Chapter 3

1The seventh month arrived, and the Children of Israel [were] in the cities, and the people gathered like one man to Jerusalem.   אוַיִּגַּע֙ הַחֹ֣דֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִ֔י וּבְנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל בֶּֽעָרִ֑ים וַיֵּאָֽסְפ֥וּ הָעָ֛ם כְּאִ֥ישׁ אֶחָ֖ד אֶל־יְרֽוּשָׁלִָֽם:
arrived: Heb. וַיִגַע like וְהִגִיעַ, it reached.  
The seventh month: That is the month of Tishri, and the Children of Israel who were in the cities, what did they do? They all gathered as one to Jerusalem.  
2And Jeshua the son of Jehozadak arose, and his brethren the priests, and Zerubbabel the son of Shealtiel, and his brethren, and they built the altar of the God of Israel, upon which to offer up burnt offerings, as it is written in the Torah of Moses, the man of God.   בוַיָּקָם֩ יֵשׁ֨וּעַ בֶּן־יֽוֹצָדָ֜ק וְאֶחָ֣יו הַכֹּֽהֲנִ֗ים וּזְרֻבָּבֶ֚ל בֶּן־שְׁאַלְתִּיאֵל֙ וְאֶחָ֔יו וַיִּבְנ֕וּ אֶת־מִזְבַּ֖ח אֱלֹהֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל לְהַֽעֲל֚וֹת עָלָיו֙ עֹל֔וֹת כַּכָּת֕וּב בְּתוֹרַ֖ת מֹשֶׁ֥ה אִֽישׁ־הָֽאֱלֹהִֽים:
3And they set the altar on its bases, for because of the fear that was upon them from the people of the lands, they offered up burnt offerings to the Lord, burnt offerings for the morning and for the evening.   גוַיָּכִ֚ינוּ הַמִּזְבֵּ֙חַ֙ עַל־מְכ֣וֹנֹתָ֔יו (כתיב מְכוֹנֹתָו) כִּי בְּאֵימָ֣ה עֲלֵיהֶ֔ם מֵֽעַמֵּ֖י הָֽאֲרָצ֑וֹת וַיַּֽעֲל֨וּ (כתיב וַיַּֽעֲלֻ֨) עָלָ֚יו עֹלוֹת֙ לַֽיהֹוָ֔ה עֹל֖וֹת לַבֹּ֥קֶר וְלָעָֽרֶב:
And they set the altar on its bases: in order to offer up sacrifices upon it, because they were afraid of the peoples of the land, lest they taunt them and lest they slander them to the king. And they built the altar to offer up burnt offerings upon it, in order that the peoples hear and understand the matter, that they did it with the sanction of the king and therefore they would hesitate to taunt them about the building of the Temple.  
for the morning and for the evening: the daily sacrifice of the morning and the daily sacrifice of twilight.  
4And they observed the feast of Succoth as is written, and the burnt offering of each day in its day, in the number, as the ordinance of each day in its day.   דוַיַּֽעֲשׂ֛וּ אֶת־חַ֥ג הַסֻּכּ֖וֹת כַּכָּת֑וּב וְעֹלַ֨ת י֚וֹם בְּיוֹם֙ בְּמִסְפָּ֔ר כְּמִשְׁפַּ֖ט דְּבַר־י֥וֹם בְּיוֹמֽוֹ:
and the burnt offering of each day in its day, in the number: the sacrifices of the Festivals in their number, according to their ordinance.  
5And afterwards [they offered] the daily burnt offering, and for the New Moon and for all the appointed seasons of the Lord that were hallowed, and for everyone who willingly offered a free-will offering to the Lord.   הוְאַֽחֲרֵי כֵ֞ן עֹלַ֚ת תָּמִיד֙ וְלֶ֣חֳדָשִׁ֔ים וּלְכָל־מֽוֹעֲדֵ֥י יְהֹוָ֖ה הַֽמְקֻדָּשִׁ֑ים וּלְכֹ֛ל מִתְנַדֵּ֥ב נְדָבָ֖ה לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
And afterwards: And after Succoth they would offer up sacrifices every day, for the morning and for the evening.  
and for the New Moon: lit. and for the months. And at the beginning of the months they would offer up the sacrifices of the New Moon.  
and for all the appointed seasons of the Lord: and for the rest of the appointed seasons of their sacrifices.  
and for everyone who willingly offered: And for all those who willingly offered their free-will offerings, the priests would accept them to sacrifice them, and from the first day of Tishri they commenced to offer up sacrifices, but the foundation of the Temple was not yet built.  
6From the first day of the seventh month they commenced to offer up burnt offerings to the Lord, but the foundation of the Temple was not yet laid.   ומִיּ֚וֹם אֶחָד֙ לַחֹ֣דֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִ֔י הֵחֵ֕לּוּ לְהַֽעֲל֥וֹת עֹל֖וֹת לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה וְהֵיכַ֥ל יְהֹוָ֖ה לֹ֥א יֻסָּֽד:
7And they gave money to the quarriers and to the artisans, and food and drink and oil to the Zidonians and to the Tyrians to bring cedar wood from Lebanon to the sea of Jaffa, by the sanction of Cyrus the king of Persia upon them.   זוַיִּ֨תְּנוּ־כֶ֔סֶף לַחֹֽצְבִ֖ים וְלֶחָֽרָשִׁ֑ים וּמַֽאֲכָ֨ל וּמִשְׁתֶּ֜ה וָשֶׁ֗מֶן לַצִּֽדֹנִים֙ וְלַצֹּרִ֔ים לְהָבִיא֩ עֲצֵ֨י אֲרָזִ֚ים מִן־הַלְּבָנוֹן֙ אֶל־יָ֣ם יָפ֔וֹא כְּרִשְׁי֛וֹן כּ֥וֹרֶשׁ מֶֽלֶךְ־פָּרַ֖ס עֲלֵיהֶֽם:
to the Zidonians and to the Tyrians: the people of Tyre and Zidon, who were the artisans who built the Temple.  
to the sea of Jaffa: By way of the sea they would bring them.  
according to the sanction of: Heb. כְּרִשְׁיוֹן as the sanction of the king was upon them to build the Temple. כְּרִשְׁיוֹן is an expression of permission (רְשּׁוּת) derived from רשּׁה; since from אבה to want, he says [i.e., derives] אֶבְיוֹן, a needy person; and from צבה, to desire, צִבְיוֹן, desire; and from חזה to see, חִזָיוֹן, a vision; and from רעה, רַעְיוֹן, thought; from חבה, חֶבְיוֹן, hiding; and from רשּׁה, he says רְשּׁוּת, permission; like from, ענה, עֱנוּת, affliction; and from שּׁבה, שְּׁבוּת, captivity; and from ראה, רְאוּת, a sight; and from זנה, זְנוּת, harlotry. The result is that רְשּׁוּת and רִשְׁיוֹן are derived from the same root according to the gauge of grammar, and they are the same expression. Menahem, (p. 34) however, associated it with (Ps. 21: 3): “and the speech of his lips (וַאֲרֶשֶּׁת),” but he was not exact with its root. Nevertheless, these two manners [of defining words] are close to each other in their meanings.  
8And in the second year of their coming to the House of God, to Jerusalem, in the second month, Zerubbabel the son of Shealtiel, and Jeshua, the son of Jozadak, and the rest of their brethren, the priests, the Levites, and all who came from the captivity to Jerusalem commenced, and they stationed the Levites from twenty years old and above to conduct the work of the House of the Lord.   חוּבַשָּׁנָ֣ה הַשֵּׁנִ֗ית לְבוֹאָ֞ם אֶל־בֵּ֚ית הָֽאֱלֹהִים֙ לִיר֣וּשָׁלִַ֔ם בַּחֹ֖דֶשׁ הַשֵּׁנִ֑י הֵחֵ֡לּוּ זְרֻבָּבֶ֣ל בֶן־שְׁ֠אַלְתִּיאֵל וְיֵשׁ֨וּעַ בֶּן־יֽוֹצָדָ֜ק וּשְׁאָ֣ר אֲחֵיהֶ֣ם | הַכֹּֽהֲנִ֣ים וְהַֽלְוִיִּ֗ם וְכָל־הַבָּאִים֙ מֵֽהַשְּׁבִ֣י יְרֽוּשָׁלִַ֔ם וַיַּֽעֲמִ֣ידוּ אֶת־הַֽלְוִיִּ֗ם מִבֶּ֨ן עֶשְׂרִ֚ים שָׁנָה֙ וָמַ֔עְלָה לְנַצֵּ֖חַ עַל־מְלֶ֥אכֶת בֵּֽית־יְהֹוָֽה:
in the second month: That is the month of Iyar.  
from the captivity: all those who came from the captivity to Jerusalem.  
and they stationed: They stationed the Levite singers to harmonize and to recite a song before the builders at the time of the building of the foundation of the Temple.  
to conduct: Heb. לְנַצֵחַ. These two expressions of נִצוּחַ are harmonies of song, like (Ps. 4:1): “To the conductor (לַּמְנַצֵחַ), a song of David.”  
9And Jeshua, his sons, and his brothers, Kadmiel and his sons, the sons of Judah, stood together to conduct the ones who did the work in the House of God, the children of Henadad, their sons, and their brothers, the Levites.   טוַיַּֽעֲמֹ֣ד יֵשׁ֡וּעַ בָּנָ֣יו וְ֠אֶחָיו קַדְמִיאֵ֨ל וּבָנָ֚יו בְּנֵֽי־יְהוּדָה֙ כְּאֶחָ֔ד לְנַצֵּ֛חַ עַל־עֹשֵׂ֥ה הַמְּלָאכָ֖ה בְּבֵ֣ית הָֽאֱלֹהִ֑ים בְּנֵי֙ חֵֽנָדָ֔ד בְּנֵיהֶ֥ם וַֽאֲחֵיהֶ֖ם הַלְוִיִּֽם:
And Jeshua… stood: They stood and recited the song together around the ones who did the work of the foundation of the Temple.  
10And the builders laid the foundation of the Temple of the Lord, and they stationed the priests in their attire with trumpets, and the Levites, the sons of Asaph, with cymbals, to praise the Lord through David the king of Israel.   יוְיִסְּד֥וּ הַבֹּנִ֖ים אֶת־הֵיכַ֣ל יְהֹוָ֑ה וַיַּֽעֲמִידוּ֩ הַכֹּֽהֲנִ֨ים מְלֻבָּשִׁ֜ים בַּֽחֲצֹֽצְר֗וֹת וְהַֽלְוִיִּ֚ם בְּנֵֽי־אָסָף֙ בַּֽמְצִלְתַּ֔יִם לְהַלֵּל֙ אֶת־יְהֹוָ֔ה עַל־יְדֵ֖י דָּוִ֥יד מֶֽלֶךְ־יִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
And… laid the foundation: וְיִסְדוּ This is the strong conjugation of יְסוֹד, like (Ezek. 25:4): “and they will settle (וְיִשְּׁבוּ) their palaces.” Just as וְיִשְּׁבוּ is derived from ישּׁב so is וְיִסְדוּ derived from יסד, and their meaning is, וְיִסְדוּ וְיִשְּׁבוּ in the intensive conjugation with two “yud” s, one for the [continuous] action and one for the radical, and their meaning is that they were laying the foundation, they were settling.  
And the builders laid the foundation: And the builders were laying the foundation [see above] of the Temple of the Lord at the time [that] they were harmonizing in their song, and they stationed the priests attired with elegant garments with trumpets in their hands to sound them.  
and the Levites the sons of Asaph: were the singers.  
with cymbals: Heb. בַּמְצִלְתַּיִם, like (Ps. 150:9): “with loud sounding cymbals (בְּצִלְצְלֵי שָּׁמַע).” They are musical instruments.  
through David: for they were harmonizing and singing songs of David, the king of Israel.  
11And they sang aloud with praise and with thanks to the Lord for it is good, for His kindness is eternal over Israel, and the entire people shouted with a great shout with praise to the Lord because the foundation of the House of the Lord was laid.   יאוַ֠יַּֽעֲנוּ בְּהַלֵּ֨ל וּבְהוֹדֹ֚ת לַֽיהֹוָה֙ כִּ֣י ט֔וֹב כִּֽי־לְעוֹלָ֥ם חַסְדּ֖וֹ עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וְכָל־הָעָ֡ם הֵרִיעוּ֩ תְרוּעָ֨ה גְדוֹלָ֚ה בְהַלֵּל֙ לַֽיהֹוָ֔ה עַ֖ל הוּסַ֥ד בֵּית־יְהֹוָֽה:
And they sang aloud: Heb. וַיַעֲנוּ, an expression of raising the voice in song, like (Exod. 15:21): “And Miriam raised her voice in song to them.”  
and with thanks: and with thanksgivings.  
for it is good: to give thanks to the Lord.  
and the entire people: the rest of the people of Israel.  
because… was laid: They acted with all these rejoicings because of the building of the foundation, which was laid in the House of the Lord.  
12And many of the priests and the Levites and the heads of the fathers' houses, old men who had seen the first Temple when its foundation was laid, [when they saw] this Temple with their eyes, were weeping with a loud voice, and many with a shout of joy to raise [their] voice.   יבוְרַבִּ֡ים מֵהַכֹּֽהֲנִ֣ים וְהַֽלְוִיִּם֩ וְרָאשֵׁ֨י הָֽאָב֜וֹת הַזְּקֵנִ֗ים אֲשֶׁ֨ר רָא֜וּ אֶת־הַבַּ֚יִת הָֽרִאשׁוֹן֙ בְּיָסְד֔וֹ זֶ֚ה הַבַּ֙יִת֙ בְּעֵ֣ינֵיהֶ֔ם בֹּכִ֖ים בְּק֣וֹל גָּד֑וֹל וְרַבִּ֛ים בִּתְרוּעָ֥ה בְשִׂמְחָ֖ה לְהָרִ֥ים קֽוֹל:
when its foundation was laid: Heb. בְּיָסְדוֹ, with its foundation. With the noun of יוֹסֶד and from יסד, he says בְּיָסְדוֹ, like from חדֶשּׁ, בְּחָדְשּׁוֹ, and from קדֶשּׁ, בְּקָדְשּׁוֹ.  
this Temple: When they would see the building of this Temple, they would weep because they remembered the large building of the First Temple.  
and many: who had not seen the building of the First Temple, were rejoicing and shouting for joy with a loud voice, out of their great joy that they had emerged from their exile.  
13And the people did not recognize the voice of the shout of joy because of the voice of the people's weeping, for the people were shouting a great shout, and the voice was heard from afar.   יגוְאֵ֣ין הָעָ֗ם מַכִּירִים֙ קוֹל תְּרוּעַ֣ת הַשִּׂמְחָ֔ה לְק֖וֹל בְּכִ֣י הָעָ֑ם כִּ֣י הָעָ֗ם מְרִיעִים֙ תְּרוּעָ֣ה גְדוֹלָ֔ה וְהַקּ֥וֹל נִשְׁמַ֖ע עַד־לְמֵֽרָחֽוֹק:
And the people did not recognize: Those listeners did not recognize the voice of the shout of joy, because of the voice of the people’s weeping, for the rejoicing people were shouting with a great shout, and the voice of weeping was heard farther and farther away.