1

The bleeding of niddah, the bleeding of zivah, the bleeding before childbirth,1 the pure blood that follows childbirth,2 are all one type of bleeding. They [all] come from the uterus, from the same source. The laws applying [to this bleeding], however, change according to the time [and circumstance],3 causing the woman who discovers the bleeding to be considered as pure, a niddah, or a zavah.

א

דַם הַנִּדָּה וְדַם הַזָּבָה וְדַם הַקֹּשִׁי וְדַם יוֹלֶדֶת וְדַם טֹהַר שֶׁל יוֹלֶדֶת כֻּלּוֹ דָּם אֶחָד הוּא וּמִן הַמָּקוֹר הוּא בָּא. וּמַעֲיָן אֶחָד הוּא. וּבִזְמַנִּים בִּלְבַד הוּא שֶׁיִּשְׁתַּנֶּה דִּינוֹ וְתִהְיֶה רוֹאָה דָּם זוֹ טְהוֹרָה. וְזוֹ נִדָּה. וְזוֹ זָבָה:

2

What is implied? When a woman menstruates for the first time or when she menstruates at the fixed time at which it has been established that she will menstruate,4 she is a niddah for seven full days. [This applies] whether she continues to bleed throughout the seven days or she only discovered one drop of blood. If she discovers blood on the eighth day, this is the blood of zivah, because it comes "outside the time for niddah" [Leviticus 15:25].5

ב

כֵּיצַד. כְּשֶׁתִּרְאֶה הָאִשָּׁה דָּם תְּחִלָּה אוֹ כְּשֶׁתִּרְאֶה בִּשְׁעַת וֶסְתָּהּ וְהוּא הָעֵת שֶׁקָּבְעָה לְנִדָּתָהּ הֲרֵי זוֹ נִדָּה כָּל שִׁבְעַת הַיָּמִים. בֵּין רָאֲתָה כָּל שִׁבְעָה בֵּין שֶׁלֹּא רָאֲתָה אֶלָּא טִפָּה רִאשׁוֹנָה בִּלְבַד. רָאֲתָה דָּם בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁמִינִי הֲרֵי זֶה דַּם זִיבָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא בְּלֹא עֵת נִדָּתָהּ:

3

Any blood that is discovered between one fixed time that a woman can be expected to menstruate and the next fixed time that she can be expected to menstruate is the blood of zivah. It is a halachah transmitted to Moses on Sinai that there are no more than eleven days between one menstrual bleeding and an another.

ג

וְכֵן כָּל דָּם שֶׁתִּרְאֶה בְּתוֹךְ הַיָּמִים שֶׁבֵּין וֶסֶת נִדָּה לְוֶסֶת נִדָּה הֲרֵי הוּא דַּם זִיבָה. וַהֲלָכָה לְמשֶׁה מִסִּינַי שֶׁאֵין בֵּין זְמַן נִדָּה לִזְמַן נִדָּה אֶלָּא אַחַד עָשָׂר יוֹם בִּלְבַד:

4

All of the seven days beginning with the day on which a fixed time that a woman can be expected to menstruate was established are called "the days of niddah." [This applies] whether the woman menstruates or not.6 Why are they called "the days of niddah"? Because they are fit [for a woman to be considered] a niddah? Any blood discovered during these days is considered as the blood of niddah.

ד

כָּל שִׁבְעַת הַיָּמִים שֶׁנִּקְבְּעָה לָהּ וֶסֶת בִּתְחִלָּתָן הֵן הַנִּקְרָאִין יְמֵי נִדָּתָהּ. בֵּין רָאֲתָה בָּהֶן דָּם בֵּין לֹא רָאֲתָה בָּהֶן דָּם. וּמִפְּנֵי מָה נִקְרָאִין יְמֵי נִדָּה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן רְאוּיִין לְנִדָּה. וְכָל דָּם שֶׁתִּרְאֶה בָּהֶם דַּם נִדָּה יֵחָשֵׁב:

5

The eleven days that follow these seven are called "the days of zivah." [This applies] whether the woman discovers bleeding or not. Why are they called "the days of zivah"? Because they are fit [for a woman to be considered] a zivah? Any blood discovered during these days is considered as the blood of zivah. Take care with regard to these names: "the days of niddah" and "the days of zivah."

ה

וְכָל אַחַד עָשָׂר יוֹם שֶׁאַחַר הַשִּׁבְעָה הֵן הַנִּקְרָאִין יְמֵי זִיבָתָהּ. בֵּין רָאֲתָה בָּהֶן דָּם בֵּין לֹא רָאֲתָה. וְלָמָּה נִקְרָאִין יְמֵי זִיבָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן רְאוּיִין לְזִיבָה. וְכָל דָּם שֶׁתִּרְאֶה בָּהֶן דַּם זִיבָה יֵחָשֵׁב. וְהִזָּהֵר בִּשְׁנֵי שֵׁמוֹת אֵלּוּ שֶׁהֵן יְמֵי נִדָּתָהּ וִימֵי זִיבָתָהּ:

6

Throughout her entire life, from the time she establishes a time when she can be expected to menstruate until she dies or until she transfers the time she can be expected to menstruate to another date,7 she should count seven days from the beginning of the day when she could be expected to menstruate and eleven days after them. Afterwards, [she counts] another seven days and another eleven days.8

Take care of this reckoning so that you will know [a woman's status] if she discovers blood. Was it in the days of niddah or the days of zivah? For throughout a woman's entire life, she [follows the same pattern]: seven days of niddah and eleven days of zivah unless the pattern was interrupted by a birth, as will be explained.9

ו

כָּל יְמֵי הָאִשָּׁה מִיּוֹם שֶׁיִּקָּבַע לָהּ וֶסֶת עַד שֶׁתָּמוּת אוֹ עַד שֶׁיֵּעָקֵר הַוֶּסֶת לְיוֹם אַחֵר תִּסְפֹּר לְעוֹלָם שִׁבְעָה מִתְּחִלַּת יוֹם הַוֶּסֶת וְאַחֲרֵיהֶן אַחַד עָשָׂר [וְאַחֲרֵיהֶן] שִׁבְעָה וְאַחֲרֵיהֶן אַחַד עָשָׂר. וְתִזָּהֵר בַּמִּנְיָן כְּדֵי שֶׁתֵּדַע בְּעֵת שֶׁתִּרְאֶה דָּם אִם בִּימֵי נִדָּה רָאֲתָה אוֹ בִּימֵי זִיבָה. שֶׁכָּל יָמֶיהָ שֶׁל אִשָּׁה כָּךְ הֵן שִׁבְעָה יְמֵי נִדָּה וְאַחַד עָשָׂר יְמֵי זִיבָה. אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הִפְסִיקָה הַלֵּדָה כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר:

7

When a woman discovers uterine bleeding during the days of zivah for only one day or for two consecutive days, she is called a minor zavah,10and she is called one who watches a day for a day.11 If she discovered [uterine bleeding] for three consecutive days, she is a zavah in the complete sense of the term. She is called a major zavah or merely referred to as a zavah without any further description. [This is derived from Leviticus 15:25]: "When a woman will have a flow of blood for many days...." The minimum implied by the plural form, "days," is two. "Many" indicates [at least] three.

ז

אִשָּׁה שֶׁרָאֲתָה דָּם בִּימֵי זִיבָתָהּ יוֹם אֶחָד בִּלְבַד אוֹ שְׁנֵי יָמִים זֶה אַחַר זֶה נִקְרֵאת זָבָה קְטַנָּה וְנִקְרֵאת שׁוֹמֶרֶת יוֹם כְּנֶגֶד יוֹם. וְאִם רָאֲתָה שְׁלֹשָׁה יָמִים זֶה אַחַר זֶה הֲרֵי זוֹ זָבָה גְּמוּרָה וְהִיא הַנִּקְרֵאת זָבָה גְּדוֹלָה וְנִקְרֵאת זָבָה סְתָם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא טו כה) "וְאִשָּׁה כִּי יָזוּב זוֹב דָּמָהּ יָמִים רַבִּים" מִעוּט יָמִים שְׁנַיִם רַבִּים שְׁלֹשָׁה:

8

There is no difference between a major zavah and a minor zavah except the counting of seven ["spotless" days] and the necessity to bring a sacrifice. For a major zavah must count seven "spotless" days [before immersing to regain ritual purity] and a minor zavah need only count one day. And a major zavah must bring a sacrifice when she purifies herself12 and a minor zavah need not. They are both impure and the prohibition against relations applies to both of them equally.

ח

אֵין בֵּין זָבָה גְּדוֹלָה לְזָבָה קְטַנָּה אֶלָּא סְפִירַת שִׁבְעָה וַהֲבָאַת קָרְבָּן. שֶׁזָּבָה גְּדוֹלָה צְרִיכָה לִסְפֹּר שִׁבְעָה יָמִים נְקִיִּים וְזָבָה קְטַנָּה אֵינָהּ סוֹפֶרֶת אֶלָּא יוֹם אֶחָד בִּלְבַד. וְזָבָה גְּדוֹלָה מְבִיאָה קָרְבָּן כְּשֶׁתִּטְהַר [וְזָבָה קְטַנָּה אֵינָהּ מְבִיאָה קָרְבָּן כְּשֶׁתִּטְהַר]. אֲבָל לְעִנְיַן טֻמְאָה וְאִסּוּר בִּיאָה שְׁתֵּיהֶן שָׁווֹת:

9

What is implied? If she discovered blood in the days of zivah - whether she discovered it in the beginning of the night or she discovered it at the end of the day - that entire day, she is impure. It is as if the bleeding did not cease from the time she discovered it until the sun sets. She should watch herself throughout the night.13If there are no signs of bleeding at night, she should arise in the morning and immerse herself after sunrise.14 She should watch herself for the entire day. If there are no signs of bleeding,15 there is then a pure day to compensate for the impure day and she is permitted to her husband at night.

ט

כֵּיצַד. רָאֲתָה דָּם בִּימֵי זִיבָתָהּ. בֵּין שֶׁרָאֲתָה בִּתְחִלַּת הַלַּיְלָה בֵּין שֶׁרָאֲתָה בְּסוֹף הַיּוֹם. הֲרֵי אוֹתוֹ הַיּוֹם כֻּלּוֹ טָמֵא וּכְאִלּוּ לֹא פָּסַק הַדָּם מֵעֵת שֶׁרָאֲתָה עַד שֶׁשָּׁקְעָה הַחַמָּה וּמְשַׁמֶּרֶת כָּל הַלַּיְלָה. וְאִם לֹא רָאֲתָה כְּלוּם בַּלַּיְלָה מַשְׁכֶּמֶת לְמָחָר וְטוֹבֶלֶת אַחַר שֶׁתָּנֵץ הַחַמָּה וּמְשַׁמֶּרֶת כָּל הַיּוֹם. אִם לֹא רָאֲתָה כְּלוּם הֲרֵי זֶה יוֹם אֶחָד טָהוֹר כְּנֶגֶד הַיּוֹם הַטָּמֵא וַהֲרֵי הִיא מֻתֶּרֶת לְבַעְלָהּ לָעֶרֶב:

10

If she discovered [uterine] bleeding also on the second day, whether at night or whether during the day, after she immersed herself, that second day is also impure and she must watch herself for the entire third night. If there are no signs of bleeding at night, she should arise in the morning and immerse herself after sunrise. She should watch herself for the entire day.16 If there are no signs of bleeding, there is then a pure day to compensate for the two impure days17 and she is permitted to her husband at night.

י

רָאֲתָה דָּם גַּם בַּיּוֹם הַשֵּׁנִי בֵּין בְּלֵילוֹ בֵּין בְּיוֹמוֹ אַחַר שֶׁטָּבְלָה הֲרֵי הַיּוֹם הַשֵּׁנִי טָמֵא וּמְשַׁמֶּרֶת כָּל לֵיל שְׁלִישִׁי. אִם לֹא רָאֲתָה מַשְׁכֶּמֶת לְמָחָר וְטוֹבֶלֶת אַחַר שֶׁתָּנֵץ הַחַמָּה וּמְשַׁמֶּרֶת כָּל הַיּוֹם. אִם לֹא רָאֲתָה כְּלוּם הֲרֵי זֶה יוֹם אֶחָד טָהוֹר כְּנֶגֶד שְׁנֵי יָמִים הַטְּמֵאִים וּמֻתֶּרֶת לְבַעְלָהּ לָעֶרֶב:

11

If she discovered [uterine] bleeding on the third day, whether during the day or at night, she is a major zavah and she must count seven pure days when there is no uterine bleeding [at all], as [Leviticus 15:28] states: "She must count seven days for herself." She immerses herself on the seventh day after sunrise and is permitted to her husband at night. On the eighth day, she brings her sacrifice, two turtle doves or two doves.

יא

רָאֲתָה דָּם גַּם בַּשְּׁלִישִׁי בֵּין בְּיוֹמוֹ בֵּין בְּלֵילוֹ הֲרֵי זוֹ זָבָה גְּדוֹלָה וּצְרִיכָה לִסְפֹּר שִׁבְעָה יָמִים טְהוֹרִים בְּלֹא דָּם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא טו כח) "וְסָפְרָה לָּהּ שִׁבְעַת יָמִים" וְגוֹ' וְטוֹבֶלֶת בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי אַחַר הָנֵץ הַחַמָּה וַהֲרֵי הִיא מֻתֶּרֶת לְבַעְלָהּ לָעֶרֶב. וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁמִינִי מְבִיאָה קָרְבָּנָהּ שְׁנֵי תּוֹרִים אוֹ שְׁנֵי בְּנֵי יוֹנָה:

12

When a minor zavah immerses herself at night18 during the day she is watching or a major zavah immerses herself on the seventh night, it is as if she did not immerse herself.19 She is like a niddah who immerses herself within the seven days.

יב

זָבָה קְטַנָּה שֶׁטָּבְלָה בַּלַּיְלָה שֶׁל יוֹם הַשִּׁמּוּר אוֹ זָבָה גְּדוֹלָה שֶׁטָּבְלָה בְּלֵיל שְׁבִיעִי כְּאִלּוּ לֹא טָבְלָה וַהֲרֵי הִיא כְּנִדָּה שֶׁטָּבְלָה בְּתוֹךְ שִׁבְעָה:

13

When a person has relations with a major zavah after she immersed herself on the seventh day of her counting [of "spotless" days] or with a minor zavah after she immersed herself on the day on which she must watch herself, he is not liable for kerait, because she immersed herself at the time she was fit to immerse herself when regaining ritual purity.20 This woman, however, possessed improper culture, for relations with her and things she touches are tenative.21

יג

הַבָּא עַל זָבָה גְּדוֹלָה בְּיוֹם שְׁבִיעִי שֶׁל סְפִירָה אַחַר שֶׁטָּבְלָה אוֹ עַל זָבָה קְטַנָּה בְּיוֹם הַשִּׁמּוּר אַחַר שֶׁטָּבְלָה פָּטוּר מִן הַכָּרֵת. כֵּיוָן שֶׁטָּבְלָה בַּזְּמַן הָרָאוּי לִטְבִילָתָהּ טְהוֹרָה. וּלְאִשָּׁה זוֹ יִהְיֶה לָהּ תַּרְבּוּת רָעָה שֶׁהֲרֵי בְּעִילָתָהּ וּמַגָּעָהּ תְּלוּיִין:

14

What is meant by their being "tentative"? If the day on which she immersed herself is completed without her discovering any uterine bleeding, everything which she touched after she immersed herself is ritually pure and there is no liability for relations with her. If, however, she discovers blood on this day after immersing herself, she is considered as a zavah retroactively. Anything which she touched is retroactively considered as impure and she and the man who engaged in relations with her are obligated to bring a sacrifice.22 Therefore she is forbidden to her husband until the evening, lest she bring herself to a situation involving doubt.

יד

כֵּיצַד הֵן תְּלוּיִין. אִם נִשְׁלַם הַיּוֹם אַחַר הַטְּבִילָה וְלֹא רָאֲתָה דָּם הֲרֵי כָּל שֶׁנָּגְעָה בּוֹ אַחַר טְבִילָתָהּ טָהוֹר וּבְעִילָתָהּ אַחַר הַטְּבִילָה אֵין חַיָּבִין עָלֶיהָ כְּלוּם. וְאִם רָאֲתָה דָּם בְּיוֹם זֶה אַחַר שֶׁטָּבְלָה נִמְצֵאת זָבָה לְמַפְרֵעַ וְכָל שֶׁנָּגְעָה בּוֹ לְמַפְרֵעַ טָמֵא. וְהִיא וּבוֹעֲלָהּ חַיָּבִין בְּקָרְבָּן. וּלְפִיכָךְ הִיא אֲסוּרָה לְבַעְלָהּ עַד לָעֶרֶב שֶׁלֹּא תָּבִיא עַצְמָהּ לִידֵי סָפֵק:

15

When a zavah counts six "spotless" days and discovers uterine bleeding on the seventh day, even if it is close to sunset,23 all of the days counted previously are invalidated24 and she begins a new reckoning of seven "spotless" days after the impure day.

טו

זָבָה שֶׁסָּפְרָה שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים נְקִיִּים. וּבַשְּׁבִיעִי רָאֲתָה דָּם אֲפִלּוּ סָמוּךְ לִשְׁקִיעַת הַחַמָּה סוֹתֶרֶת הַכּל וְחוֹזֶרֶת לִמְנוֹת מֵאַחַר הַיּוֹם הַטָּמֵא שִׁבְעָה יָמִים נְקִיִּים:

16

If [a woman] discharges semen25 during the days she is counting, she invalidates one day. She is like a zav who has a seminal emission who invalidates one day [in his counting].26

If she discovered uterine bleeding on the tenth, eleventh, and twelfth days of her "days of zivah," she is not considered a major zavah. Instead, from the state of a minor zavah, she becomes a niddah. For the twelfth day is the beginning of her days of niddah27 and a woman who discovers bleeding in her days of niddah does not become a zavah, as we explained.28

טז

פָּלְטָה שִׁכְבַת זֶרַע בְּתוֹךְ יְמֵי הַסְּפִירָה סוֹתֶרֶת יוֹם אֶחָד מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא כְּזָב שֶׁרָאָה קֶרִי שֶׁסּוֹתֵר יוֹם אֶחָד. רָאֲתָה דָּם בַּעֲשִׂירִי מִימֵי זִיבָתָהּ וּבְאַחַד עָשָׂר וּבִשְׁתֵּים עָשָׂר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁרָאֲתָה שְׁלֹשָׁה יָמִים זֶה אַחַר זֶה אֵינָהּ זָבָה גְּדוֹלָה. אֶלָּא יָצָאת מִזִּיבוּת קְטַנָּה לְנִדָּה שֶׁיּוֹם שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר מַתְחֶלֶת נִדָּתָהּ וְהָרוֹאָה בִּימֵי נִדָּתָהּ אֵינָהּ זָבָה כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

17

What is the intent of the Torah's wording [Leviticus 15:25]: "After the time for niddah"? That if she discovered bleeding on the three days that follow her niddah [bleeding], she is a zavah,29 i.e., she discovered bleeding on the eighth day after the onset of the days of niddah, the ninth day, and the tenth day, i.e., the first three of the eleven days of zivah.

[The following laws apply if a woman] discovers bleeding on the eleventh day of zivah and she immersed herself in the evening on the night of the twelfth day and engaged in relations.30 Although she is impure and the man who engaged in relations with her becomes impure and the laws regarding the impurity of the places where they both sit and lie apply, the couple are not liable for kerait. [The rationale is that] the twelfth day is not joined with the eleventh day for her to be considered a zavah. Her immersion that night is effective in saving her from [being liable to bring] a sacrifice.31

יז

וּמַה הוּא זֶה שֶׁכָּתוּב בַּתּוֹרָה אוֹ (ויקרא טו כה) "כִּי תָזוּב עַל נִדָּתָהּ". שֶׁאִם רָאֲתָה שְׁלֹשָׁה יָמִים סָמוּךְ לְנִדָּתָהּ הֲרֵי זוֹ זָבָה. כְּגוֹן שֶׁרָאֲתָה בַּשְּׁמִינִי לְנִדָּתָהּ וּבַתְּשִׁיעִי וּבָעֲשִׂירִי שֶׁהֵן רִאשׁוֹן וְשֵׁנִי וּשְׁלִישִׁי מֵהָאַחַד עָשָׂר יוֹם שֶׁהֵן יְמֵי זִיבָתָהּ. רָאֲתָה דָּם בַּי''א מִימֵי זִיבָתָהּ וְטָבְלָה לָעֶרֶב שֶׁהוּא לֵיל י''ב וְשִׁמְּשָׁה מִטָּתָהּ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִיא טְמֵאָה וּבוֹעֲלָהּ טָמֵא וְעוֹשִׂין מִשְׁכָּב וּמוֹשָׁב אֵינָם חַיָּבִים כָּרֵת מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין יוֹם י''ב מִצְטָרֵף לְיוֹם י''א לַעֲשׂוֹת זָבָה. הוֹעִילָה לָהּ טְבִילַת לֵיל זֶה לְהַצִּילָהּ מִן הַקָּרְבָּן:

18

If she immerses herself on the twelfth day after sunrise, she is forbidden to her husband until the evening as is the law with regard to any minor zavah.32 If [her husband] transgresses and engages in relations with her, neither of them are liable at all.33 Even if she discovers blood on the twelfth day after they engaged in relations it is of no significance. For this is the blood of niddah and it is not associated with [the bleeding of] the previous day.

יח

טָבְלָה בְּיוֹם י''ב אַחַר שֶׁתָּנֵץ הַחַמָּה הֲרֵי זוֹ אֲסוּרָה לְבַעְלָהּ עַד לָעֶרֶב כְּדִין כָּל זָבָה קְטַנָּה. וְאִם עָבַר וּבְעָלָהּ שְׁנֵיהֶן פְּטוּרִין מִכְּלוּם. וַאֲפִלּוּ רָאֲתָה דָּם אַחַר שֶׁבָּא עָלֶיהָ בְּיוֹם י''ב אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם שֶׁזֶּה דַּם נִדָּה הוּא וְאֵינוֹ מִצְטָרֵף לַיּוֹם שֶׁלְּפָנָיו:

19

If she discovers bleeding at the conclusion of her seventh day of niddah during bein hashamashot,34 and then discovers bleeding on the ninth day and the tenth day, there is an unresolved doubt if she is considered a [major]35 zavah.36 For perhaps the [blood] discovered at first was on the eighth night and thus it is as if she discovered blood on three consecutive days at the beginning of her days of zivah.

Similarly, if she discovered bleeding on the ninth and tenth days of her days of zivah and discovered bleeding again at the conclusion of the eleventh day during bein hashamashot, there is an unresolved doubt if she is considered a [major] zavah. For perhaps the final discovery [of bleeding] was on the eleventh day and she will have discovered [bleeding] on three consecutive days during her days of zivah.

יט

רָאֲתָה דָּם בְּסוֹף שְׁבִיעִי לְנִדָּתָהּ בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת וְרָאֲתָה בַּתְּשִׁיעִי וּבַעֲשִׂירִי הֲרֵי זוֹ סְפֵק זָבָה. שֶׁמָּא רְאִיָּה רִאשׁוֹנָה בְּלֵיל שְׁמִינִי הָיְתָה וְנִמְצֵאת שֶׁרָאֲתָה שְׁלֹשָׁה יָמִים זֶה אַחַר זֶה מִתְּחִלַּת יְמֵי זִיבָתָהּ. וְכֵן אִם רָאֲתָה דָּם בַּתְּשִׁיעִי וּבַעֲשִׂירִי מִימֵי זִיבָתָהּ וְרָאֲתָה בְּסוֹף יוֹם אַחַד עָשָׂר בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת הֲרֵי זוֹ סְפֵק זָבָה. שֶׁמָּא רְאִיָּה אַחֲרוֹנָה בְּיוֹם אַחַד עָשָׂר הָיְתָה וַהֲרֵי רָאֲתָה שְׁלֹשָׁה יָמִים זֶה אַחַר זֶה בִּימֵי זִיבָתָהּ:

20

When a niddah inspects herself in the midst of her days of niddah and discovers that her bleeding has ceased, even if it ceased on the second37 day of her menstrual period, and either, inadvertently or intentionally, did not inspect herself again until many days after her [days of] niddah and discovers impurity,38 we do not say that she was impure for all those days and [hence,] she is a zavah.39 Instead, throughout the entire time that she did not inspect herself, we operate under the presumption that she is pure.40

If she inspected herself and found impurity, even if she checked herself on the seventh of her days of niddah, if she did not inspect herself again [before] bein hashamashot to separate herself from the impurity of niddah, but instead waited [several] days and afterwards inspected herself and found that she was pure, there is an unresolved doubt if she is considered a [major] zavah.41

If she discovered impurity, she is definitely a zavah. [The rationale is that since] at the beginning she discovered impurity and at the end, she discovered impurity, we operate under the presumption that she did not stop bleeding.42

On the first day of menstruation, even though a woman [conducted an inspection and] found that she was pure, it is as if she discovered impurity. For on the first day of menstruation, we operate under the presumption that a woman's flow will continue.43

כ

נִדָּה שֶׁבָּדְקָה עַצְמָהּ בְּתוֹךְ יְמֵי נִדָּתָהּ וּמָצְאָה שֶׁפָּסַק הַדָּם וַאֲפִלּוּ פָּסַק בְּשֵׁנִי לְנִדָּתָהּ וְשָׁגְגָה אוֹ הֵזִידָה וְלֹא בָּדְקָה עַד לְאַחַר נִדָּתָהּ יָמִים רַבִּים וּכְשֶׁבָּדְקָה מָצְאָה טֻמְאָה. אֵין אוֹמְרִים שֶׁמָּא כָּל אוֹתָן הַיָּמִים הָיְתָה טְמֵאָה וְתִהְיֶה זָבָה אֶלָּא כָּל אוֹתָן הַיָּמִים שֶׁלֹּא בָּדְקָה בְּחֶזְקַת טָהֳרָה. בָּדְקָה עַצְמָהּ וּמָצְאָה טְמֵאָה. אֲפִלּוּ בָּדְקָה בַּשְּׁבִיעִי לְנִדָּתָהּ וּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת לֹא בָּדְקָה עַצְמָהּ כְּדֵי לִפְרשׁ מִטֻּמְאַת נִדָּה אֶלָּא הִמְתִּינָה יָמִים וְאַחַר כָּךְ בָּדְקָה וּמָצָאת טְהוֹרָה הֲרֵי זוֹ סְפֵק זָבָה. וְאִם מָצְאָה טְמֵאָה הֲרֵי זוֹ זָבָה וַדָּאִית שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁבַּתְּחִלָּה מָצְאָה טְמֵאָה וּלְבַסּוֹף טְמֵאָה הֲרֵי זוֹ בְּחֶזְקַת שֶׁלֹּא פָּסַק. וְיוֹם רִאשׁוֹן שֶׁל נִדָּה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמָּצְאָה בּוֹ טְהוֹרָה הֲרֵי זוֹ כְּמִי שֶׁמָּצְאָה טְמֵאָה. שֶׁיּוֹם רִאשׁוֹן כֻּלּוֹ הֻחְזַק הַמַּעֲיָן פָּתוּחַ:

21

When a zavah inspects herself on the first day of [the seven days]44 she must count and finds herself pure and then did not inspect herself until the seventh day and found that she was pure, she can be assumed to be pure.45 It is as if she inspected herself for all of the seven days and discovered herself to be pure.

כא

זָבָה שֶׁבָּדְקָה עַצְמָהּ בָּרִאשׁוֹן מִימֵי הַסְּפִירָה וּמָצְאָה טָהוֹר וְלֹא בָּדְקָה עַד יוֹם שְׁבִיעִי וּמָצְאָה טָהוֹר הֲרֵי זוֹ בְּחֶזְקַת טָהֳרָה וּכְאִלּוּ בָּדְקָה כָּל שִׁבְעָה וּמָצְאָה טָהוֹר:

22

Similarly, if she inspects herself on the first day of [the seven days] she must count and finds herself pure and [inspects herself] on the eighth day and found that she was pure, she can be assumed to be pure.46

If she checked herself on the third day of zivah and discovered that the bleeding had ceased, but did not check herself on the first day of counting and then checked herself on the seventh day, she can be assumed to be pure.47

The same laws apply to a zav48 with regard to all these inspections if he finds himself pure and it is considered as if he counted these days.

כב

וְכֵן אִם בָּדְקָה בְּיוֹם רִאשׁוֹן מִימֵי הַסְּפִירָה וּמָצְאָה טָהוֹר וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁמִינִי וּמָצְאָה טָהוֹר הֲרֵי זוֹ בְּחֶזְקַת טָהֳרָה. בָּדְקָה בְּיוֹם שְׁלִישִׁי לְזִיבָתָהּ וּמָצְאָה שֶׁפָּסַק הַדָּם וְלֹא בָּדְקָה בְּיוֹם רִאשׁוֹן מִימֵי הַסְּפִירָה וּבַשְּׁבִיעִי בָּדְקָה וּמָצְאָה טָהוֹר הֲרֵי זוֹ בְּחֶזְקַת טָהֳרָה. וְהוּא הַדִּין לְזָב בְּכָל אֵלּוּ הַבְּדִיקוֹת שֶׁהוּא טָהוֹר וְעָלוּ לוֹ יְמֵי סְפִירָה:

23

Whenever there is a doubt whether a woman is niddah or a zavah, she must count seven "spotless" days49 because of the doubt. She immerses herself on the night preceding the eighth day50 Afterwards, she is permitted to her husband. She must bring the sacrifice of a zavah, but it is not eaten as will be explained in the appropriate place.51

כג

כָּל אִשָּׁה שֶׁהִיא סְפֵק נִדָּה סְפֵק זָבָה צְרִיכָה לֵישֵׁב שִׁבְעַת יָמִים נְקִיִּים מִסָּפֵק וְטוֹבֶלֶת בְּלֵיל שְׁמִינִי וְאַחַר כָּךְ תִּהְיֶה מֻתֶּרֶת לְבַעְלָהּ. וּמְבִיאָה קָרְבַּן זָבָה וְאֵינוֹ נֶאֱכָל כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בִּמְקוֹמוֹ: