Chapter 3

1Hearken to this word which the Lord spoke about you, O children of Israel, about the entire family which I brought up from the land of Egypt, saying:   אשִׁמְע֞וּ אֶת־הַדָּבָ֣ר הַזֶּ֗ה אֲשֶׁ֨ר דִּבֶּ֧ר יְהֹוָ֛ה עֲלֵיכֶ֖ם בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל עַל כָּל־הַמִּשְׁפָּחָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֧ר הֶֽעֱלֵ֛יתִי מֵאֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרַ֖יִם לֵאמֹֽר:
2Only you did I love above all the families of the earth; therefore, I will visit upon you all your iniquities.   ברַק אֶתְכֶ֣ם יָדַ֔עְתִּי מִכֹּ֖ל מִשְׁפְּח֣וֹת הָֽאֲדָמָ֑ה עַל־כֵּן֙ אֶפְקֹ֣ד עֲלֵיכֶ֔ם אֵ֖ת כָּל־עֲו‍ֹנֹֽתֵיכֶֽם:
Only you did I love: Heb. יָדַעְתִּי, lit., I knew. I loved you, but you rebelled against Me; therefore,… But our Sages expounded on it in a different manner in Tractate Avodah Zarah (4a).  
3Will two walk together unless they agreed?   גהֲיֵֽלְכ֥וּ שְׁנַ֖יִם יַחְדָּ֑ו בִּלְתִּ֖י אִם־נוֹעָֽדוּ:
Will two walk together: Concerning what you say to the prophets, “Do not prophesy,” do the prophets prophesy from their own mind unless they were commanded? Are things done in any way but in their customary fashion?  
unless they agree: Unless they made an appointment to go together to such and such a place.  
4Will a lion roar in the forest if he has no prey? Will a young lion let out a cry from his den unless he has taken something?   דהֲיִשְׁאַ֚ג אַרְיֵה֙ בַּיַּ֔עַר וְטֶ֖רֶף אֵ֣ין ל֑וֹ הֲיִתֵּ֨ן כְּפִ֚יר קוֹלוֹ֙ מִמְּעֹ֣נָת֔וֹ בִּלְתִּ֖י אִם־לָכָֽד:
Will a lion roar in the forest if he has no prey: When a lion lays hold of its prey, it customarily roars, and it does not roar unless it has taken [prey]. Similarly, Scripture states: (Isa. 5:29) “He will roar like the lion cubs, and he will growl and lay hold of prey.” Similarly, (ibid. 31:4) “As a lion or a young lion growls over his prey.”  
5Will a bird fall on a net upon the ground unless it has a snare? Will a net ascend from the ground and have taken nothing?   ההֲתִפּ֚וֹל צִפּוֹר֙ עַל־פַּ֣ח הָאָ֔רֶץ וּמוֹקֵ֖שׁ אֵ֣ין לָ֑הּ הֲיַֽעֲלֶה־פַּח֙ מִן־הָ֣אֲדָמָ֔ה וְלָכ֖וֹד לֹ֥א יִלְכּֽוֹד:
Will a bird fall on a net upon the ground unless it has a snare: in the net which has fallen upon it?  
Will a net ascend from the ground: from the place it was laid unless a bird was caught in it? When it wishes to escape, it pulls up the net and lifts it from its place a little, and at that time it is caught.  
6Will a shophar be sounded in the city and the people not quake? Will there be evil in the city if the Lord has not done it?   ואִם־יִתָּקַ֚ע שׁוֹפָר֙ בְּעִ֔יר וְעָ֖ם לֹ֣א יֶֽחֱרָ֑דוּ אִם־תִּֽהְיֶ֚ה רָעָה֙ בְּעִ֔יר וַֽיהֹוָ֖ה לֹ֥א עָשָֽׂה:
Will a shophar be sounded: For the lookout sees troops approaching the city and sounds the shophar to warn the people. These are but words of allegory and similitude, [to be explained as follows:]  
[4] Will a lion roar: That is Nebuchadnezzar. Another explanation: The prophets compare the holy spirit that comes upon them from the roar of a lion, as he states below: (verse 8) “A lion has roared; who will not fear?” And here he explains the allegory. Did the Holy One, blessed be He, bring the holy spirit into the mouths of the prophets to [prophesy] evil unless retribution was decreed by Him? That is the prey. Will the Holy One, blessed be He, let out a cry to speak harshly unless He has taken you with the snare of iniquity? Will a bird fall on a net that the net will not snare it? I.e, is it possible that you commit sins and it will not be a snare to you? Will a net ascend etc.? Similarly, will your iniquities ascend on high and not take you? Will a shophar be sounded in the city?… So should you quake before the words of the prophets who look out for you to deliver you from the evil, that it not come, and when the evil comes to you, should you not know that the Holy One, blessed be He, does it to you because you did not take heed of His prophets?  
7For the Lord God does nothing unless He has revealed His secret to His servants, the prophets.   זכִּ֣י לֹ֧א יַֽעֲשֶׂ֛ה אֲדֹנָ֥י יֱהֹוִ֖ה דָּבָ֑ר כִּי אִם־גָּלָ֣ה סוֹד֔וֹ אֶל־עֲבָדָ֖יו הַנְּבִיאִֽים:
For the Lord God does nothing unless He has revealed His secret: That secret to His servants, the prophets.  
8A lion has roared; who will not fear? The Lord God has spoken; who will not prophesy?   חאַרְיֵ֥ה שָׁאָ֖ג מִ֣י לֹ֣א יִירָ֑א אֲדֹנָ֚י יֱהֹוִה֙ דִּבֶּ֔ר מִ֖י לֹ֥א יִנָּבֵֽא:
A lion has roared; who will not fear?: So has the Holy One, blessed be He, spoken to the prophets to prophesy. Who will not prophesy?  
9Announce in the palaces in Ashdod and in the palaces in the land of Egypt, and say; Gather upon the mountains of Samaria and see great confusions within it and people being oppressed in its midst.   טהַשְׁמִ֙יעוּ֙ עַל־אַרְמְנ֣וֹת בְּאַשְׁדּ֔וֹד וְעַל־אַרְמְנ֖וֹת בְּאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרָ֑יִם וְאִמְר֗וּ הֵאָֽסְפוּ֙ עַל־הָרֵ֣י שֹֽׁמְר֔וֹן וּרְא֞וּ מְהוּמֹ֚ת רַבּוֹת֙ בְּתוֹכָ֔הּ וַֽעֲשׁוּקִ֖ים בְּקִרְבָּֽהּ:
Announce: You Philistines and Egyptians, announce this and say in your palaces that they gather on the mountains of Samaria, to see from atop the mountains into the midst of the city, their evil way.  
10And they did not know to do right, says the Lord, who store up violence and plunder in their palaces.   יוְלֹֽא־יָֽדְע֥וּ עֲשֽׂוֹת־נְכֹחָ֖ה נְאֻם־יְהֹוָ֑ה הָאֽוֹצְרִ֛ים חָמָ֥ס וָשֹׁ֖ד בְּאַרְמְנֽוֹתֵיהֶֽם:
right: Heb. נְכֹחָה, meaning ‘straight.’  
violence and plunder: I.e, money of plunder.  
11Therefore, so said the Lord God: An adversary, even round about the land! And he will bring down from you your strength, and your palaces will be spoiled.   יאלָכֵ֗ן כֹּ֚ה אָמַר֙ אֲדֹנָ֣י יֱהֹוִ֔ה צַ֖ר וּסְבִ֣יב הָאָ֑רֶץ וְהוֹרִ֚ד מִמֵּךְ֙ עֻזֵּ֔ךְ וְנָבֹ֖זּוּ אַרְמְנוֹתָֽיִךְ:
An adversary, even round about the land: The adversary is prepared to come, and he will come around this land.  
12So said the Lord: As the shepherd saves from the lion's mouth two legs or the cartilage of an ear, so will the children of Israel dwelling in Samaria be saved in the corner of a bed or in the corner of a couch.   יבכֹּה֘ אָמַ֣ר יֱהֹוָה֒ כַּֽאֲשֶׁר יַצִּ֨יל הָרֹעֶ֜ה מִפִּ֧י הָֽאֲרִ֛י שְׁתֵּ֥י כְרָעַ֖יִם א֣וֹ בְדַל־אֹ֑זֶן כֵּ֣ן יִנָּֽצְל֞וּ בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל הַיּֽשְׁבִים֙ בְּשֹׁ֣מְר֔וֹן בִּפְאַ֥ת מִטָּ֖ה וּבִדְמֶ֥שֶׁק עָֽרֶשׂ:
As the shepherd saves: I.e, he saves little.  
the cartilage of an ear: Heb. בְּדַל. [from Jonathan]  
so will the children of Israel… be saved: I.e, very few people.  
in the corner of a bed or in the corner of a couch: Heb. בִּפְאַת מִטָּה וּבִדְמֶשֶׁק עֶרֶשׂ. Jonathan renders: with the strength of rule and trusting in Damascus. I say that the interpretation of the Targum is as follows: Since, in the days of Jehoahaz son of Jehu it is written. (II Kings 13:7) “For the king of Aram had destroyed them,” and Jeroboam his grandson saved them partially, as it is said. (ibid. 14:27) “And the Lord did not speak to eradicate the name of Israel from under the heavens, and He saved them through Jeroboam the son of Joash.” (ibid. verse 25) “He restored the boundary of Israel.” And that is the meaning of ‘in the corner of a bed.’ The corner of a house is the strongest part of the house. Therefore, he translates. ‘with the strength of rule’ of Jeroboam, and Amos prophesied in the days of Jeroboam. He further prophesied that they would eventually rely on the kings of Aram, and so they did in the days of Pekah son of Remaliah. This is the meaning of וּבִדְמֶשֶׁק עֶרֶשׂ, and their couch will be Damascus. Their rest and trust will be on Damascus. And our Sages said in Seder Olam (ch. 22) Rabbi Nehorai said in the name of Rabbi Joshua: These are the ten tribes, which relied on Hezekiah, and on Judah, and escaped with them.  
in the corner of a bed: This teaches us that only one eighth of them was left. And the rest of the couch - where was it? In Damascus, to fulfill what is stated: (below 5: 27) “And I will exile you beyond Damascus.” And I heard in the name of Rabbi Menahem of blessed memory, that he explained. This is one eighth, since it is not stated. “the corner of;” but “in the corner of a bed,” in part of it, in one of the two ends of a corner. That is an eighth of the bed, for it has four corners, and two ends of each corner. [This is Rabbi Menahem’s explanation of Seder Olam ch. 22. This is probably Rabbi Menahem ben Helbo, the author of Pithronim .] Another explanation I found in the words of Rabbi Meir of blessed memory, as follows:  
In the corner of a bed: Because of the sin of Ahaziah son of Ahab, who sent to inquire “of Baal-zebub, the god of Ekron, whether I will recover from this illness” (I Kings 1:2).  
and in Damascus is the couch: Ben-hadad, king of Aram, sent to inquire of the God of Israel (ibid. ch. 8).  
13Hearken and warn the house of Jacob, says the Lord God, the God of the Hosts.   יגשִׁמְע֥וּ וְהָעִ֖ידוּ בְּבֵ֣ית יַֽעֲקֹ֑ב נְאֻם־אֲדֹנָ֥י יֱהֹוִ֖ה אֱלֹהֵ֥י הַצְּבָאֽוֹת:
14For on the day I visit the transgressions of Israel upon them, I will visit upon the altars of Bethel, and the horns of the altar shall be cut off and shall fall to the earth.   ידכִּ֗י בְּי֛וֹם פָּקְדִ֥י פִשְׁעֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל עָלָ֑יו וּפָֽקַדְתִּי֙ עַל־מִזְבְּח֣וֹת בֵּֽית־אֵ֔ל וְנִגְדְּעוּ֙ קַרְנ֣וֹת הַמִּזְבֵּ֔חַ וְנָֽפְל֖וּ לָאָֽרֶץ:
15And I will smite the winter house with the summer house, and the ivory houses shall be lost, and great houses shall end, says the Lord.   טווְהִכֵּיתִ֥י בֵֽית־הַחֹ֖רֶף עַל־בֵּ֣ית הַקָּ֑יִץ וְאָֽבְד֞וּ בָּתֵּ֣י הַשֵּׁ֗ן וְסָפ֛וּ בָּתִּ֥ים רַבִּ֖ים נְאֻם־יְהֹוָֽה:
the winter house with the summer house: Since they were delicate, the wealthy people would build for themselves two houses, one for the winter and one for the summer.  
ivory houses: Which are paneled with ivory. [from Jonathan]