Chapter 1

1And the word of the Lord came to Jonah son of Amittai, saying:   א וַֽיְהִי֙ דְּבַר־יְהֹוָ֔ה אֶל־יוֹנָ֥ה בֶן־אֲמִתַּ֖י לֵאמֹֽר:
2Arise, go to Nineveh, the great city, and proclaim against it, for their evil has come before Me.   בק֠וּם לֵ֧ךְ אֶל־נִֽינְוֵ֛ה הָעִ֥יר הַגְּדוֹלָ֖ה וּקְרָ֣א עָלֶ֑יהָ כִּי־עָֽלְתָ֥ה רָֽעָתָ֖ם לְפָנָֽי:
and proclaim against: My proclamation.  
3And Jonah arose to flee to Tarshish from before the Lord, and he went down to Joppa, found a ship going to Tarshish, paid its hire, and went down into it to come with them to Tarshish from before the Lord.   גוַיָּ֚קָם יוֹנָה֙ לִבְרֹ֣חַ תַּרְשִׁ֔ישָׁה מִלִּפְנֵ֖י יְהֹוָ֑ה וַיֵּ֨רֶד יָפ֜וֹ וַיִּמְצָ֥א אֳנִיָּ֣ה | בָּאָ֣ה תַרְשִׁ֗ישׁ וַיִּתֵּ֨ן שְׂכָרָ֜הּ וַיֵּ֚רֶד בָּהּ֙ לָב֚וֹא עִמָּהֶם֙ תַּרְשִׁ֔ישָׁה מִלִּפְנֵ֖י יְהֹוָֽה:
to flee to Tarshish: I.e, to a sea named Tarshish, which is outside the Holy Land. He said, “I will flee to the sea, for the Shechinah does not rest outside the Holy Land.” Said the Holy One, blessed be He, to him, “By your life, I have messengers like you to send after you and fetch you from there.” This is illustrated by an allegory of a priest’s slave who fled from his master and entered a cemetery [making it impossible for his master to retrieve him]. His master said to him, “I have slaves like you to send after you and fetch you from there.” Now what did Jonah see that he did not wish to go to Nineveh? He said, “The gentiles are quick to repent. Should I prophesy to them and they repent, I will be found condemning Israel, who do not heed the words of the prophets.” [from Mechilta, Exodus 12:1]  
and he paid its hire: Heb. He paid its hire in advance; although it is not customary for those embarking upon the sea to pay the hire of the ship until they leave, he paid in advance. [Pirkei d’Rabbi Eliezer, ch. 10; Tanhuma, Vayikra 8].  
4Now the Lord cast a mighty wind into the sea, and there was a mighty tempest on the sea, and the ship threatened to be broken up.   דוַֽיהֹוָ֗ה הֵטִ֚יל רֽוּחַ־גְּדוֹלָה֙ אֶל־הַיָּ֔ם וַיְהִ֥י סַֽעַר־גָּד֖וֹל בַּיָּ֑ם וְהָ֣אֳנִיָּ֔ה חִשְּׁבָ֖ה לְהִשָּׁבֵֽר:
threatened to be broken: It appears as though it would be broken.  
5And the sailors were frightened, and each one cried out to his god, and they cast the cargo that was in the ship into the sea to lighten it for them, and Jonah went down to the ship's hold, lay down, and fell fast asleep.   הוַיִּֽירְא֣וּ הַמַּלָּחִ֗ים וַיִּזְעֲקוּ֘ אִ֣ישׁ אֶל־אֱלֹהָיו֒ וַיָּטִ֨לוּ אֶת־הַכֵּלִ֜ים אֲשֶׁ֚ר בָּֽאֳנִיָּה֙ אֶל־הַיָּ֔ם לְהָקֵ֖ל מֵֽעֲלֵיהֶ֑ם וְיוֹנָ֗ה יָרַד֙ אֶל־יַרְכְּתֵ֣י הַסְּפִינָ֔ה וַיִּשְׁכַּ֖ב וַיֵּֽרָדַֽם:
And the sailors: The men who conducted the ship.  
each one... to his god: Of the seventy nations of the heathens were there.  
6And the captain approached him and said to him, "Why do you sleep? Get up, call out to your God, perhaps God will think about us, and we will not perish."   ווַיִּקְרַ֚ב אֵלָיו֙ רַ֣ב הַֽחֹבֵ֔ל וַיֹּ֥אמֶר ל֖וֹ מַה־לְּךָ֣ נִרְדָּ֑ם קוּם קְרָ֣א אֶל־אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ אוּלַ֞י יִתְעַשֵּׁ֧ת הָֽאֱלֹהִ֛ים לָ֖נוּ וְלֹ֥א נֹאבֵֽד:
The captain: Heb. רב החובל the captain of the sailors, for they, too, are called חובלי הים , the sailors of the sea; in O.F., gobernedors.  
“What is the matter with you, sleeper?”: What is the matter with you to be sound asleep? Now is no time to sleep.  
“will think: Heb. יתעשת an expression of thought. Cf. עשתנותיו (Ps. 146:4) “his thoughts” (Dan. 6:4) עשית “And the king thought” [from Machberet Menachem p.139].  
7And they said, each one to his fellow, "Come, let's cast lots, so that we will know because of whom this evil has befallen us." So they cast lots, and the lot fell upon Jonah.   זוַיֹּֽאמְר֞וּ אִ֣ישׁ אֶל־רֵעֵ֗הוּ לְכוּ֙ וְנַפִּ֣ילָה גֽוֹרָל֔וֹת וְנֵ֣דְעָ֔ה בְּשֶׁלְּמִ֛י הָֽרָעָ֥ה הַזֹּ֖את לָ֑נוּ וַיַּפִּ֙לוּ֙ גּֽוֹרָל֔וֹת וַיִּפֹּ֥ל הַגּוֹרָ֖ל עַל־יוֹנָֽה:
“Come, let’s cast lots”: They saw that the other ships were sailing in the sea calmly, and theirs was breaking. They said, “Because of one of us, this is taking place.” So we find in Pirkei d’Rabbi Eliezer (ch. 10).  
because of whom: Heb. בשלמי because of the deeds of which one of us.  
8And they said to him, "Tell us now, because of whom has this evil befallen us? What is your work and whence do you come? What is your land, and from what people are you?"   חוַיֹּֽאמְר֣וּ אֵלָ֔יו הַגִּֽידָה־נָּ֣א לָ֔נוּ בַּֽאֲשֶׁ֛ר לְמִֽי־הָרָעָ֥ה הַזֹּ֖את לָ֑נוּ מַה־מְּלַאכְתְּךָ֙ וּמֵאַ֣יִן תָּב֔וֹא מָ֣ה אַרְצֶ֔ךָ וְאֵֽי־מִזֶּ֥ה עַ֖ם אָֽתָּה:
Tell us now, because of whom: Against whom have you sinned, that this evil should befall us because of it  
What is your work: Perhaps you were negligent in your work.  
and whence do you come?: Perhaps a decree has been issued upon the people of that place even if you are not there.  
a and from what people are you?: Perhaps your people have sinned.  
9And he said to them, "I am a Hebrew, and I fear the Lord God of heaven, Who made the sea and the dry land."   טוַיֹּ֥אמֶר אֲלֵיהֶ֖ם עִבְרִ֣י אָנֹ֑כִי וְאֶת־יְהֹוָ֞ה אֱלֹהֵ֚י הַשָּׁמַ֙יִם֙ אֲנִ֣י יָרֵ֔א אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂ֥ה אֶת־הַיָּ֖ם וְאֶת־הַיַּבָּשָֽׁה:
10And the men were very frightened, and they said to him, "What is this that you have done?" For the men knew that he was fleeing from before the Lord, because he had told them.   יוַיִּֽירְא֚וּ הָֽאֲנָשִׁים֙ יִרְאָ֣ה גְדוֹלָ֔ה וַיֹּֽאמְר֥וּ אֵלָ֖יו מַה־זֹּ֣את עָשִׂ֑יתָ כִּי־יָֽדְע֣וּ הָֽאֲנָשִׁ֗ים כִּֽי־מִלִּפְנֵ֚י יְהֹוָה֙ ה֣וּא בֹרֵ֔חַ כִּ֥י הִגִּ֖יד לָהֶֽם:
What is this that you have done?: Why have you done this, to flee from before such a Ruler?  
11And they said to him, "What shall we do with you, so that the sea subside from upon us, since the sea is becoming stormier?"   יאוַיֹּֽאמְר֚וּ אֵלָיו֙ מַה־נַּֽ֣עֲשֶׂה לָּ֔ךְ וְיִשְׁתֹּ֥ק הַיָּ֖ם מֵֽעָלֵ֑ינוּ כִּ֥י הַיָּ֖ם הוֹלֵ֥ךְ וְסֹעֵֽר:
12And he said to them, "Pick me up and cast me into the sea, so that the sea may subside from upon you, for I know that, because of me, this mighty tempest is upon you."   יבוַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֲלֵיהֶ֗ם שָׂא֙וּנִי֙ וַֽהֲטִילֻ֣נִי אֶל־הַיָּ֔ם וְיִשְׁתֹּ֥ק הַיָּ֖ם מֵֽעֲלֵיכֶ֑ם כִּי יוֹדֵ֣עַ אָ֔נִי כִּ֣י בְשֶׁלִּ֔י הַסַּ֧עַר הַגָּד֛וֹל הַזֶּ֖ה עֲלֵיכֶֽם:
13And the men rowed vigorously to return to dry land, but they could not, for the sea was becoming stormier upon them.   יגוַיַּחְתְּר֣וּ הָֽאֲנָשִׁ֗ים לְהָשִׁ֛יב אֶל־הַיַּבָּשָׁ֖ה וְלֹ֣א יָכֹ֑לוּ כִּ֣י הַיָּ֔ם הוֹלֵ֥ךְ וְסֹעֵ֖ר עֲלֵיהֶֽם:
And the men rowed vigorously : Heb. ויחתרו האנשים they toiled and busied themselves like one who digs a tunnel.  
14And they called to the Lord and said, "Please, O Lord, let us not perish for the life of this man, and do not place upon us innocent blood, for You, O Lord, as You wish, You have done."   ידוַיִּקְרְא֨וּ אֶל־יְהֹוָ֜ה וַיֹּֽאמְר֗וּ אָֽנָּ֚ה יְהֹוָה֙ אַל־נָ֣א נֹֽאבְדָ֗ה בְּנֶ֙פֶשׁ֙ הָאִ֣ישׁ הַזֶּ֔ה וְאַל־תִּתֵּ֥ן עָלֵ֖ינוּ דָּ֣ם נָקִ֑יא כִּֽי־אַתָּ֣ה יְהֹוָ֔ה כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר חָפַ֖צְתָּ עָשִֽׂיתָ:
for the life of this man: I.e, for the sin of laying a hand upon his life.  
15And they picked Jonah up and cast him into the sea, and the sea ceased storming.   טווַיִּשְׂאוּ֙ אֶת־יוֹנָ֔ה וַיְטִלֻ֖הוּ אֶל־הַיָּ֑ם וַיַּֽעֲמֹ֥ד הַיָּ֖ם מִזַּעְפּֽוֹ:
16And the men feared the Lord exceedingly, and they made sacrifices to the Lord and made vows.   טזוַיִּֽירְא֧וּ הָֽאֲנָשִׁ֛ים יִרְאָ֥ה גְדוֹלָ֖ה אֶת־יְהֹוָ֑ה וַיִּזְבְּחוּ־זֶ֙בַח֙ לַֽיהֹוָ֔ה וַיִּדְּר֖וּ נְדָרִֽים:
and they made vows : that they would proselytize.