Chapter 10

1And the Philistines fought with Israel, and the men of Israel fled from before the Philistines, and they fell slain on Mount Gilboa.   אוּפְלִשְׁתִּ֖ים נִלְחֲמ֣וּ בְיִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וַיָּ֚נָס אִֽישׁ־יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ מִפְּנֵ֣י פְלִשְׁתִּ֔ים וַיִּפְּל֥וּ חֲלָלִ֖ים בְּהַ֥ר גִּלְבֹּֽעַ:
And the Philistines fought with Israel: He relates only Saul’s downfall; when relating the story of David, he does not tell of his disgrace, only of his heroism and greatness, because the Book pertains to him and to the kings of Judah.  
2And the Philistines pursued closely after Saul and his sons, and the Philistines smote Jonathan, and Abinadab, and Malchi-shua, the sons of Saul.   בוַיַּדְבְּק֣וּ פְלִשְׁתִּ֔ים אַֽחֲרֵ֥י שָׁא֖וּל וְאַֽחֲרֵ֣י בָנָ֑יו וַיַּכּ֣וּ פְלִשְׁתִּ֗ים אֶת־יֽוֹנָתָ֧ן וְאֶת־אֲבִֽינָדָ֛ב וְאֶת־מַלְכִּי־שׁ֖וּעַ בְּנֵ֥י שָׁאֽוּל:
3And the battle bore heavily on Saul, and the archers discovered him, and he was terrified of the archers.   גוַתִּכְבַּ֚ד הַמִּלְחָמָה֙ עַל־שָׁא֔וּל וַיִּמְצָאֻ֖הוּ הַמּוֹרִ֣ים בַּקָּ֑שֶׁת וַיָּ֖חֶל מִן־הַיּוֹרִֽים:
and the archers discovered him: Come and see that (Prov. 21:30): “… there is neither wisdom nor understanding, etc. against the Lord,” because man’s ways are before the Lord. Benjamin’s enemies would fall before them [when they used] the bow because they were well trained with the bow, as it is written: “[Ehud the son of Gera, the Benjamite,] a man with a shriveled right hand,” (Judges 3:15). And so it is written, concerning Jonathan (I Samuel 20:20): “And I shall shoot three arrows to the side, as though I shot at a mark.” And it is written below (I Chron. 12:2) concerning Benjamin: “Armed with bows, shooting with the right and left hands, etc.” and concerning Asa in this Book (II 14:7): “… and out of Benjamin, who bore shields and drew bows, etc.” But when the Lord turned away from Saul [who was from the tribe of Benjamin], he fell into the hands of the archers, into something that was his own craft.  
and he was terrified of the archers: וַיָחֶל like (Esther 4:4): "… and the queen was extremely terrified (וַתִּתְחַלְחַל).  
4And Saul said to his weapon-bearer, "Draw your sword and pierce me with it, lest these uncircumcised ones come upon me and make a mockery of me," but his weapon-bearer was unwilling, for he feared greatly, and Saul took the sword and fell upon it.   דוַיֹּ֣אמֶר שָׁאוּל֩ אֶל־נֹשֵׂ֨א כֵלָ֜יו שְׁלֹ֥ף חַרְבְּךָ֣| וְדָקְרֵ֣נִי בָ֗הּ פֶּן־יָבֹ֜אוּ הָֽעֲרֵלִ֚ים הָאֵ֙לֶּה֙ וְהִתְעַלְּלוּ־בִ֔י וְלֹ֚א אָבָה֙ נֹשֵׂ֣א כֵלָ֔יו כִּ֥י יָרֵ֖א מְאֹ֑ד וַיִּקַּ֚ח שָׁאוּל֙ אֶת־הַחֶ֔רֶב וַיִּפֹּ֖ל עָלֶֽיהָ:
5And his weapon-bearer saw that Saul had died, and he too fell upon the sword and died.   הוַיַּ֥רְא נֹשֵֽׂא־כֵלָ֖יו כִּ֣י מֵ֣ת שָׁא֑וּל וַיִּפֹּ֥ל גַּם־ה֛וּא עַל־הַחֶ֖רֶב וַיָּמֹֽת:
6And Saul and his three sons died, and his entire household together died.   ווַיָּ֚מָת שָׁאוּל֙ וּשְׁלֹ֣שֶׁת בָּנָ֔יו וְכָל־בֵּית֖וֹ יַחְדָּ֥ו מֵֽתוּ:
7And all the men of Israel who were in the valley saw that they fled and that Saul and his sons died, and they abandoned their cities and fled, and the Philistines came and settled in them.   זוַ֠יִּרְאוּ כָּל־אִ֨ישׁ יִשְׂרָאֵ֚ל אֲשֶׁר־בָּעֵ֙מֶק֙ כִּ֣י נָ֔סוּ וְכִי־מֵ֖תוּ שָׁא֣וּל וּבָנָ֑יו וַיַּֽעַזְב֚וּ עָרֵיהֶם֙ וַיָּנֻ֔סוּ וַיָּבֹ֣אוּ פְלִשְׁתִּ֔ים וַיֵּֽשְׁב֖וּ בָּהֶֽם:
8And it came about on the morrow that the Philistines came to strip the slain, and they found Saul and his sons lying on Mount Gilboa.   חוַיְהִי֙ מִֽמָּחֳרָ֔ת וַיָּבֹ֣אוּ פְלִשְׁתִּ֔ים לְפַשֵּׁ֖ט אֶת־הַֽחֲלָלִ֑ים וַֽיִּמְצְא֚וּ אֶת־שָׁאוּל֙ וְאֶת־בָּנָ֔יו נֹֽפְלִ֖ים בְּהַ֥ר גִּלְבֹּֽעַ:
9And they stripped him and carried off his head and his weapons, and they sent throughout the land of Philistines all around to bring the news to the priests of their idols and to the people.   טוַיַּ֨פְשִׁיטֻ֔הוּ וַיִּשְׂא֥וּ אֶת־רֹאשׁ֖וֹ וְאֶת־כֵּלָ֑יו וַיְשַׁלְּח֨וּ בְאֶֽרֶץ־פְּלִשְׁתִּ֜ים סָבִ֗יב לְבַשֵּׂ֛ר אֶת־עֲצַבֵּיהֶ֖ם וְאֶת־הָעָֽם:
10And they deposited his weapons in the temple of their gods, and his skull they impaled in the temple of Dagon.   יוַיָּשִׂ֙ימוּ֙ אֶת־כֵּלָ֔יו בֵּ֖ית אֱלֹֽהֵיהֶ֑ם וְאֶת־גֻּלְגָּלְתּ֥וֹ תָֽקְע֖וּ בֵּ֥ית דָּגֽוֹן:
11And all of Jabesh-Gilead heard all that the Philistines had done to Saul.   יאוַיִּשְׁמְע֔וּ כֹּ֖ל יָבֵ֣ישׁ גִּלְעָ֑ד אֵ֛ת כָּל־אֲשֶׁר־עָשׂ֥וּ פְלִשְׁתִּ֖ים לְשָׁאֽוּל:
12And all the valiant men arose and carried off Saul's body and the bodies of his sons and brought them to Jabesh, and they buried their bones beneath the oak in Jabesh, and they fasted seven days.   יבוַיָּקוּמוּ֘ כָּל־אִ֣ישׁ חַיִל֒ וַיִּשְׂא֞וּ אֶת־גּוּפַ֣ת שָׁא֗וּל וְאֵת֙ גּוּפֹ֣ת בָּנָ֔יו וַיְבִיא֖וּם יָבֵ֑ישָׁה וַיִּקְבְּר֨וּ אֶת־עַצְמֽוֹתֵיהֶ֜ם תַּ֚חַת הָאֵלָה֙ בְּיָבֵ֔שׁ וַיָּצ֖וּמוּ שִׁבְעַ֥ת יָמִֽים:
and brought them to Jabesh: to Jabesh Gilead  
and they fasted seven days: Why did they imperil their lives more than the rest of Israel to remove the bodies of Saul and his sons from Mount Gilboa? Because Saul had done them a favor by saving them when Nahash the Ammonite marched upon them. [They fasted seven days] corresponding to the seven days that they [the Ammonites] gave them [to see] if a savior would come [to save] them, [at which time] they fasted seven days; perhaps a savior would come to them. Since Saul came and saved them, they fasted now too seven days, and also because of the mourning which was customary to observe seven days, because they were also their kinsmen, for when Israel slew the inhabitants of Gibeah in the incident of the concubine in Gibeah (at the end of Judges), the people of Jabesh Gilead gave their daughters to Benjamin, when they grabbed them from the dances.  
13And Saul died because of the treachery that he had committed against the Lord, concerning the word of the Lord that he did not keep, and also because he had inquired of the dead spirit.   יגוַיָּ֣מָת שָׁא֗וּל בְּמַֽעֲלוֹ֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר מָעַ֣ל בַּֽיהֹוָ֔ה עַל־דְּבַ֥ר יְהֹוָ֖ה אֲשֶׁ֣ר לֹֽא־שָׁמָ֑ר וְגַם־לִשְׁא֥וֹל בָּא֖וֹב לִדְרֽוֹשׁ:
And Saul died because of the treachery that he had committed: He committed two treacherous acts by inquiring of the familiar spirit: one when he inquired after Samuel, and one when he inquired of familiar spirits, and in the Aggadah of Samuel (24:6) we learn that he committed five treacherous acts  
concerning the word of the Lord that he did not keep: that which Samuel had commanded him, as it is written (I Sam. 10:8): “Seven days shall you wait,” and because he dealt treacherously in the war of Amalek [by sparing Agag].  
14And he did not inquire of the Lord, and He slew him, and transferred the kingdom to David the son of Jesse.   ידוְלֹֽא־דָרַ֥שׁ בַּֽיהֹוָ֖ה וַיְמִיתֵ֑הוּ וַיַּסֵּב֙ אֶת־הַמְּלוּכָ֔ה לְדָוִ֖יד בֶּן־יִשָֽׁי: