Chapter 10

1And Rehoboam went to Shechem, for all Israel had come to Shechem to make him king.   אוַיֵּ֥לֶךְ רְחַבְעָ֖ם שְׁכֶ֑מָה כִּ֥י שְׁכֶ֛ם בָּ֥אוּ כָל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל לְהַמְלִ֥יךְ אֹתֽוֹ:
for all Israel had come to Shechem to make him king: In Shechem, which was Jeroboam’s place, which was in the territory of Ephraim. And Jeroboam was an Ephrathite, and all this was brought about by the Holy One, blessed be He, to fulfill His word, (I Kings 11:11): “I will surely tear the kingdom.”  
2And it was when Jeroboam the son of Nebat heard of this, and he was in Egypt where he had fled from the presence of King Solomon, that Jeroboam returned from Egypt.   בוַיְהִ֞י כִּשְׁמֹ֨עַ יָֽרָבְעָ֚ם בֶּן־נְבָט֙ וְה֣וּא בְמִצְרַ֔יִם אֲשֶׁ֣ר בָּרַ֔ח מִפְּנֵ֖י שְׁלֹמֹ֣ה הַמֶּ֑לֶךְ וַיָּ֥שָׁב יָֽרָבְעָ֖ם מִמִּצְרָֽיִם:
And it was when… heard: The meaning is: And it was when he heard - prior to this, when they came to make him [Rehoboam] king in Shechem, when he [Jeroboam] was still in Egypt.  
3And they sent and called him, and Jeroboam came, and all Israel, and they spoke to Rehoboam, saying:   גוַיִּשְׁלְחוּ֙ וַיִּקְרְאוּ־ל֔וֹ וַיָּבֹ֥א יָֽרָבְעָ֖ם וְכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וַיְדַבְּר֔וּ אֶל־רְחַבְעָ֖ם לֵאמֹֽר:
And they sent and called him, and… came: All this was to let us know the will of the Holy One, blessed be He, that even Jeroboam himself came to make Rehoboam king, but the Holy One, blessed be He, reversed his words [i.e., Jeroboam’s intention,] until Jeroboam reigned.  
4"Your father made our yoke hard, and now, lighten your father's hard work and his heavy yoke that he placed upon us, and we shall serve you."   דאָבִ֖יךָ הִקְשָׁ֣ה אֶת־עֻלֵּ֑נוּ וְעַתָּ֡ה הָקֵל֩ מֵֽעֲבוֹדַ֨ת אָבִ֜יךָ הַקָּשָׁ֗ה וּמֵֽעֻלּ֧וֹ הַכָּבֵ֛ד אֲשֶׁר־נָתַ֥ן עָלֵ֖ינוּ וְנַֽעַבְדֶֽךָּ:
Your father made our yoke hard: because he was a man who toiled at work, and he made it incumbent upon us to sustain his laborers with the tax, as it is written in I Kings (5:27): “And King Solomon raised a levy, etc.”  
5And he said to them, "Another three days, and return to me," and the people departed.   הוַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֲלֵהֶ֗ם ע֛וֹד שְׁלֹ֥שֶׁת יָמִ֖ים וְשׁ֣וּבוּ אֵלָ֑י וַיֵּ֖לֶךְ הָעָֽם:
6And King Rehoboam conferred with the elders who had stood before Solomon his father when he was alive, saying, "How do you advise to reply to this people?"   ווַיִּוָּעַ֞ץ הַמֶּ֣לֶךְ רְחַבְעָ֗ם אֶת־הַזְּקֵנִים֙ אֲשֶׁר־הָי֣וּ עֹֽמְדִ֔ים לִפְנֵי֙ שְׁלֹמֹ֣ה אָבִ֔יו בִּֽהְיֹת֥וֹ חַ֖י לֵאמֹ֑ר אֵיךְ אַתֶּ֣ם נֽוֹעָצִ֔ים לְהָשִׁ֥יב לָֽעָם־הַזֶּ֖ה דָּבָֽר:
How do you advise: Heb. נוֹעָצִים, [in the passive voice], like יוֹעֲצִים [in the active voice], and so he says from יוֹדְעִים, נוֹדָעִים. יוֹעֲצִים means the future, and נוֹעָצִים means that which they already counseled.  
7And they spoke to him saying, "If you will be kind to this people, and you will appease them and speak to them good words, they will be your servants for all times."   זוַיְדַבְּר֨וּ אֵלָ֜יו לֵאמֹ֗ר אִם־תִּֽהְיֶ֨ה לְט֜וֹב לְהָעָ֚ם הַזֶּה֙ וּרְצִיתָ֔ם וְדִבַּרְתָּ֥ אֲלֵהֶ֖ם דְּבָרִ֣ים טוֹבִ֑ים וְהָי֥וּ לְךָ֛ עֲבָדִ֖ים כָּל־הַיָּמִֽים:
8But he disregarded the counsel of the elders, which they advised him, and he conferred with the youths who had grown up with him, who were standing before him.   חוַיַּֽעֲזֹ֛ב אֶת־עֲצַ֥ת הַזְּקֵנִ֖ים אֲשֶׁ֣ר יְעָצֻ֑הוּ וַיִּוָּעַ֗ץ אֶת־הַיְלָדִים֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר גָּֽדְל֣וּ אִתּ֔וֹ הָעֹֽמְדִ֖ים לְפָנָֽיו:
9And he said to them, "What do you advise that we reply to this people, who spoke to me, saying: Lighten the yoke that your father placed upon us?"   טוַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֲלֵהֶ֗ם מָה אַתֶּ֣ם נֽוֹעָצִ֔ים וְנָשִׁ֥יב דָּבָ֖ר אֶת־הָעָ֣ם הַזֶּ֑ה אֲשֶׁ֨ר דִּבְּר֚וּ אֵלַי֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר הָקֵל֙ מִן־הָעֹ֔ל אֲשֶׁר־נָתַ֥ן אָבִ֖יךָ עָלֵֽינוּ:
10And the youths who had grown up with him spoke to him saying, "So shall you say to the people who spoke to you, saying, 'Your father made our yoke heavy, and you lighten it from upon us'; so shall you say to them, 'My little finger is thicker than my father's loins.   יוַיְדַבְּר֣וּ אִתּ֗וֹ הַיְלָדִים֙ אֲשֶׁ֨ר גָּֽדְל֣וּ אִתּוֹ֘ לֵאמֹר֒ כֹּ֣ה תֹאמַ֡ר לָעָם֩ אֲשֶׁר־דִּבְּר֨וּ אֵלֶ֜יךָ לֵאמֹ֗ר אָבִ֙יךָ֙ הִכְבִּ֣יד אֶת־עֻלֵּ֔נוּ וְאַתָּ֖ה הָקֵ֣ל מֵֽעָלֵ֑ינוּ כֹּה תֹאמַ֣ר אֲלֵהֶ֔ם קָֽטָנִּ֥י עָבָ֖ה מִמָּתְנֵ֥י אָבִֽי:
My little finger is thicker than my father’s loins: My little finger is larger than my father’s loins; i. e., I am stronger than he.  
11And now, where my father burdened you with a heavy yoke, I shall add to your yoke. My father flogged you with whips, but I [shall do so] with scorpions.' "   יאוְעַתָּ֗ה אָבִי֙ הֶעְמִ֚יס עֲלֵיכֶם֙ עֹ֣ל כָּבֵ֔ד וַֽאֲנִ֖י אֹסִ֣יף עַל־עֻלְּכֶ֑ם אָבִ֗י יִסַּ֚ר אֶתְכֶם֙ בַּשּׁוֹטִ֔ים וַֽאֲנִ֖י בָּֽעַקְרַבִּֽים:
burdened: Heb. הֶעֱמִיס, loaded, like (Gen. 44:13): “and each man loaded (וַיַּעֲמס) his donkey.”  
with scorpions: Brimmen in German, which sting like scorpions.  
12And Jeroboam and all the people came to Rehoboam on the third day, as the king had spoken, saying, "Return to me on the third day."   יבוַיָּבֹ֨א יָֽרָבְעָ֧ם וְכָל־הָעָ֛ם אֶל־רְחַבְעָ֖ם בַּיּ֣וֹם הַשְּׁלִשִׁ֑י כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֨ר דִּבֶּ֚ר הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר שׁ֥וּבוּ אֵלַ֖י בַּיּ֥וֹם הַשְּׁלִשִֽׁי:
13And the king answered them harshly, and King Rehoboam disregarded the counsel of the elders.   יגוַיַּֽעֲנֵ֥ם הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ קָשָׁ֑ה וַיַּֽעֲזֹב֙ הַמֶּ֣לֶךְ רְחַבְעָ֔ם אֵ֖ת עֲצַ֥ת הַזְּקֵנִֽים:
14And he spoke to them according to the counsel of the youths, saying, "[My father] made your yoke heavy, and I shall add to it; my father flogged you with whips, but I [shall do so] with scorpions."   ידוַיְדַבֵּ֣ר אֲלֵהֶ֗ם כַּֽעֲצַ֚ת הַיְלָדִים֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר אַכְבִּיד֙ אֶת־עֻלְּכֶ֔ם וַֽאֲנִ֖י אֹסִ֣יף עָלָ֑יו אָבִ֗י יִסַּ֚ר אֶתְכֶם֙ בַּשּׁוֹטִ֔ים וַֽאֲנִ֖י בָּֽעַקְרַבִּֽים:
15And the king did not heed the people because it was brought about by God, so that the Lord might establish His word that He spoke by the hand of Ahijah the Shilonite to Jeroboam the son of Nebat.   טווְלֹֽא־שָׁמַ֥ע הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ אֶל־הָעָ֑ם כִּי־הָֽיְתָ֚ה נְסִבָּה֙ מֵעִ֣ם הָֽאֱלֹהִ֔ים לְמַעַן֩ הָקִ֨ים יְהֹוָ֜ה אֶת־דְּבָר֗וֹ אֲשֶׁ֚ר דִּבֶּר֙ בְּיַד֙ אֲחִיָּ֣הוּ הַשִּֽׁלוֹנִ֔י אֶל־יָֽרָבְעָ֖ם בֶּן־נְבָֽט:
because it was brought about, etc. so that the Lord God might establish His word: as is delineated in I Kings (11:31-37), to remove from him the ten tribes and to give them to Jeroboam, and this is the meaning of (Gen. 49:10): “The scepter will not depart from Judah” [meaning that] he will not be banished from his kingdom, “until he comes to Shiloh,” meaning until Judah comes to Shiloh to crown Rehoboam there, and there “peoples will gather to him” to crown him, and there the kingdom was divided, and the reign over the ten tribes was lost. Now Shechem is a small city adjacent to Shiloh, as it is written at the end of Judges (21: 19): “Behold, there is a sacrifice before the Lord in Shiloh from time to time, etc. on the east side of the highway that goes up from Beth-El to Shechem,” and it is written in Jeremiah (41:5): “from Shechem (and) from Shiloh,” and in honor of the Tabernacle of Shiloh, they would gather in Shechem, which was fit for the people to assemble in, and it adjoined Shiloh. And when they would assemble in Shechem, the scepter would depart from Judah, for there the kingdom was divided.  
16And all Israel [saw] that the king had not heeded them, and the people replied to the king, saying, "What share do we have in David? And no heritage in Jesse's son. Each man, to your homes, O Israel! Now see your house, David!" And all Israel went to their homes.   טזוְכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל כִּ֠י לֹֽא־שָׁמַ֣ע הַמֶּלֶךְ֘ לָהֶם֒ וַיָּשִׁ֣יבוּ הָעָ֣ם| אֶת־הַמֶּ֣לֶךְ| לֵאמֹ֡ר מַה־לָּנוּ֩ חֵ֨לֶק בְּדָוִ֜יד וְלֹא־נַֽחֲלָ֣ה בְּבֶן־יִשַׁ֗י אִ֚ישׁ לְאֹֽהָלֶ֙יךָ֙ יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל עַתָּ֕ה רְאֵ֥ה בֵֽיתְךָ֖ דָּוִ֑יד וַיֵּ֥לֶךְ כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל לְאֹֽהָלָֽיו:
Each man to your homes, O Israel: This refers back to, “What share do we have in David?” Why should we leave our homes and follow him? Not so, but all Israel, return each man to his home.  
Now see your house, David: This refers back to, “And no heritage in Jesse’s son,” i.e., we have no heritage in him, but in the Temple in Jerusalem, where we sacrifice and appear on the three Pilgrimage Festivals.  
see your house, David: We do not need it to go there. Let it be yours alone. (But all this does not appeal to me) but, “See your house, David we have no desire either in you or in your Temple.”  
17But the Children of Israel who dwelt in the cities of Judah-Rehoboam reigned over them.   יזוּבְנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל הַיֹּֽשְׁבִ֖ים בְּעָרֵ֣י יְהוּדָ֑ה וַיִּמְלֹ֥ךְ עֲלֵיהֶ֖ם רְחַבְעָֽם:
18And King Rehoboam sent Hadoram, who was appointed over the tax, and the Children of Israel pelted him with stones and he died, and King Rehoboam exerted himself to get up into his chariot to flee to Jerusalem.   יחוַיִּשְׁלַ֞ח הַמֶּ֣לֶךְ רְחַבְעָ֗ם אֶת־הֲדֹרָם֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר עַל־הַמַּ֔ס וַיִּרְגְּמוּ־ב֧וֹ בְנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֛ל אֶ֖בֶן וַיָּמֹ֑ת וְהַמֶּ֣לֶךְ רְחַבְעָ֗ם הִתְאַמֵּץ֙ לַֽעֲל֣וֹת בַּמֶּרְכָּבָ֔ה לָנ֖וּס יְרֽוּשָׁלִָֽם:
Hadoram: He is identical with Adoniram (I Kings 4:6), for during Solomon’s time, he enjoyed great eminence, but in Rehoboam’s time his greatness was humbled. Therefore, he was called Hadoram.  
and the Children of Israel pelted him with stones: and because Rehoboam did not know the cause of the rebellion in which they turned away from him, he was slain when he requested the levy that Solomon had levied upon them.  
19And the Israelites rebelled against the house of David until this day.   יטוַיִּפְשְׁע֚וּ יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ בְּבֵ֣ית דָּוִ֔יד עַ֖ד הַיּ֥וֹם הַזֶּֽה:
And the Israelites rebelled against the house of David: Heb. וַיִפְשְׁעוּ, an expression of rebellion. Examples are (II Kings 1:1): “ Moab rebelled (וַיִפְשַׁע) against Israel” ; (Prov. 18:19): “A rebellious (נִפְשַׁע) brother” ; (below 27: 19): “then Libnah rebelled (תִּפְשַׁע).”