Chapter 4

1And Boaz went up to the gate and sat down there, and behold, the kinsman of whom Boaz had spoken was passing, and he said, "Turn aside, sit down here, So-and-So," and he turned aside and sat down.   אוּבֹ֨עַז עָלָ֣ה הַשַּׁ֘עַר֘ וַיֵּ֣שֶׁב שָׁם֒ וְהִנֵּ֨ה הַגֹּאֵ֤ל עֹבֵר֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר דִּבֶּר־בֹּ֔עַז וַיֹּ֛אמֶר ס֥וּרָה שְׁבָה־פֹּ֖ה פְּלֹנִ֣י אַלְמֹנִ֑י וַיָּ֖סַר וַיֵּשֵֽׁב:
So-and-So: but his name was not written because he did not wish to redeem.  
So-and-So: Heb. פְּלֹנִי אַלְמֹנִי, rendered [into Aramaic] in the Prophets (I Sam. 21:3) as “hidden, secret.” פְּנִי covered and concealed, an expression of (Deut. 17:8): “If [a matter] be concealed (יִפָּלֵא) ” ;(Gen. 18: 14) “Is anything concealed (הֲיִפָּלֵא) from the Lord?” אַלְמֹנִי A widow (אַלְמָן), without a name. (Other editions: אַלְמֹנִי. He was widowed of words of Torah, because he should have interpreted: “an Ammonite, but not an Ammonitess; a Moabite, but not a Moabitess.” Yet he said, “lest I mar my heritage.”)  
2And he took ten men of the elders of the city and said, "Sit down here," and they sat down.   בוַיִּקַּ֞ח עֲשָׂרָ֧ה אֲנָשִׁ֛ים מִזִּקְנֵ֥י הָעִ֖יר וַיֹּ֣אמֶר שְׁבוּ־פֹ֑ה וַיֵּשֵֽׁבוּ:
3And he said to the near kinsman, "Naomi, who has returned from the field of Moab, is selling the portion of the field that belonged to our brother, to Elimelech.   גוַיֹּ֨אמֶר֙ לַגֹּאֵ֔ל חֶלְקַת֙ הַשָּׂדֶ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר לְאָחִ֖ינוּ לֶֽאֱלִימֶ֑לֶךְ מָֽכְרָ֣ה נָֽעֳמִ֔י הַשָּׁ֖בָה מִשְּׂדֵ֥ה מוֹאָֽב:
4And I said, 'I will let you know, saying: Buy [it] in the presence of those who sit here and before the elders of my people; if you will redeem, redeem; and if he will not redeem, tell me, and I will know, for there is no one besides you to redeem, and I am after you.'" And he said, "I will redeem."   דוַֽאֲנִ֨י אָמַ֜רְתִּי אֶגְלֶ֧ה אָזְנְךָ֣ לֵאמֹ֗ר קְ֠נֵ֠ה נֶ֥גֶד הַֽיֹּשְׁבִים֘ וְנֶ֣גֶד זִקְנֵ֣י עַמִּי֒ אִם־תִּגְאַל֙ גְּאָ֔ל וְאִם־לֹ֨א יִגְאַ֜ל הַגִּ֣ידָה לִּ֗י וְאֵֽדְעָ֙ה (כתיב וְאֵֽדְעָ֙) כִּ֣י אֵ֤ין זוּלָֽתְךָ֙ לִגְא֔וֹל וְאָֽנֹכִ֖י אַֽחֲרֶ֑יךָ וַיֹּ֖אמֶר אָֽנֹכִ֥י אֶגְאָֽל:
and I will know, for there is no one besides you: who is a kinsman, to redeem.  
5And Boaz said, "On the day that you buy the field from the hand of Naomi and from Ruth the Moabitess, the wife of the deceased, you have bought [it], to preserve the name of the deceased on his heritage."   הוַיֹּ֣אמֶר בֹּ֔עַז בְּיֽוֹם־קְנֽוֹתְךָ֥ הַשָּׂדֶ֖ה מִיַּ֣ד נָֽעֳמִ֑י וּ֠מֵאֵ֠ת ר֣וּת הַמּֽוֹאֲבִיָּ֤ה אֵֽשֶׁת־הַמֵּת֙ קָנִ֔יתָ (כתיב קָנִ֔יתָי) לְהָקִ֥ים שֵֽׁם־הַמֵּ֖ת עַל־נַֽחֲלָתֽוֹ:
and from Ruth the Moabitess: you must buy, and she agrees only if you marry her.  
6And the near kinsman said, "I cannot redeem [it] for myself, lest I mar my heritage. You redeem my redemption for yourself for I cannot redeem [it]."   ווַיֹּ֣אמֶר הַגֹּאֵ֗ל לֹ֤א אוּכַל֙ לִגְאָל־ (כתיב לגאול) לִ֔י פֶּן־אַשְׁחִ֖ית אֶת־נַֽחֲלָתִ֑י גְּאַל־לְךָ֤ אַתָּה֙ אֶת־גְּאֻלָּתִ֔י כִּ֥י לֹֽא־אוּכַ֖ל לִגְאֹֽל:
lest I mar my heritage: my offspring, like (Ps. 127:3): “Behold the heritage of the Lord is sons,” to give my offspring a stigma, as it is said (Deut. 23: 4): “An Ammonite or a Moabite shall not enter the congregation of the Lord,” but he erred by [not interpreting it as] “an Ammonite but not an Ammonitess.”  
7Now this was the custom in former times in Israel concerning redemption and exchange, to confirm anything, one would remove his shoe and give [it] to his fellow, and this was the attestation in Israel.   זוְזֹאת֩ לְפָנִ֨ים בְּיִשְׂרָאֵ֜ל עַל־הַגְּאוּלָּ֤ה וְעַל־הַ תְּמוּרָה֙ לְקַיֵּ֣ם כָּל־דָּבָ֔ר שָׁלַ֥ף אִ֛ישׁ נַֽעֲל֖וֹ וְנָתַ֣ן לְרֵעֵ֑ה וּ וְזֹ֥את הַתְּעוּדָ֖ה בְּיִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
concerning redemption: This is a sale.  
and exchange: This is an exchange.  
one would remove his shoe: This is an act of acquisition, as we acquire title with a scarf in lieu of a shoe, and our Rabbis of blessed memory differed on this matter: who gave [the shoe] to whom. Some say that we perform the act of acquisition with the utensil of the acquirer, and Boaz gave [the shoe] to the redeemer, and others say that we perform the act of acquisition with the utensil of the seller, and the redeemer gave [the shoe] to Boaz.  
and this was the attestation in Israel: the law of testimony.  
8And the near kinsman said to Boaz, "Buy it for yourself," and he removed his shoe.   חוַיֹּ֧אמֶר הַגֹּאֵ֛ל לְבֹ֖עַז קְנֵה־לָ֑ךְ וַיִּשְׁלֹ֖ף נַֽעֲלֽוֹ:
9And Boaz said to the elders and to the entire people, "You are witnesses today that I have bought all that was Elimelech's and all that was Chilion's and Mahlon's from Naomi.   טוַיֹּ֩אמֶר֩ בֹּ֨עַז לַזְּקֵנִ֜ים וְכָל־הָעָ֗ם עֵדִ֤ים אַתֶּם֙ הַיּ֔וֹם כִּ֤י קָנִ֨יתִי֙ אֶת־כָּל־אֲשֶׁ֣ר לֶֽאֱלִימֶ֔לֶךְ וְאֵ֛ת כָּל־אֲשֶׁ֥ר לְכִלְי֖וֹן וּמַחְל֑וֹן מִיַּ֖ד נָֽעֳמִֽי:
10And also, Ruth the Moabitess, Mahlon's wife, have I acquired for myself for a wife, to preserve the name of the deceased on his heritage, so that the name of the deceased not be obliterated from his brethren and from the gate of his place, you are witnesses today."   יוְגַ֣ם אֶת־ר֣וּת הַמֹּֽאֲבִיָּה֩ אֵ֨שֶׁת מַחְל֜וֹן קָנִ֧יתִי לִ֣י לְאִשָּׁ֗ה לְהָקִ֤ים שֵֽׁם־הַמֵּת֙ עַל־נַ֣חֲלָת֔וֹ וְלֹֽא־יִכָּרֵ֧ת שֵֽׁם־הַמֵּ֛ת מֵעִ֥ם אֶחָ֖יו וּמִשַּׁ֣עַר מְקוֹמ֑וֹ עֵדִ֥ים אַתֶּ֖ם הַיּֽוֹם:
to preserve the name of the deceased on his heritage: Since his wife comes and goes on the estate and brings in and takes out, people say, “This is Mahlon’s wife,” and his name is remembered upon it.  
11And all the people who were in the gate and the elders replied, "[We are] witnesses! May the Lord make the woman who is entering your house like Rachel and like Leah, both of whom built up the house of Israel, and prosper in Ephrathah and be famous in Bethlehem.   יאוַיֹּ֨אמְר֜וּ כָּל־הָעָ֧ם אֲשֶׁר־בַּשַּׁ֛עַר וְהַזְּקֵנִ֖ים עֵדִ֑ים יִתֵּן֩ יְהֹוָ֨ה אֶת־הָֽאִשָּׁ֜ה הַבָּאָ֣ה אֶל־בֵּיתֶ֗ךָ כְּרָחֵ֤ל | וּכְלֵאָה֙ אֲשֶׁ֨ר בָּנ֤וּ שְׁתֵּיהֶם֙ אֶת־בֵּ֣ית יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וַֽעֲשֵׂה־חַ֣יִל בְּאֶפְרָ֔תָה וּקְרָא־שֵׁ֖ם בְּבֵ֥ית לָֽחֶם:
like Rachel and like Leah: Even though they were of the tribe of Judah and of the descendants of Leah, they admitted that Rachel was the mainstay of the household, and they mentioned Rachel before Leah.  
and be famous: lit. and call a name, i.e., may your name become great.  
12And may your house be like the house of Perez, whom Tamar bore to Judah, with the seed that the Lord will give you from this maiden."   יבוִיהִ֤י בֵֽיתְךָ֙ כְּבֵ֣ית פֶּ֔רֶץ אֲשֶׁר־יָֽלְדָ֥ה תָמָ֖ר לִֽיהוּדָ֑ה מִן־הַזֶּ֗רַע אֲשֶׁ֨ר יִתֵּ֤ן יְהֹוָה֙ לְךָ֔ מִן־הַֽנַּֽעֲרָ֖ה הַזֹּֽאת:
like the house of Perez: from which you are descended.  
13And Boaz took Ruth, and she became his wife, and he was intimate with her, and the Lord gave her conception, and she bore a son.   יגוַיִּקַּ֨ח בֹּ֤עַז אֶת־רוּת֙ וַתְּהִי־ל֣וֹ לְאִשָּׁ֔ה וַיָּבֹ֖א אֵלֶ֑יהָ וַיִּתֵּ֨ן יְהֹוָ֥ה לָ֛הּ הֵֽרָי֖וֹן וַתֵּ֥לֶד בֵּֽן:
14And the women said to Naomi, "Blessed is the Lord, Who did not deprive you of a redeemer today, and may his name be famous in Israel.   ידוַתֹּאמַ֤רְנָה הַנָּשִׁים֙ אֶֽל־נָֽעֳמִ֔י בָּר֣וּךְ יְהֹוָ֔ה אֲ֠שֶׁ֠ר לֹ֣א הִשְׁבִּ֥ית לָ֛ךְ גֹּאֵ֖ל הַיּ֑וֹם וְיִקָּרֵ֥א שְׁמ֖וֹ בְּיִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
15And may he be to you a restorer of life and to sustain your old age, for your daughter-in-law, who loves you, bore him, and she is better to you than seven sons."   טווְהָ֤יָה לָךְ֙ לְמֵשִׁ֣יב נֶ֔פֶשׁ וּלְכַלְכֵּ֖ל אֶת־שֵֽׂיבָתֵ֑ךְ כִּ֣י כַלָּתֵ֤ךְ אֲשֶׁר־אֲהֵבָ֨תֶךְ֙ יְלָדַ֔תּוּ אֲשֶׁר־הִיא֙ ט֣וֹבָה לָ֔ךְ מִשִּׁבְעָ֖ה בָּנִֽים:
16And Naomi took the child and placed him in her bosom, and she became his nurse.   טזוַתִּקַּ֨ח נָֽעֳמִ֤י אֶת־הַיֶּ֨לֶד֙ וַתְּשִׁתֵ֣הוּ בְחֵיקָ֔הּ וַתְּהִי־ל֖וֹ לְאֹמֶֽנֶת:
17And the women neighbors gave him a name, saying, "A son has been born to Naomi," and they called his name Obed-he is the father of Jesse, the father of David.   יזוַתִּקְרֶ֩אנָה֩ ל֨וֹ הַשְּׁכֵנ֥וֹת שֵׁם֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר יֻלַּד־בֵּ֖ן לְנָֽעֳמִ֑י וַתִּקְרֶ֤אנָה שְׁמוֹ֙ עוֹבֵ֔ד ה֥וּא אֲבִֽי־יִשַׁ֖י אֲבִ֥י דָוִֽד:
18And these are the generations of Perez: Perez begot Hezron.   יחוְאֵ֨לֶּה֙ תּֽוֹלְד֣וֹת פָּ֔רֶץ פֶּ֖רֶץ הוֹלִ֥יד אֶת־חֶצְרֽוֹן:
And these are the generations of Perez: Since he traced David’s genealogy on Ruth’s name, he returns and traces it on Judah’s name.  
19And Hezron begot Ram, and Ram begot Amminadab.   יטוְחֶצְרוֹן֙ הוֹלִ֣יד אֶת־רָ֔ם וְרָ֖ם הוֹלִ֥יד אֶת־עַמִּֽינָדָֽב:
20And Amminadab begot Nahshon, and Nahshon begot Salmah.   כוְעַמִּֽינָדָב֙ הוֹלִ֣יד אֶת־נַחְשׁ֔וֹן וְנַחְשׁ֖וֹן הוֹלִ֥יד אֶת־שַׂלְמָֽה:
21And Salmah begot Boaz, and Boaz begot Obed.   כאוְשַׂלְמוֹן֙ הוֹלִ֣יד אֶת־בֹּ֔עַז וּבֹ֖עַז הוֹלִ֥יד אֶת־עוֹבֵֽד:
22And Obed begot Jesse, and Jesse begot David.   כבוְעֹבֵד֙ הוֹלִ֣יד אֶת־יִשָׁ֔י וְיִשַׁ֖י הוֹלִ֥יד אֶת־דָּוִֽד: