept My commandments, I have brought you up [out of Egypt] (Torath Kohanim 11:170). Another explanation of “For I am the Lord Who has brought you up” : Everywhere [Scripture] says, “Who has brought [you] out(הוֹצֵאתִי) [of the land of Egypt],” while here it says, “Who has brought [you] up (הַמַּעֲלֶה).” [What is the meaning of the unusual expression here of bringing up?] the school of Rabbi Ishmael taught: [God says,] “If I had brought up Israel from Egypt only so that they would not defile themselves with creeping creatures like the other nations, it would have been sufficient for them, and this is an exaltation for them.” This, then, explains [the use of] the expression הַמַּעֲלֶה - [B.M. 61b]   כי אני ה' המעלה אתכם: על מנת שתקבלו מצותי העליתי אתכם. דבר אחר כי אני ה' המעלה אתכם, בכולן כתיב והוצאתי, וכאן כתיב המעלה, תנא דבי רבי ישמעאל אלמלי לא העליתי את ישראל ממצרים אלא בשביל שאין מטמאין בשרצים כשאר אומות, דיים, ומעליותא היא גבייהו, זהו לשון מעלה:
46This is the law regarding animals, birds, all living creatures that move in water and all creatures that creep on the ground,   מוזֹ֣את תּוֹרַ֤ת הַבְּהֵמָה֙ וְהָע֔וֹף וְכֹל֙ נֶ֣פֶשׁ הַֽחַיָּ֔ה הָֽרֹמֶ֖שֶׂת בַּמָּ֑יִם וּלְכָל־נֶ֖פֶשׁ הַשֹּׁרֶ֥צֶת עַל־הָאָֽרֶץ:
47to distinguish between the unclean and the clean, and between the animal that may be eaten and the animal that may not be eaten.   מזלְהַבְדִּ֕יל בֵּ֥ין הַטָּמֵ֖א וּבֵ֣ין הַטָּהֹ֑ר וּבֵ֤ין הַֽחַיָּה֙ הַנֶּֽאֱכֶ֔לֶת וּבֵין֙ הַֽחַיָּ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֖ר לֹ֥א תֵֽאָכֵֽל:
to distinguish: Not only must you learn [these laws concerning prohibited creatures in order to know the laws for the sake of knowing Torah], but also you shall know and recognize [these creatures], and be proficient [in identifying] them.   להבדיל: לא בלבד השונה, אלא שתהא יודע ומכיר ובקי בהן:
between the unclean and the clean: But is it necessary [for Scripture] to state [that we should know] the difference between [kosher and non-kosher animals such as] a donkey and a cow, when these [differences] have already been explained? Rather, [what is meant here, is to distinguish] between what is unclean because of you and what is clean because of you, namely between [an animal] whose trachea was slaughtered halfway through [which is considered “unclean” and may not be eaten], and [an animal] who had most of its trachea slaughtered, [rendering the animal “clean” and it may be eaten]. — [Torath Kohanim 11:173:7]   בין הטמא ובין הטהר: צריך לומר בין חמור לפרה והלא כבר מפורשים הם, אלא בין טמאה לך לטהורה לך, בין נשחט חציו של קנה לנשחט רובו:
and between the animal that may be eaten: Does [Scripture] have to tell us [that one must be able to distinguish] between a deer and a wild donkey? Are they not already delineated? Rather, [to distinguish] between [an animal] in which signs of a treifah have developed, and it is nevertheless kosher [such as an animal whose injury does not render it treifah], and an animal in which signs of a treifah have developed, and it is not kosher. - [Torath Kohanim 11:173:8]   ובין החיה הנאכלת: צריך לומר בין צבי לערוד, והלא כבר מפורשים הם, אלא בין שנולדו בה סימני טרפה כשרה, לנולדו בה סימני טרפה פסולה: