Chapter 2

1And a messenger of the Lord went up from Gilgal to Bochim and said (in God's name), "I will take you up from Egypt and I have brought you to the land that I have sworn to your forefathers and I said, 'I will not break my covenant with you forever.   אוַיַּ֧עַל מַלְאַךְ־יְהֹוָ֛ה מִן־הַגִּלְגָּ֖ל אֶל־הַבֹּכִ֑ים ס וַיֹּאמֶר֩ אַעֲלֶ֨ה אֶתְכֶ֜ם מִמִּצְרַ֗יִם וָאָבִ֚יא אֶתְכֶם֙ אֶל־הָאָ֗רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֚ר נִשְׁבַּ֙עְתִּי֙ לַאֲבֹ֣תֵיכֶ֔ם וָאֹמַ֕ר לֹֽא־אָפֵ֧ר בְּרִיתִ֛י אִתְּכֶ֖ם לְעוֹלָֽם:
And a messenger of the Lord went up: We learned in Seder Olam that this was Phinehas.  
to Bochim: This is the name of the place (see below v.5).  
I will take you up: So I intended initially to take you out of Egypt and so I did, on the condition that you drive out my enemies.  
2And you shall not make a covenant with the inhabitants of this land, their altars you shall smash,' but you have not obeyed Me, what have you done?   בוְאַתֶּ֗ם לֹֽא־תִכְרְת֚וּ בְרִית֙ לְיֽוֹשְׁבֵי֙ הָאָ֣רֶץ הַזֹּ֔את מִזְבְּחוֹתֵיהֶ֖ם תִּתֹּצ֑וּן וְלֹֽא־שְׁמַעְתֶּ֥ם בְּקֹלִ֖י מַה־זֹּ֥את עֲשִׂיתֶֽם:
3And I also said, 'I will not drive them out from before you, and they will be pokers to you and their gods will be a stumbling block to you.' "   גוְגַ֣ם אָמַ֔רְתִּי לֹֽא־אֲגָרֵ֥שׁ אוֹתָ֖ם מִפְּנֵיכֶ֑ם וְהָי֚וּ לָכֶם֙ לְצִדִּ֔ים וֵאלֹ֣הֵיהֶ֔ם יִהְי֥וּ לָכֶ֖ם לְמוֹקֵֽשׁ:
And I also said: Now I said in my anger.  
pokers: As pokers in your sides with troops and marauders to plunder and spoil.  
4And it was while the messenger of the Lord was saying these words to all the children of Israel, that the nation raised their voices and cried.   דוַיְהִ֗י כְּדַבֵּ֞ר מַלְאַ֚ךְ יְהֹוָה֙ אֶת־הַדְּבָרִ֣ים הָאֵ֔לֶּה אֶֽל־כָּל־בְּנֵ֖י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וַיִּשְׂא֥וּ הָעָ֛ם אֶת־קוֹלָ֖ם וַיִּבְכּֽוּ:
5And they called the name of that place Bochim and they sacrificed to the Lord there.   הוַֽיִּקְרְא֛וּ שֵֽׁם־הַמָּק֥וֹם הַה֖וּא בֹּכִ֑ים וַיִּזְבְּחוּ־שָׁ֖ם לַֽיהֹוָֽה:
6And Joshua had sent away the nation, and the children of Israel went, each man to his inheritance to possess the land.   ווַיְשַׁלַּ֥ח יְהוֹשֻׁ֖עַ אֶת־הָעָ֑ם וַיֵּלְכ֧וּ בְנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֛ל אִ֥ישׁ לְנַחֲלָת֖וֹ לָרֶ֥שֶׁת אֶת־הָאָֽרֶץ:
And Joshua had sent away, etc.: This incident actually occurred earlier, but since the Scripture is coming to tell us (v.11) “And they did that which is evil,” it begins with the following: Before Joshua died and they (Israel) accepted before him to serve God, he sent them each to his inheritance, and they served God all his (Joshua’s) days and the days of the elders, etc., and afterwards, “And the children of Israel did evil, etc.”  
7And the nation served the Lord during all the days of Joshua and all the days of the elders that outlived Joshua and who had seen all the great deed of the Lord that He had performed for Israel.   זוַיַּעַבְד֚וּ הָעָם֙ אֶת־יְהֹוָ֔ה כֹּ֖ל יְמֵ֣י יְהוֹשֻׁ֑עַ וְכֹ֣ל | יְמֵ֣י הַזְּקֵנִ֗ים אֲשֶׁ֨ר הֶאֱרִ֚יכוּ יָמִים֙ אַחֲרֵ֣י יְהוֹשׁ֔וּעַ אֲשֶׁ֣ר רָא֗וּ אֵ֣ת כָּל־מַעֲשֵֹ֚ה יְהֹוָה֙ הַגָּד֔וֹל אֲשֶׁ֥ר עָשָֹ֖ה לְיִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
that outlived Joshua: Heb. הֶאֱרִיכוּ. Lit., their days were lengthened but their years were not, because they were lax with his eulogy. And so it says (v.9) “Mount גָּעַש,” the mountain quaked (געש) over them to kill them (Sab. 105b).  
8And Joshua the son of Nun, the servant of the Lord, died, being one hundred and ten years old.   חוַיָּ֛מָת יְהוֹשֻׁ֥עַ בִּן־נ֖וּן עֶ֣בֶד יְהֹוָ֑ה בֶּן־מֵאָ֥ה וָעֶ֖שֶׂר שָׁנִֽים:
9And they buried him within the border of his inheritance in Timnath Cheres on the mountain of Ephraim, to the north of Mount Gaash.   טוַיִּקְבְּר֚וּ אוֹתוֹ֙ בִּגְב֣וּל נַחֲלָת֔וֹ בְּתִמְנַת־חֶ֖רֶס בְּהַ֣ר אֶפְרָ֑יִם מִצְּפ֖וֹן לְהַר־גָּֽעַשׁ:
in Timnath-Cheres: It was called so because they erected a picture (תְּמוּנָה) of the sun (חֶרֶס) on his grave as though to say: How unfortunate, the person who stopped the sun (Josh. 10:12) lies in a grave.  
10And also all that generation were gathered to their forefathers, and there arose another generation after them, who knew not the Lord nor the deed which He had done for Israel.   יוְגַם֙ כָּל־הַדּ֣וֹר הַה֔וּא נֶאֶסְפ֖וּ אֶל־אֲבוֹתָ֑יו וַיָּקָם֩ דּ֨וֹר אַחֵ֜ר אַחֲרֵיהֶ֗ם אֲשֶׁ֚ר לֹא־יָֽדְעוּ֙ אֶת־יְהֹוָ֔ה וְגַם֙ אֶת־הַֽמַּעֲשֶֹ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר עָשָֹ֖ה לְיִשְׂרָאֵֽל:
11And the children of Israel did that which was evil in the eyes of the Lord and they served the Baalim.   יאוַיַּעֲשֹ֧וּ בְנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֛ל אֶת־הָרַ֖ע בְּעֵינֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֑ה וַיַּעַבְד֖וּ אֶת־הַבְּעָלִֽים:
12And they forsook the God of their forefathers, Who had brought them up from the land of Egypt, and they went after other gods, of the gods of the nations that were around them, and they bowed to them and they provoked the Lord.   יבוַיַּעַזְב֞וּ אֶת־יְהֹוָ֣ה | אֱלֹהֵ֣י אֲבוֹתָ֗ם הַמּוֹצִ֣יא אוֹתָם֘ מֵאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרַיִם֒ וַיֵּלְכ֞וּ אַחֲרֵ֣י | אֱלֹהִ֣ים אֲחֵרִ֗ים מֵאֱלֹהֵ֚י הָֽעַמִּים֙ אֲשֶׁר֙ סְבִיב֣וֹתֵיהֶ֔ם וַיִּֽשְׁתַּחֲו֖וּ לָהֶ֑ם וַיַּכְעִ֖סוּ אֶת־יְהֹוָֽה:
13And they forsook the Lord and served the Baal and the Ashtaroth.   יגוַיַּעַזְב֖וּ אֶת־יְהֹוָ֑ה וַיַּעַבְד֥וּ לַבַּ֖עַל וְלָעַשְׁתָּרֽוֹת:
14And the anger of the Lord was kindled against Israel, and He delivered them into the hands of spoilers and they spoiled them, and He gave them over into the hands of their enemies around, and they could no longer stand before their enemies.   ידוַיִּֽחַר־אַ֚ף יְהֹוָה֙ בְּיִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וַֽיִּתְּנֵם֙ בְּיַד־שֹׁסִ֔ים וַיָּשֹׁ֖סּוּ אוֹתָ֑ם וַֽיִּמְכְּרֵ֞ם בְּיַ֚ד אֽוֹיְבֵיהֶם֙ מִסָּבִ֔יב וְלֹֽא־יָכְל֣וּ ע֔וֹד לַעֲמֹ֖ד לִפְנֵ֥י אוֹיְבֵיהֶֽם:
15Wherever they went out, the hand of the Lord was against them for evil, as the Lord had spoken and as the Lord had sworn to them, and they were greatly distressed.   טובְּכֹ֣ל | אֲשֶׁ֣ר יָצְא֗וּ יַד־יְהֹוָה֙ הָיְתָה־בָּ֣ם לְרָעָ֔ה כַּֽאֲשֶׁר֙ דִּבֶּ֣ר יְהֹוָ֔ה וְכַאֲשֶׁ֛ר נִשְׁבַּ֥ע יְהֹוָ֖ה לָהֶ֑ם וַיֵּ֥צֶר לָהֶ֖ם מְאֹֽד:
Wherever they went out, the hand of the Lord was against them for evil: Concerning Elimelech, Machlon, and Kilyon it was said. In Seder Olam 12.  
16And the Lord raised up judges and they saved them from the hands of those who had spoiled them.   טזוַיָּ֥קֶם יְהֹוָ֖ה שֹֽׁפְטִ֑ים וַיּ֣וֹשִׁיע֔וּם מִיַּ֖ד שֹׁסֵיהֶֽם:
And the Lord raised up judges: Constantly in each generation, as they are enumerated in this book, judge after judge.  
17But also their judges they did not obey, for they went astray after other gods, and they bowed to them; they turned aside quickly from the way wherein their forefathers had walked, obeying the commandments of the Lord, (but) they did not do so.   יזוְגַ֚ם אֶל־שֹֽׁפְטֵיהֶם֙ לֹ֣א שָׁמֵ֔עוּ כִּ֣י זָנ֗וּ אַֽחֲרֵי֙ אֱלֹהִ֣ים אֲחֵרִ֔ים וַיִּֽשְׁתַּחֲו֖וּ לָהֶ֑ם סָ֣רוּ מַהֵ֗ר מִן־הַדֶּ֜רֶךְ אֲשֶׁ֨ר הָלְכ֧וּ אֲבוֹתָ֛ם לִשְׁמֹ֥עַ מִצְו‍ֹת־יְהֹוָ֖ה לֹא־עָ֥שׂוּ כֵֽן:
18And when the Lord raised them up judges, then the Lord was with the judge and saved them from the hand of their enemies all the days of the judge, for the Lord retracted, because of their cry by reason of them that oppressed them and crushed them.   יחוְכִֽי־הֵקִ֨ים יְהֹוָ֥ה | לָהֶם֘ שֹֽׁפְטִים֒ וְהָיָ֚ה יְהֹוָה֙ עִם־הַשֹּׁפֵ֔ט וְהֽוֹשִׁיעָם֙ מִיַּ֣ד אֹֽיְבֵיהֶ֔ם כֹּ֖ל יְמֵ֣י הַשּׁוֹפֵ֑ט כִּֽי־יִנָּחֵ֚ם יְהֹוָה֙ מִנַּֽאֲקָתָ֔ם מִפְּנֵ֥י לֹחֲצֵיהֶ֖ם וְדֹחֲקֵיהֶֽם:
And when the Lord raised: This is in the present tense: And when He raised for them judges, God would be with the judge, etc.  
for [the Lord] retracted: He would retract from the evil. So renders Targum Jonathan .  
because of their cry: Because of their cry that arose before Him because of their enemies.  
19And it was when the judge died, that they would return and deal more corruptly than their forefathers, going after other gods to serve them and to bow down to them; they did not diminish of their practices nor of their stubborn way.   יטוְהָיָ֣ה | בְּמ֣וֹת הַשּׁוֹפֵ֗ט יָשֻׁ֙בוּ֙ וְהִשְׁחִ֣יתוּ מֵֽאֲבוֹתָ֔ם לָלֶ֗כֶת אַֽחֲרֵי֙ אֱלֹהִ֣ים אֲחֵרִ֔ים לְעָבְדָ֖ם וּלְהִשְׁתַּחֲוֹ֣ת לָהֶ֑ם לֹ֚א הִפִּ֙ילוּ֙ מִמַּ֣עַלְלֵיהֶ֔ם וּמִדַּרְכָּ֖ם הַקָּשָֽׁה:
they did not diminish, etc.: They did not leave over anything for which reason they were reproached through all that befell them.  
20And the anger of the Lord was kindled against Israel and He said, "Because this nation has transgressed my covenant which I commanded their forefathers and have not obeyed Me,   כוַיִּֽחַר־אַ֥ף יְהֹוָ֖ה בְּיִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וַיֹּ֗אמֶר יַעַן֩ אֲשֶׁ֨ר עָבְר֜וּ הַגּ֣וֹי הַזֶּ֗ה אֶת־בְּרִיתִי֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר צִוִּ֣יתִי אֶת־אֲבוֹתָ֔ם וְלֹ֥א שָׁמְע֖וּ לְקוֹלִֽי:
21I too will not continue to drive out any man from before them, of the nations that Joshua left and he died.   כאגַּם־אֲנִי֙ לֹ֣א אוֹסִ֔יף לְהוֹרִ֥ישׁ אִ֖ישׁ מִפְּנֵיהֶ֑ם מִן־הַגּוֹיִ֛ם אֲשֶׁר־עָזַ֥ב יְהוֹשֻׁ֖עַ וַיָּמֹֽת:
22In order to test Israel through them, whether they would keep the way of the Lord to walk therein as their forefathers did keep it, or not."   כבלְמַ֛עַן נַסּ֥וֹת בָּ֖ם אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל הֲשֹׁמְרִ֣ים הֵם֩ אֶת־דֶּ֨רֶךְ יְהֹוָ֜ה לָלֶ֣כֶת בָּ֗ם כַּאֲשֶׁ֛ר שָׁמְר֥וּ אֲבוֹתָ֖ם אִם־לֹֽא:
whether they would keep: The “heh” (of הֲשׁוֹמְרִים is vocalized הֲ because it is an expression of question and testing (i.e., would they keep, etc.).  
23And the Lord left these nations without driving them out hastily, and He did not give them into the hand of Joshua.   כגוַיַּנַּ֚ח יְהֹוָה֙ אֶת־הַגּוֹיִ֣ם הָאֵ֔לֶּה לְבִלְתִּ֥י הוֹרִישָׁ֖ם מַהֵ֑ר וְלֹ֥א נְתָנָ֖ם בְּיַד־יְהוֹשֻֽׁעַ: