Chapter 35

1And Josiah made the Passover sacrifice in Jerusalem to the Lord, and they slaughtered the Passover sacrifice on the fourteenth day of the first month.   אוַיַּ֨עַשׂ יֹֽאשִׁיָּ֧הוּ בִירֽוּשָׁלִַ֛ם פֶּ֖סַח לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה וַיִּשְׁחֲט֣וּ הַפֶּ֔סַח בְּאַרְבָּעָ֥ה עָשָׂ֖ר לַחֹ֥דֶשׁ הָֽרִאשֽׁוֹן:
And Josiah made the Passover sacrifice in Jerusalem: since none of the wicked kings of Judah had made the Passover sacrifice according to its law.  
2And he stationed the priests on their watches, and he encouraged them to the service of the House of the Lord.   בוַיַּֽעֲמֵ֥ד הַכֹּֽהֲנִ֖ים עַל־מִשְׁמְרוֹתָ֑ם וַֽיְחַזְּקֵ֔ם לַֽעֲבוֹדַ֖ת בֵּ֥ית יְהֹוָֽה:
3And he said to the Levites who taught all Israel, who were holy to the Lord, "Place the Holy Ark in the House that Solomon the son of David, the king of Israel, built; you have no burden on the shoulders; now serve the Lord your God and His people Israel.   גוַיֹּ֣אמֶר לַֽ֠לְוִיִּם הַמְּבִינִ֨ים (כתיב הַמְּבִונִ֨ים) לְכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֜ל הַקְּדוֹשִׁ֣ים לַֽיהֹוָ֗ה תְּנ֚וּ אֶת־אֲרֽוֹן־הַקֹּ֙דֶשׁ֙ בַּ֠בַּיִת אֲשֶׁ֨ר בָּנָ֜ה שְׁלֹמֹ֚ה בֶן־דָּוִיד֙ מֶ֣לֶךְ יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל אֵֽין־לָכֶ֥ם מַשָּׂ֖א בַּכָּתֵ֑ף עַתָּ֗ה עִבְדוּ֙ אֶת־יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶ֔ם וְאֵ֖ת עַמּ֥וֹ יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
Place the Holy Ark: According to its simple meaning, [they were to return it to its place] because Manasseh and Amon had removed the Holy Ark and placed their graven images in its place, as is proven above (33:7) concerning Manasseh: “And he placed the graven image of the idol, etc.” Therefore, Josiah commanded to return it and to place the Ark in the place that Solomon had built for it, but our Rabbis said (Yoma 42b) that he commanded the Levites to hide it there.  
you have no burden on the shoulders: This is another argument and the beginning of a statement. He said to them. You have no more toil of carrying a burden on your shoulders, i.e., all the vessels of the House of the Lord. You can no longer say, “Because of the toil of the burdens on our shoulders, we cannot serve the Lord and His people.” Therefore, from now on, serve the Lord your God with song and His people Israel by slaughtering and flaying their Passover sacrifices, as is proven below (verse 6): “And slaughter the Passover sacrifice and prepare yourselves, etc.”  
4And prepare yourselves for your fathers' houses according to your divisions, according to the writing of David king of Israel and according to the writing of Solomon his son.   דוְהָכִ֥ינוּ (כתיב וְהָכִ֥ונוּ) לְבֵֽית־אֲבֹֽתֵיכֶ֖ם כְּמַחְלְקֽוֹתֵיכֶ֑ם בִּכְתָ֗ב דָּוִיד֙ מֶ֣לֶךְ יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וּבְמִכְתַּ֖ב שְׁלֹמֹ֥ה בְנֽוֹ:
5And stand in the Sanctuary according to the divisions of the fathers' houses of your brethren the members of the people, and [let there be for each] a division of the fathers' houses of the Levites.   הוְעִמְד֣וּ בַקֹּ֗דֶשׁ לִפְלֻגּוֹת֙ בֵּ֣ית הָֽאָב֔וֹת לַֽאֲחֵיכֶ֖ם בְּנֵ֣י הָעָ֑ם וַֽחֲלֻקַּ֥ת בֵּֽית־אָ֖ב לַֽלְוִיִּֽם:
according to the divisions: in divisions to make the Passover sacrifice according to its law, according to the word of the Lord by the hand of Moses.  
6And slaughter the Passover sacrifice and sanctify yourselves and prepare your brethren to do according to the word of the Lord by the hand of Moses."   ווְשַֽׁחֲט֖וּ הַפָּ֑סַח וְהִֽתְקַדְּשׁוּ֙ וְהָכִ֣ינוּ לַֽאֲחֵיכֶ֔ם לַֽעֲשׂ֥וֹת כִּדְבַר־יְהֹוָ֖ה בְּיַד־מֹשֶֽׁה:
7And Josiah separated for the members of the people-small cattle; lambs and young goats, all for the Passover sacrifices for all that were present, for the number of thirty thousand, and large cattle-three thousand; these were from the king's property.   זוַיָּ֣רֶם יֹֽאשִׁיָּ֣הוּ לִבְנֵ֪י הָעָ֠ם֩ צֹ֞אן כְּבָשִׂ֣ים וּבְנֵֽי־עִזִּים֘ הַכֹּ֣ל לַפְּסָחִים֒ לְכָל־הַנִּמְצָ֗א לְמִסְפַּר֙ שְׁלֹשִׁ֣ים אֶ֔לֶף וּבָקָ֖ר שְׁלֹ֣שֶׁת אֲלָפִ֑ים אֵ֖לֶּה מֵֽרְכ֥וּשׁ הַמֶּֽלֶךְ:
And Josiah separated for the members of the people: Heb. ויָּרֶם. An example is (Num. 18:28): “So shall you too separate (תָּרִימוּ) ,” an expression of separation.  
for all that were present: He separated small cattle for the Passover sacrifices for all the Israelites present.  
for the number of thirty thousand: of small cattle, of lambs, and goats.  
and large cattle-three thousand: for Festival peace offerings.  
8And his officers separated for the people, for the priests, and for the Levites. Hilkiah, Zechariah, and Jehiel, the rulers of the House of God, gave the priests for the Passover sacrifices two thousand and six hundred [small cattle], and large cattle, three hundred.   חוְשָׂרָ֞יו לִנְדָבָ֥ה לָעָ֛ם לַכֹּֽהֲנִ֥ים וְלַֽלְוִיִּ֖ם הֵרִ֑ימוּ חִלְקִיָּ֨ה וּזְכַרְיָ֜הוּ וִֽיחִיאֵ֗ל נְגִידֵי֙ בֵּ֣ית הָֽאֱלֹהִ֔ים לַכֹּֽהֲנִ֞ים נָֽתְנ֣וּ לַפְּסָחִ֗ים אַלְפַּ֙יִם֙ וְשֵׁ֣שׁ מֵא֔וֹת וּבָקָ֖ר שְׁלֹ֥שׁ מֵאֽוֹת:
9And Chonaniah and Shemaiah and Nethanel his brethren, and Hashabiah the chiefs of the Levites, separated for the Levites for the Passover sacrifices five thousand [small cattle], and five hundred large cattle.   טוְ֠כָֽנַנְיָהוּ (כתיב וְ֠כָֽונַנְיָהוּ) וּשְׁמַֽעְיָ֨הוּ וּנְתַנְאֵ֜ל אֶחָ֗יו וַֽחֲשַׁבְיָ֧הוּ וִֽיעִיאֵ֛ל וְיֽוֹזָבָ֖ד שָׂרֵ֣י הַֽלְוִיִּ֑ם הֵרִ֨ימוּ לַֽלְוִיִּ֚ם לַפְּסָחִים֙ חֲמֵ֣שֶׁת אֲלָפִ֔ים וּבָקָ֖ר חֲמֵ֥שׁ מֵאֽוֹת:
10And the service was established, and the priests stood in their place and the Levites in their divisions, according to the command of the king.   יוַתִּכּ֖וֹן הָֽעֲבוֹדָ֑ה וַיַּֽעַמְד֨וּ הַכֹּֽהֲנִ֧ים עַל־עָמְדָ֛ם וְהַֽלְוִיִּ֥ם עַל־מַחְלְקוֹתָ֖ם כְּמִצְוַ֥ת הַמֶּֽלֶךְ:
11And they slaughtered the Passover sacrifice, and the priests sprinkled with their hand, and the Levites were flaying.   יאוַיִּשְׁחֲט֖וּ הַפָּ֑סַח וַיִּזְרְק֚וּ הַכֹּֽהֲנִים֙ מִיָּדָ֔ם וְהַֽלְוִיִּ֖ם מַפְשִׁיטִֽים:
12And they removed the burnt-offerings to give them to the divisions of the fathers' houses of the members of the people to sacrifice to the Lord, as is written in the Book of Moses, and so for the large cattle.   יבוַיָּסִ֨ירוּ הָֽעֹ֜לָה לְ֠תִתָּם לְמִפְלַגּ֚וֹת לְבֵֽית־אָבוֹת֙ לִבְנֵ֣י הָעָ֔ם לְהַקְרִיב֙ לַֽיהֹוָ֔ה כַּכָּת֖וּב בְּסֵ֣פֶר מֹשֶׁ֑ה וְכֵ֖ן לַבָּקָֽר:
13And they cooked the Passover sacrifice with fire according to the law, and the hallowed things they cooked in pots and in cauldrons and in pans and carried them quickly to all the members of the people.   יגוַֽיְבַשְּׁל֥וּ הַפֶּ֛סַח בָּאֵ֖שׁ כַּמִּשְׁפָּ֑ט וְהַקֳּדָשִׁ֣ים בִּשְּׁל֗וּ בַּסִּיר֚וֹת וּבַדְּוָדִים֙ וּבַצֵּ֣לָח֔וֹת וַיָּרִ֖יצוּ לְכָל־בְּנֵ֥י הָעָֽם:
And they cooked the Passover sacrifice with fire according to the law: Exod. 12:8): “Roasted with fire.”  
and carried them quickly to all the members of the people: [i.e.] the Levites [did this]; and after they had prepared for all Israel, the Levites prepared for themselves and for the priests, who did not have time to prepare.  
14And afterwards, they prepared for themselves and for the priests, because the priests, the sons of Aaron were [engaged] in offering up the burnt-offerings and the fats until night; and the Levites prepared for themselves and for the priests, the sons of Aaron.   ידוְאַחַ֗ר הֵכִ֚ינוּ לָהֶם֙ וְלַכֹּ֣הֲנִ֔ים כִּ֚י הַכֹּֽהֲנִים֙ בְּנֵ֣י אַֽהֲרֹ֔ן בְּהַֽעֲל֛וֹת הָֽעוֹלָ֥ה וְהַֽחֲלָבִ֖ים עַד־לָ֑יְלָה וְהַֽלְוִיִּם֙ הֵכִ֣ינוּ לָהֶ֔ם וְלַכֹּֽהֲנִ֖ים בְּנֵ֥י אַֽהֲרֹֽן:
15And the singers, the sons of Asaph were in their place according to the command of David and Asaph and Heman and Jeduthun, the king's seer, and the gate sentries for each gate; there was no need for them to depart from their service, for their brethren the Levites prepared for them.   טווְהַֽמְשֹֽׁרְרִ֨ים בְּנֵֽי־אָסָ֜ף עַל־מַֽעֲמָדָ֗ם כְּמִצְוַ֚ת דָּוִיד֙ וְאָסָ֔ף וְהֵימָ֚ן וִֽידֻתוּן֙ חוֹזֵ֣ה הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ וְהַשֹּֽׁעֲרִ֖ים לְשַׁ֣עַר וָשָׁ֑עַר אֵ֣ין לָהֶ֗ם לָסוּר֙ מֵעַ֣ל עֲבֹֽדָתָ֔ם כִּֽי־אֲחֵיהֶ֥ם הַֽלְוִיִּ֖ם הֵכִ֥ינוּ לָהֶֽם:
the king’s seer: Each one was a seer.  
16And the service of the Lord was well established on that day, to perform the Passover sacrifice and to offer up burnt-offerings on the altar of the Lord, according to the command of King Josiah.   טזוַ֠תִּכּוֹן כָּל־עֲבוֹדַ֨ת יְהֹוָ֜ה בַּיּ֚וֹם הַהוּא֙ לַֽעֲשׂ֣וֹת הַפֶּ֔סַח וְהַֽעֲל֣וֹת עֹל֔וֹת עַ֖ל מִזְבַּ֣ח יְהֹוָ֑ה כְּמִצְוַ֖ת הַמֶּ֥לֶךְ יֹֽאשִׁיָּֽהוּ:
17And the Children of Israel who were present performed the Passover sacrifice at that time, and the Festival of Matzoth seven days.   יזוַיַּֽעֲשׂ֨וּ בְנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֧ל הַנִּמְצְאִ֛ים אֶת־הַפֶּ֖סַח בָּעֵ֣ת הַהִ֑יא וְאֶת־חַ֥ג הַמַּצּ֖וֹת שִׁבְעַ֥ת יָמִֽים:
18And such a Passover sacrifice had not been made in Israel since the days of Samuel the prophet; and neither did any of the kings of Israel make such a Passover as Josiah did, and the priests, the Levites, and all of Judah and Israel that were present, and the inhabitants of Jerusalem.   יחוְלֹא־נַֽעֲשָׂ֨ה פֶ֚סַח כָּמֹ֙הוּ֙ בְּיִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל מִימֵ֖י שְׁמוּאֵ֣ל הַנָּבִ֑יא וְכָל־מַלְכֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֣ל| לֹֽא־עָשׂ֡וּ כַּפֶּ֣סַח אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂ֣ה יֹֽ֠אשִׁיָּהוּ וְהַכֹּֽהֲנִ֨ים וְהַֽלְוִיִּ֚ם וְכָל־יְהוּדָה֙ וְיִשְׂרָאֵ֣ל הַנִּמְצָ֔א וְיֽוֹשְׁבֵ֖י יְרֽוּשָׁלִָֽם:
And such a Passover sacrifice had not been made: In II Kings (23:22) it is written: “For such a Passover sacrifice had not been performed since the time of the judges,” since the day that Israel was divided into two kingdoms, when the ten tribes separated from the kings of Judah and crowned a king over themselves. For all the time that they were two nations, the tribes of Judah and Benjamin made a Passover sacrifice for the sake of the Lord in Jerusalem, and these [made one] for the sake of pagan deities in Beth-El and in Dan. And this did not occur all the days of the judges, until Israel was divided into two families, and every generation had only one judge, and that judge would compel them to walk in the way of the Lord, as is explained in Judges (2: 18): “and the Lord was with the judge and saved them from the hand of their enemies all the days of the judge.” And all the ten tribes would go to Shiloh and make a Passover sacrifice for the sake of the Lord. But such a Passover sacrifice had not been made all the days of the kings of Israel and Judah, that they should make a Passover sacrifice together. But in the days of Josiah, when the kingdom of the ten tribes had already ceased to exist, for since Jeremiah had returned the ten tribes, they did not crown another king, but Josiah reigned over them, and they all made a Passover sacrifice together in Jerusalem. This is the meaning of: “such a Passover sacrifice had not been performed… to the Lord in Jerusalem.” This interpretation, however, misleads me very much, and does not appear correct to me, for although Jeremiah had returned the ten tribes and Josiah reigned over them in Jerusalem, how is it possible that they did not make such a Passover sacrifice all the days of the judges and in the days of Samuel the Seer and in the days of David and Solomon, when Israel was dwelling in its land in peace and tranquility, and they had only one king, and their hearts were directed toward Heaven? Rather, this is the explanation, and this is the way Rabbi Eliezer the son of Rabbi Meshullam interpreted it to me: “And such a Passover sacrifice had not been made” ever, [it had never happened] that the king and the officers should supply enough animals for the Passover sacrifices and cattle for the festive peace offerings, and that he commanded the Levites to prepare for them and send each person according to how much he could eat.  
19In the eighteenth year of the reign of Josiah, this Passover sacrifice was made.   יטבִּשְׁמוֹנֶ֚ה עֶשְׂרֵה֙ שָׁנָ֔ה לְמַלְכ֖וּת יֹֽאשִׁיָּ֑הוּ נַֽעֲשָׂ֖ה הַפֶּ֥סַח הַזֶּֽה:
20After all this, that Josiah had prepared the Temple, Neco, the king of Egypt, went up to wage war in Carchemish on the Euphrates, and Josiah went forth toward him.   כאַֽחֲרֵ֣י כָל־זֹ֗את אֲשֶׁ֨ר הֵכִ֚ין יֹֽאשִׁיָּ֙הוּ֙ אֶת־הַבַּ֔יִת עָלָ֞ה נְכ֧וֹ מֶֽלֶךְ־מִצְרַ֛יִם לְהִלָּחֵ֥ם בְּכַרְכְּמִ֖ישׁ עַל־פְּרָ֑ת וַיֵּצֵ֥א לִקְרָאת֖וֹ יֹֽאשִׁיָּֽהוּ:
After all this, that Josiah had prepared the Temple, Neco, the king of Egypt, went up: Scripture decries and laments Josiah, for a miracle was not performed for him as it had been for Hezekiah, about whom it is written (32:1): “After these deeds of integrity, Sennacherib the king of Assyria came” upon Hezekiah, and a miracle was performed for him.  
went up to wage war in Carchemish on the Euphrates: against the king of Assyria. So it is written in (II) Kings (23:29), and he wished to pass to him through the land of Israel, and Pharaoh Neco could not go to him by the way of the Euphrates River unless he were to pass through Israel, for Egypt is south of the land of Israel, and the Euphrates River is north of the land of Israel.  
went forth toward him: for he interpreted (Lev. 26:6): “and a sword will not pass through your land” to mean that even peaceful armies passing through the land [to attack other countries] should not pass through your land, but he was unaware of “the sin of the scorners of the generation, who arose to set up [idolatrous symbols] behind the door,” [i.e., he did not know that his generation found but little favor in God’s eyes], as is explained in Tractate Taanith (22b)  
21And he sent messengers to him, saying, "What have I to do with you, king of Judah? Not against you yourself [do I go] today, but to my place of war, and God said to hasten me. Desist from the god who is with me, and he will not destroy you."   כאוַיִּשְׁלַ֣ח אֵלָ֣יו מַלְאָכִ֣ים| לֵאמֹר֩| מַה־לִּ֨י וָלָ֜ךְ מֶ֣לֶךְ יְהוּדָ֗ה לֹֽא־עָלֶ֨יךָ אַתָּ֚ה הַיּוֹם֙ כִּי אֶל־בֵּ֣ית מִלְחַמְתִּ֔י וֵֽאלֹהִ֖ים אָמַ֣ר לְבַֽהֲלֵ֑נִי חֲדַל־לְךָ֛ מֵֽאֱלֹהִ֥ים אֲשֶׁר־עִמִּ֖י וְאַל־יַשְׁחִיתֶֽךָ:
22But Josiah did not turn his face away from him, but he disguised himself to wage war with him, and he did not hearken to the words of Neco from the mouth of God, and he came to wage war in the valley of Megiddo.   כבוְלֹֽא־הֵסֵב֩ יֹֽאשִׁיָּ֨הוּ פָנָ֜יו מִמֶּ֗נּוּ כִּ֚י לְהִלָּֽחֶם־בּוֹ֙ הִתְחַפֵּ֔שׂ וְלֹ֥א שָׁמַ֛ע אֶל־דִּבְרֵ֥י נְכ֖וֹ מִפִּ֣י אֱלֹהִ֑ים וַיָּבֹ֕א לְהִלָּחֵ֖ם בְּבִקְעַ֥ת מְגִדּֽוֹ:
and he did not hearken to the words of Neco from the mouth of God: who said to him from the mouth of God, for so said Isaiah, (19:2): “And I will stir up Egyptians against Egyptians.” This is what the Kallir composed: “He withheld his troops from marching to Aram Naharaim, in order that no single sword should pass through Ephraim; and he did not hearken to the prophet to turn back, for it was decreed that Egyptian be set against Egyptian.”  
23And the archers shot at King Josiah, and the king said to his servants, "Take me away, for I am sorely stricken!"   כגוַיֹּרוּ֙ הַיֹּרִ֔ים לַמֶּ֖לֶךְ יֹאשִׁיָּ֑הוּ וַיֹּ֨אמֶר הַמֶּ֚לֶךְ לַֽעֲבָדָיו֙ הַֽעֲבִיר֔וּנִי כִּ֥י הָֽחֳלֵ֖יתִי מְאֹֽד:
24And his servants took him away from the chariot, and they put him into his second chariot and brought him to Jerusalem, and he died and was buried in the graves of his forefathers, and all of Judah and Jerusalem were mourning for Josiah.   כדוַיַּֽעֲבִירֻ֨הוּ עֲבָדָ֜יו מִן־הַמֶּרְכָּבָ֗ה וַיַּרְכִּיבֻהוּ֘ עַ֣ל רֶ֣כֶב הַמִּשְׁנֶה֘ אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ֒ וַיּֽוֹלִיכֻ֙הוּ֙ יְר֣וּשָׁלִַ֔ם וַיָּ֕מָת וַיִּקָּבֵ֖ר בְּקִבְר֣וֹת אֲבֹתָ֑יו וְכָל־יְהוּדָה֙ וִיר֣וּשָׁלִַ֔ם מִֽתְאַבְּלִ֖ים עַל־יֹאשִׁיָּֽהוּ:
into his second chariot: for it was customary for the king to ride on two chariots; he rode mainly on the first, but if necessary, he would ride on the second. The first one went before them, and when he was stricken, they put him into the second chariot.  
25And Jeremiah lamented Josiah, and all the male and female singers spoke of Josiah in their lamentations until this day, and they made them a statute over Israel, and behold, they are written in the lamentations.   כהוַיְקוֹנֵ֣ן יִרְמְיָהוּ֘ עַל־יֹֽאשִׁיָּהוּ֒ וַיֹּאמְר֣וּ כָל־הַשָּׁרִ֣ים| וְ֠הַשָּׁרוֹת בְּקִינ֨וֹתֵיהֶ֚ם עַל־יֹֽאשִׁיָּ֙הוּ֙ עַד־הַיּ֔וֹם וַיִּתְּנ֥וּם לְחֹ֖ק עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וְהִנָּ֥ם כְּתוּבִ֖ים עַל־הַקִּינֽוֹת:
And all the male… singers: הַשָּׁרִים, an expression of song, choristers, for both song and lamentation are recited with the same voice. Concerning him, Amos prophesied (8:9): “and I will cause the sun to set at midday, and I will darken the land on a sunny day.” This is the day of Josiah, who died at the age of thirty-nine, in the middle of his days, for it is written (Ps. 90:10): “The days of our years because of them are seventy years,” and it is written (Amos 8:10): “And I will turn your festivals into mourning, and all your songs into lamentation, etc. and I will make it like the mourning for an only son, and its end like a bitter day.” This is what [the Chronicler] says: “And all the male and female singers said in their lamentations”, “and all of Judah and Jerusalem were mourning” for him.  
and they made them a statute: When any grief or weeping befalls them, for which they lament and weep, they mention this grief with it. An example is the Ninth of Av, in which we recite lamentations for those slain in the persecutions that occurred in our times. They will similarly bewail the day of Josiah’s death. An example is (Jud. 11:39f.): “and it became a statute in Israel, etc. to lament the daughter of Jephthah the Gileadite, four days in a year.”  
and behold, they are written in the lamentations: in the Book of Lamentations.  
26And the rest of the affairs of Josiah and his kind deeds, as are written in the Law of the Lord.   כווְיֶ֛תֶר דִּבְרֵ֥י יֹֽאשִׁיָּ֖הוּ וַֽחֲסָדָ֑יו כַּכָּת֖וּב בְּתוֹרַ֥ת יְהֹוָֽה:
and his kind deeds: And in II Kings (23:25) it is written: “Now, before him there was no king like him.” This is what is stated here: “Behold they are written in the Book of the Kings of Israel and Judah.”  
27And his early and late affairs-behold they are written in the book of the kings of Israel and Judah.   כזוּדְבָרָ֕יו הָרִֽאשֹׁנִ֖ים וְהָאַֽחֲרֹנִ֑ים הִנָּ֣ם כְּתוּבִ֔ים עַל־סֵ֥פֶר מַלְכֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל וִֽיהוּדָֽה: