Chapter 21

1And Jehoshaphat slept with his forefathers and was buried with his forefathers in the City of David, and Jehoram his son reigned in his stead.   אוַיִּשְׁכַּ֚ב יְהֽוֹשָׁפָט֙ עִם־אֲבֹתָ֔יו וַיִּקָּבֵ֥ר עִם־אֲבֹתָ֖יו בְּעִ֣יר דָּוִ֑יד וַיִּמְלֹ֛ךְ יְהוֹרָ֥ם בְּנ֖וֹ תַּחְתָּֽיו:
2And he had brothers, the sons of Jehoshaphat; Azariah, Jehiel, Zechariah, Azariahu, Michael, and Shephatiah; all these were the sons of Jehoshaphat the king of Israel.   בוְלֽוֹ־אַחִ֞ים בְּנֵ֣י יְהֽוֹשָׁפָ֗ט עֲזַרְיָ֚ה וִֽיחִיאֵל֙ וּזְכַרְיָ֣הוּ וַֽעֲזַרְיָ֔הוּ וּמִֽיכָאֵ֖ל וּשְׁפַטְיָ֑הוּ כָּל־אֵ֕לֶּה בְּנֵ֥י יְהֽוֹשָׁפָ֖ט מֶֽלֶךְ־יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
3And their father gave them many gifts of silver, of gold, and of precious things, with fortified cities in Judah, but the kingdom he gave to Jehoram, because he was the firstborn.   גוַיִּתֵּ֣ן לָהֶ֣ם| אֲ֠בִיהֶם מַתָּנ֨וֹת רַבּ֜וֹת לְכֶ֚סֶף וּלְזָהָב֙ וּלְמִגְדָּנ֔וֹת עִם־עָרֵ֥י מְצוּר֖וֹת בִּֽיהוּדָ֑ה וְאֶת־הַמַּמְלָכָ֛ה נָתַ֥ן לִֽיהוֹרָ֖ם כִּי־ה֥וּא הַבְּכֽוֹר:
4And Jehoram rose upon the kingdom of his father, and he strengthened himself and assassinated all his brothers with the sword, and also of the chieftains of Israel.   דוַיָּ֨קָם יְהוֹרָ֜ם עַל־מַמְלֶ֚כֶת אָבִיו֙ וַיִּתְחַזַּ֔ק וַיַּֽהֲרֹ֥ג אֶת־כָּל־אֶחָ֖יו בֶּחָ֑רֶב וְגַ֖ם מִשָּׂרֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
5Jehoram was thirty two years old when he became king, and he reigned eight years in Jerusalem.   הבֶּן־שְׁלֹשִׁ֥ים וּשְׁתַּ֛יִם שָׁנָ֖ה יְהוֹרָ֣ם בְּמָלְכ֑וֹ וּשְׁמוֹנֶ֣ה שָׁנִ֔ים מָלַ֖ךְ בִּירֽוּשָׁלִָֽם:
6And he went in the ways of the kings of Israel, as the house of Ahab did, for a daughter of Ahab became his wife, and he did that which was evil in the Lord's eyes.   ווַיֵּ֜לֶךְ בְּדֶ֣רֶךְ| מַלְכֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֚ר עָשׂוּ֙ בֵּ֣ית אַחְאָ֔ב כִּי בַּת־אַחְאָ֔ב הָ֥יְתָה לּ֖וֹ אִשָּׁ֑ה וַיַּ֥עַשׂ הָרַ֖ע בְּעֵינֵ֥י יְהֹוָֽה:
7Now the Lord was unwilling to destroy the house of David because of the covenant that He had made with David, and as He said to give him a kingdom and to his sons for all times.   זוְלֹֽא־אָבָ֣ה יְהֹוָ֗ה לְהַשְׁחִית֙ אֶת־בֵּ֣ית דָּוִ֔יד לְמַ֣עַן הַבְּרִ֔ית אֲשֶׁ֥ר כָּרַ֖ת לְדָוִ֑יד וְכַֽאֲשֶׁ֣ר אָמַ֗ר לָתֵ֨ת ל֥וֹ נִ֛יר וּלְבָנָ֖יו כָּל־הַיָּמִֽים:
a kingdom: Heb. נִיר. Its meaning is a yoke over Israel.  
8In his days, Edom rebelled from under the power of Judah, and they appointed a king over themselves.   חבְּיָמָיו֙ פָּשַׁ֣ע אֱד֔וֹם מִתַּ֖חַת יַד־יְהוּדָ֑ה וַיַּמְלִ֥יכוּ עֲלֵיהֶ֖ם מֶֽלֶךְ:
In his days, Edom rebelled, etc.: For David had destroyed all the males in Edom, and he appointed governors over them instead of a king, and they paid him tribute, and all the kings of Judah did similarly: they appointed governors who pleased them. And from the days of Joram and thereafter, they [the Edomites] rebelled against the authority of Judah.  
9And Jehoram crossed with his chieftains and all the chariots with him, and he arose at night, and he smote the Edomites who surrounded him, and the chiefs of the chariots.   טוַיַּֽעֲבֹ֚ר יְהוֹרָם֙ עִם־שָׂרָ֔יו וְכָל־הָרֶ֖כֶב עִמּ֑וֹ וַיְהִי֙ קָ֣ם לַ֔יְלָה וַיַּ֗ךְ אֶת־אֱדוֹם֙ הַסּוֹבֵ֣ב אֵלָ֔יו וְאֵ֖ת שָׂרֵ֥י הָרָֽכֶב:
who surrounded him: He smote those Edomites who surrounded him and supported him to aid him, for it was their custom that when they were victorious in war, they would seize the mighty men and bring them with them lest they join their enemies to aid the Edomites, their countrymen. In this case, he got up at night suddenly and slew them. Our Sages, however, explained “those who surrounded him” as “those near him.”  
10And Edom rebelled from under the power of Judah until this day; then Libnah rebelled at that time from under his power because he had forsaken the Lord, the God of his forefathers.   יוַיִּפְשַׁ֨ע אֱד֜וֹם מִתַּ֣חַת יַד־יְהוּדָ֗ה עַד הַיּ֣וֹם הַזֶּ֔ה אָ֣ז תִּפְשַׁ֥ע לִבְנָ֛ה בָּעֵ֥ת הַהִ֖יא מִתַּ֣חַת יָד֑וֹ כִּ֣י עָזַ֔ב אֶת־יְהֹוָ֖ה אֱלֹהֵ֥י אֲבֹתָֽיו:
And Edom rebelled: Was it not already stated above (verse 8): “In his days, Edom rebelled?” But this is the manner of Scripture: because a verse is interposed, and it now wishes to continue with “then Libnah rebelled,” it repeats the [original words] stating, “And Edom rebelled. ”  
then Libnah rebelled: It belonged to Judah, and it was situated on the border of Edom, as is written in the Book of Joshua (15:21, 42): “And the outermost cities of the tribe of the children of Judah toward the border of Edom.” When they saw that the Edomites rebelled, they too rebelled, for they lived on the border of Edom, and they aided Edom. This is [the meaning of] “then Libnah rebelled.”  
because he had forsaken the Lord, the God of his forefathers: [Scripture] explains what it was that caused them to rebel in his time more than during [the time of] the rest of the kings of Judah who preceded him.  
11He too made high places in the mountains of Judah, and led the inhabitants of Jerusalem astray, and led Judah astray.   יאגַּם־ה֛וּא עָשָׂ֥ה בָמ֖וֹת בְּהָרֵ֣י יְהוּדָ֑ה וַיֶּ֙זֶן֙ אֶת־יֹֽשְׁבֵ֣י יְרֽוּשָׁלִַ֔ם וַיַּדַּ֖ח אֶת־יְהוּדָֽה:
and led the inhabitants of Jerusalem astray: Heb. זְנוּת. It is appropriate to use the term harlotry in connection with anyone who forsakes and exchanges the fear of the Holy One, blessed be He, for the idolatry of star and planet worship - for such a person behaves in the manner of a promiscuous woman who commits adultery with others, and similar to this are (Deut. 31:16): “and this people will rise and go astray (וְזָנָה) after the foreign gods of the land” ; (Hos. 1:2): “for the land will go astray (זָנה תִזְנֶה), etc.”  
12And a letter came to him from Elijah the prophet, saying, "So said the Lord, the God of David your father: Because you did not go in the ways of Jehoshaphat your father and in the ways of Asa, the king of Judah.   יבוַיָּבֹ֚א אֵלָיו֙ מִכְתָּ֔ב מֵאֵֽלִיָּ֥הוּ הַנָּבִ֖יא לֵאמֹ֑ר כֹּ֣ה| אָמַ֣ר יְהֹוָ֗ה אֱלֹהֵי֙ דָּוִ֣יד אָבִ֔יךָ תַּ֗חַת אֲשֶׁ֚ר לֹֽא־הָלַ֙כְתָּ֙ בְּדַרְכֵי֙ יְהֽוֹשָׁפָ֣ט אָבִ֔יךָ וּבְדַרְכֵ֖י אָסָ֥א מֶ֥לֶךְ יְהוּדָֽה:
And a letter came to him from Elijah: After he had ascended to heaven, this prophetic letter came to him [i.e., to Joram].  
13And you went in the way of the kings of Israel, and you led Judah and the inhabitants of Jerusalem astray, as the house of Ahab led astray, and also you assassinated your brothers of your father's house, who were better than you.   יגוַתֵּ֗לֶךְ בְּדֶ֙רֶךְ֙ מַלְכֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וַתַּזְנֶ֚ה אֶת־יְהוּדָה֙ וְאֶת־יֹֽשְׁבֵ֣י יְרֽוּשָׁלִַ֔ם כְּהַזְנ֖וֹת בֵּ֣ית אַחְאָ֑ב וְגַ֨ם אֶת־אַחֶ֧יךָ בֵּֽית־אָבִ֛יךָ הַטּוֹבִ֥ים מִמְּךָ֖ הָרָֽגְתָּ:
14Behold the Lord will smite your people with a great plague, and your sons and your wives and all your possessions.   ידהִנֵּ֣ה יְהֹוָ֗ה נֹגֵ֛ף מַגֵּפָ֥ה גְדוֹלָ֖ה בְּעַמֶּ֑ךָ וּבְבָנֶ֥יךָ וּבְנָשֶׁ֖יךָ וּבְכָל־רְכוּשֶֽׁךָ:
15And you will have many illnesses with the illness of your bowels, until your bowels come out because of the illness, days upon days."   טווְאַתָּ֛ה בָּֽחֳלָיִ֥ים רַבִּ֖ים בְּמַֽחֲלֵ֣ה מֵעֶ֑יךָ עַד־יֵֽצְא֚וּ מֵעֶ֙יךָ֙ מִן־הַחֹ֔לִי יָמִ֖ים עַל־יָמִֽים:
16And the Lord stirred up against Jehoram the spirit of the Philistines and the Arabians, who dwell alongside the Cushites.   טזוַיָּ֨עַר יְהֹוָ֜ה עַל־יְהוֹרָ֗ם אֶת ר֚וּחַ הַפְּלִשְׁתִּים֙ וְהָ֣עַרְבִ֔ים אֲשֶׁ֖ר עַל־יַ֥ד כּוּשִֽׁים:
17And they marched upon Judah and split it, and they captured all the possessions found belonging to the king's house, and also his sons and his wives, and no son was left to him except Jehoahaz, the youngest of his sons.   יזוַיַּֽעֲל֚וּ בִֽיהוּדָה֙ וַיִּבְקָע֔וּהָ וַיִּשְׁבּ֗וּ אֵ֚ת כָּל־הָֽרְכוּשׁ֙ הַנִּמְצָ֣א לְבֵֽית־הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ וְגַם־בָּנָ֖יו וְנָשָׁ֑יו וְלֹ֚א נִשְׁאַר־לוֹ֙ בֵּ֔ן כִּ֥י אִם־יְהֽוֹאָחָ֖ז קְטֹ֥ן בָּנָֽיו:
and split it: Heb. וַיִּבְקָעוּהָ, like (Isa. 7:6): “Let us go up to Judah and provoke it and breach its walls וְנַבְקִעֶנָה and so, (II Kings 3:26): ” to break a way (לְהַבְקִיעַ) o the king of Edom."  
18And after all this, the Lord plagued him in his bowels with an incurable illness.   יחוְאַֽחֲרֵ֖י כָּל־זֹ֑את נְגָפ֨וֹ יְהֹוָ֧ה| בְּמֵעָ֛יו לָֽחֳלִ֖י לְאֵ֥ין מַרְפֵּֽא:
19And it was that in the passing of time, at the end of two years, his bowels came out by reason of his illness, and he died with malignant illnesses, and his people did not make for him a burning like the burning of his forefathers.   יטוַיְהִ֣י לְיָמִ֣ים| מִיָּמִ֡ים וּכְעֵת֩ צֵ֨את הַקֵּ֜ץ לְיָמִ֣ים| שְׁנַ֗יִם יָֽצְא֚וּ מֵעָיו֙ עִם־חָלְי֔וֹ וַיָּ֖מָת בְּתַֽחֲלֻאִ֣ים רָעִ֑ים וְלֹֽא־עָ֨שׂוּ ל֥וֹ עַמּ֛וֹ שְׂרֵפָ֖ה כִּשְׂרֵפַ֥ת אֲבֹתָֽיו:
and at the end: the end that the prophet had foretold him of.  
and his people did not make him a burning: even though he required that burning because he had been ailing with malignant illnesses, and his flesh reeked. The Holy One, blessed be He, did not wish to honor him by making a burning for him, and he was also not buried in the graves of the kings.  
20He was thirty-two years old when he began to reign, and he reigned in Jerusalem for eight years, and he departed joyless, and they buried him in the City of David, but not in the graves of the kings.   כבֶּן־שְׁלֹשִׁ֚ים וּשְׁתַּ֙יִם֙ הָיָ֣ה בְמָלְכ֔וֹ וּשְׁמוֹנֶ֣ה שָׁנִ֔ים מָלַ֖ךְ בִּירֽוּשָׁלִָ֑ם וַיֵּ֙לֶךְ֙ בְּלֹ֣א חֶמְדָּ֔ה וַֽיִּקְבְּרֻ֙הוּ֙ בְּעִ֣יר דָּוִ֔יד וְלֹ֖א בְּקִבְר֥וֹת הַמְּלָכִֽים:
and he departed joyless: The meaning is: all his life he was in distress and in illnesses, and with him was fulfilled (Deut. 30:15): “See, I have set before you today life, etc.” and (Job 14:1) “short of days and full of fear.”