1

[A woman in] the niddah1 state is like all of the other arayot. A person who inserts his corona into her vaginal or anal orifice is liable for kerait. [This applies] even if she is a minor who is three years old, as applies with regard to other arayot.

For a woman can become impure as a niddah even on the day she is born.2 And a girl who is ten days becomes impure because of zivah.3 This concept was communicated through the Oral Tradition. There is no difference between an adult and an a minor with regard to the impurity associated with nidah and zivah.

א

הַנִּדָה הֲרֵי הִיא כִּשְׁאָר כָּל הָעֲרָיוֹת. הַמְעָרֶה בָּהּ [בֵּין כְּדַרְכָּהּ בֵּין שֶׁלֹּא כְּדַרְכָּהּ] חַיָּב כָּרֵת וַאֲפִלּוּ הָיְתָה קְטַנָּה בַּת שָׁלֹשׁ שָׁנִים וְיוֹם אֶחָד כִּשְׁאָר עֲרָיוֹת שֶׁהַבַּת מִתְטַמְּאָה בְּנִדָּה וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּיוֹם לֵדָתָהּ. וּבַת עֲשָׂרָה יָמִים מְטַמְּאָה בְּזִיבָה וְדָבָר זֶה מִפִּי הַשְּׁמוּעָה לָמְדוּ שֶׁאֵין הֶפְרֵשׁ בֵּין גְּדוֹלָה לִקְטַנָּה לְטֻמְאַת נִדּוֹת וְזָבוֹת:

2

[The prohibitions that apply] to one who has relations with a nidah apply throughout the seven days, even if blood was sighted only on the first day. [These same prohibitions] apply to one who has relations with a woman who gave birth to a male throughout the seven days [following birth], to one who has relations with a woman who gave birth to a female throughout the fourteen days [following birth], to one who has relations with a zavah through the time she bleeds and then counts [seven "clean" days].4 This applies also to a Canaanite maidservant and one who has been freed. All [of these relations] are punishable by kerait.

[The association is derived as follows:] With regard to a nidah, [Leviticus 15:19] states: "She will be in her niddah state for seven days." With regard to a zavah, [ibid.:25] states: "All the days of the flow of her impurity will be like the days of her niddah state."5 With regard to a woman who gave birth to a male,6 [ibid. 12:2] states: "She will become impure as in the days of her nidah affliction." 7 And with regard to a woman who gave birth to a female, [ibid. 12:5] states: "She will be impure as in her niddah state for two weeks."8

ב

וְאֶחָד הַבָּא עַל הַנִּדָּה כָּל שִׁבְעַת הַיָּמִים וַאֲפִלּוּ לֹא רָאֲתָה אֶלָּא יוֹם רִאשׁוֹן. וְאֶחָד הַבָּא עַל יוֹלֶדֶת זָכָר כָּל שִׁבְעָה אוֹ עַל יוֹלֶדֶת נְקֵבָה כָּל אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר. אוֹ עַל הַזָּבָה כָּל יְמֵי זוֹבָהּ וּסְפִירָתָהּ. בֵּין שִׁפְחָה בֵּין מְשֻׁחְרֶרֶת הַכּל בְּכָרֵת שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בְּנִדָּה (ויקרא טו יט) "שִׁבְעַת יָמִים תִּהְיֶה בְּנִדָּתָהּ". וּבְזָבָה נֶאֱמַר (ויקרא טו כה) "כָּל יְמֵי זוֹב טֻמְאָתָהּ כִּימֵי נִדָּתָהּ תִּהְיֶה". וּבְיוֹלֶדֶת זָכָר הוּא אוֹמֵר (ויקרא יב ב) "כִּימֵי נִדַּת דְּוֹתָהּ תִּטְמָא". וּבְיוֹלֶדֶת נְקֵבָה (ויקרא יב ה) "וְטָמְאָה שְׁבֻעַיִם כְּנִדָּתָהּ":

3

When does the above - that the impurity is dependent on [the passage of] days - apply? When the woman immersed herself in the waters of a mikveh9 after these specifically mentioned days.10 If, however, a niddah, a zavah or a woman who gave birth did not immerse in a mikveh, a person is liable for kerait for having relations with one of them even several years afterwards. For the Torah made the matter dependent on [the passage of] days and immersion, as [Leviticus 15:18] states: "And they shall immerse themselves [in the water]...." This teaches a general principle with regard to any impure person: he is in a state of impurity until he [or she] immerses.

ג

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים שֶׁהַטֻּמְאָה תְּלוּיָה בְּיָמִים בְּשֶׁטָּבְלָה בְּמֵי מִקְוֶה אַחַר הַיָּמִים הַסְּפוּרִים. אֲבָל נִדָּה וְזָבָה וְיוֹלֶדֶת שֶׁלֹּא טָבְלוּ בְּמֵי מִקְוֶה הַבָּא עַל אַחַת מֵהֶן אֲפִלּוּ אַחַר כַּמָּה שָׁנִים חַיָּב כָּרֵת. שֶׁבְּיָמִים וּטְבִילָה תָּלָה הַכָּתוּב שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא טו יח) "וְרַחֲצוּ בַמַּיִם" זֶה בִּנְיַן אָב לְכָל טָמֵא שֶׁהוּא בְּטֻמְאָתוֹ עַד שֶׁיִּטְבּל:

4

The prohibitions against relations with a niddah, a zavah, and a woman after childbirth do not apply with regard to relations with gentile women.11 Our Sages decreed that all gentiles, male and female, would be considered like zavim at all times, whether or not they experienced such discharges,12 with regard to matters of purity and impurity.

ד

הָעַכּוּ''ם אֵין חַיָּבִין עֲלֵיהֶם מִשּׁוּם נִדָּה וְלֹא מִשּׁוּם זָבָה וְלֹא מִשּׁוּם יוֹלֶדֶת. וַחֲכָמִים גָּזְרוּ עַל כָּל הָעַכּוּ''ם הַזְּכָרִים וְהַנְּקֵבוֹת שֶׁיְּהוּ כְּזָבִים תָּמִיד בֵּין רָאוּ בֵּין לֹא רָאוּ לְעִנְיַן טֻמְאָה וְטָהֳרָה:

5

All blood manifest by a woman after childbirth during the 33 days associated with the birth of a male13 and the 66 days associated with the birth of a female14 is called blood of purity.15 It does not prevent a woman from [relations with] her husband. Instead, she immerses herself after seven days [of impurity] for a male and fourteen for a female. She may then engage in relations with her husband16 even though her blood flows.17

ה

כָּל דָּם שֶׁתִּרְאֶה הַיּוֹלֶדֶת בְּתוֹךְ ל''ג שֶׁל זָכָר וְס''ו שֶׁל נְקֵבָה הוּא הַנִּקְרָא דַּם טֹהַר. וְאֵין מוֹנֵעַ אֶת הָאִשָּׁה מִבַּעְלָהּ אֶלָּא טוֹבֶלֶת אַחַר שִׁבְעָה לְזָכָר וְאַחַר אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר לִנִקֵבָה וּמִשַׁמֵּשֵׁת מִטָּתָהּ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַדָּם שׁוֹתֵת וְיוֹרֵד:

6

All of those who must immerse themselves are required to immerse themselves during the day with the exception of a niddah and a woman after childbirth.18 For with regard to a niddah, [Leviticus 15:19] states: "She will be in her niddah state for seven days." Her niddah state prevails for all of the seven days.19 She immerses on the evening of the eighth day. Similarly, a woman who gives birth to a male child immerses on the evening of the eighth day, and one who gives birth to a female immerses on the evening of the fifteenth day, for a woman who gives birth is comparable to one in the niddah state, as we explained.20

ו

כָּל חַיָּבֵי טְבִילוֹת טְבִילָתָן בַּיּוֹם חוּץ מִנִּדָּה וְיוֹלֶדֶת שֶׁהֲרֵי הוּא אוֹמֵר בְּנִדָּה (ויקרא טו יט) "שִׁבְעַת יָמִים תִּהְיֶה בְּנִדָּתָהּ". הַשִּׁבְעָה כֻּלָּן בְּנִדָּתָהּ וְטוֹבֶלֶת בְּלֵיל שְׁמִינִי. וְכֵן יוֹלֶדֶת זָכָר בְּלֵיל שְׁמִינִי וְיוֹלֶדֶת נְקֵבָה בְּלֵיל חֲמִשָּׁה עָשָׂר. שֶׁהַיּוֹלֶדֶת כְּנִדָּה כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ:

7

If she21 delayed the matter for many days and did not immerse herself, when she immerses herself, she should immerse only at night. For if she immerses during the day, an error [may be] made and another niddah may come and immerse herself on the seventh day.

ז

נִתְאַחֲרָה יָמִים רַבִּים וְלֹא טָבְלָה כְּשֶׁתִּטְבּל לֹא תִּטְבּל אֶלָּא בַּלַּיְלָה שֶׁאִם תִּטְבּל בַּיּוֹם יִטְעוּ וְתָבוֹא נִדָּה אַחֶרֶת לִטְבּל בִּשְׁבִיעִי:

8

If a woman was sick or the place for immersion was far away and women could not reach there and return at night because of thieves,22 because of cold, or because they close the gates of the city at night, she may immerse during the day on the eighth - or subsequent - days.23

ח

הָיְתָה חוֹלָה אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה מְקוֹם הַטְּבִילָה רָחוֹק וְאֵין הַנָּשִׁים יְכוֹלוֹת לְהַגִּיעַ לוֹ וְלַחֲזֹר בַּלַּיְלָה מִפְּנֵי הַלִּסְטִים אוֹ מִפְּנֵי הַצִּנָּה אוֹ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנּוֹעֲלִין שַׁעֲרֵי הַמְּדִינָה בַּלַּיְלָה הֲרֵי זוֹ טוֹבֶלֶת בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁמִינִי אוֹ בַּיָּמִים שֶׁל אַחֲרָיו בַּיּוֹם:

9

Whenever a woman has a veset,24 her husband can assume that she is [ritually pure and] permitted until she tells him "I am impure" or she is established as a niddah in her neighborhood.25

If a woman's husband went overseas and left her ritually pure, when he comes he does not have to ask her [concerning her state]. Even if he finds her asleep, he may enter into relations with her26 as long as it is not the time when she is expected to menstruate.27 He need not suspect that perhaps she is a niddah. If he left her a niddah, she is forbidden to him until she tells him: "I am ritually pure."28

ט

כָּל הַנָּשִׁים שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהֶן וֶסֶת בְּחֶזְקַת טָהֳרָה לְבַעְלֵיהֶן עַד שֶׁתֹּאמַר לוֹ טְמֵאָה אֲנִי אוֹ עַד שֶׁתֻּחְזַק נִדָּה בִּשְׁכֵנוֹתֶיהָ. הָלַךְ בַּעְלָהּ לִמְדִינָה אַחֶרֶת וֶהֱנִיחָהּ טְהוֹרָה כְּשֶׁיָּבוֹא אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לִשְׁאל לָהּ אֲפִלּוּ מְצָאָהּ יְשֵׁנָה הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר לָבוֹא עָלֶיהָ שֶׁלֹּא בְּעוֹנַת וֶסְתָּהּ וְאֵינוֹ חוֹשֵׁשׁ שֶׁמָּא נִדָּה הִיא. וְאִם הֱנִיחָהּ נִדָּה אֲסוּרָה לוֹ עַד שֶׁתֹּאמַר לוֹ טְהוֹרָה אֲנִי:

10

When a woman tells her husband: "I am ritually impure," and afterwards she tells him: "I am ritually pure. Before I was just speaking facetiously with you," her word is not accepted.29 If she provides a rationale for her original statements, her word is accepted. 30

What is implied? Her husband asked her to engage in relations and his sister or his mother was together with her in the courtyard. She originally said she was impure. Afterwards, she said: "I am pure. I told you that I am impure only because of your sister or your mother; lest they see us." [In this instance,] her statement is accepted. Similar laws apply in all analogous situations.31

י

הָאִשָּׁה שֶׁאָמְרָה לְבַעְלָהּ טְמֵאָה אֲנִי וְחָזְרָה וְאָמְרָה טְהוֹרָה אֲנִי וְדֶרֶךְ שְׂחוֹק אָמַרְתִּי לְךָ תְּחִלָּה אֵינָהּ נֶאֱמֶנֶת. וְאִם נָתְנָה אֲמַתְלָא לִדְבָרֶיהָ נֶאֱמֶנֶת. כֵּיצַד. תְּבָעָהּ בַּעְלָהּ וַאֲחוֹתוֹ אוֹ אִמּוֹ עִמָּהּ בֶּחָצֵר וְאָמְרָה טְמֵאָה אֲנִי וְאַחַר כָּךְ חָזְרָה וְאָמְרָה טְהוֹרָה אֲנִי וְלֹא אָמַרְתִּי לְךָ טְמֵאָה אֶלָּא מִפְּנֵי אֲחוֹתְךָ וְאִמְּךָ שֶׁמָּא יִרְאוּ אוֹתָנוּ הֲרֵי זוֹ נֶאֱמֶנֶת. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה:

11

When a man was in the midst of relations with a woman who had been ritually pure and she said: "I became impure," he should not separate himself immediately while he is erect. For withdrawing is as pleasurable for him as entry. If he withdraws while he is still erect, he is liable for kerait,32 like one who enters into relations with a niddah. This law also applies with regard to other arayot.33

What should he do? Implant his toenails in the ground and wait without moving until he loses his erection.34 Afterwards, he should withdraw.

יא

הָיָה מְשַׁמֵּשׁ עִם הַטְּהוֹרָה וְאָמְרָה לוֹ נִטְמֵאתִי לֹא יִפְרשׁ מִיָּד וְהוּא בְּקִשּׁוּיוֹ שֶׁהֲנָאָה לוֹ בִּיצִיאָתוֹ כְּבִיאָתוֹ. וְאִם פֵּרֵשׁ וְהוּא בְּקִשּׁוּיוֹ חַיָּב כָּרֵת כְּמוֹ שֶׁבָּעַל נִדָּה. וְהוּא הַדִּין בִּשְׁאָר עֲרָיוֹת. אֶלָּא כֵּיצַד יַעֲשֶׂה. נוֹעֵץ צִפָּרְנֵי רַגְלָיו בַּקַּרְקַע וְשׁוֹהֶה וְאֵינוֹ מִזְדַּעֲזֵעַ עַד שֶׁיָּמוּת הָאֵיבָר וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִשְׁמָט מִמֶּנָּה:

12

It is forbidden for a person to engage in relations35 with his wife near the time she can expect menstruation to begin,36 lest she menstruate in the midst of relations. [This is alluded to by Leviticus 15:31]: "And you shall warn the children of Israel concerning their impurity."37

For how long [is it necessary to refrain from relations]? If [the woman] would ordinarily begin menstruating during the day, she is forbidden to enter into relations from the beginning of the day. If she would ordinarily begin menstruating during the night, she is forbidden to enter into relations from the beginning of the night.38

יב

וְאָסוּר לוֹ לָאָדָם לָבֹא עַל אִשְׁתּוֹ סָמוּךְ לְוֶסְתָּהּ שֶׁמָּא תִּרְאֶה דָּם בִּשְׁעַת תַּשְׁמִישׁ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא טו לא) "וְהִזַּרְתֶּם אֶת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל מִטֻּמְאָתָם". וְכַמָּה. אִם הָיָה דַּרְכָּהּ לִרְאוֹת בַּיּוֹם אָסוּר לְשַׁמֵּשׁ מִתְּחִלַּת הַיּוֹם. וְאִם הָיָה דַּרְכָּהּ לִרְאוֹת בַּלַּיְלָה אָסוּר לְשַׁמֵּשׁ מִתְּחִלַּת הַלַּיְלָה:

13

If the time when menstruation could be expected to come passes and she did not begin menstruating, she is permitted to engage in relations after the time when menstruation was expected to begin passes.

What is implied? If she was accustomed to begin menstruating after six hours of the day passed. She is forbidden to engage in relations from the beginning of the day. If six hours pass without her beginning to menstruate, she is forbidden to engage in relations until the evening. 39 Similarly, if she was accustomed to begin menstruating after six hours of the night and that time passed without her beginning to menstruate, she is forbidden to engage in relations until sunrise.

יג

עָבַר וֶסְתָּהּ וְלֹא רָאֲתָה מֻתֶּרֶת לְשַׁמֵּשׁ אַחַר שֶׁתַּעֲבֹר עוֹנַת הַוֶּסֶת. כֵּיצַד. הָיָה דַּרְכָּהּ לִרְאוֹת בְּשֵׁשׁ שָׁעוֹת בַּיּוֹם אֲסוּרָה לְשַׁמֵּשׁ מִתְּחִלַּת הַיּוֹם. עָבְרוּ שֵׁשׁ שָׁעוֹת בַּיּוֹם וְלֹא רָאֲתָה אֲסוּרָה לְשַׁמֵּשׁ עַד לָעֶרֶב. וְכֵן אִם הָיָה דַּרְכָּהּ לִרְאוֹת בְּשֵׁשׁ שָׁעוֹת בַּלַּיְלָה וְעָבְרוּ וְלֹא רָאֲתָה אֲסוּרָה לְשַׁמֵּשׁ עַד שֶׁתִּזְרַח הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ:

14

It is the habit of Jewish men and women to carry out a personal inspection after relations.40 What is implied? The man should clean himself with a cloth prepared for [this purpose] and the woman should clean herself with a cloth prepared for [this purpose]. [The purpose of these inspections is] to see whether the woman menstruated in the midst of relations. The man may allow the woman to check with his cloth. Since her word is accepted with regard to her [cloth], it is also accepted with regard to his.

יד

דֶּרֶךְ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וּבְנוֹת יִשְׂרָאֵל לְעוֹלָם לִבְדֹּק עַצְמָם אַחַר הַתַּשְׁמִישׁ. כֵּיצַד. מְקַנֵּחַ הָאִישׁ עַצְמוֹ בְּמַטְלִית נְכוֹנָה לוֹ וּמְקַנַּחַת הָאִשָּׁה עַצְמָהּ בְּמַטְלִית נְכוֹנָה לָהּ וְרוֹאִין בָּהֶן שֶׁמָּא רָאֲתָה דָּם בִּשְׁעַת תַּשְׁמִישׁ. וְיֵשׁ לָאִישׁ לְהָנִיחַ אִשְׁתּוֹ שֶׁתִּבְדֹּק בְּמַטְלִית שֶׁלּוֹ מִתּוֹךְ שֶׁנֶּאֱמֶנֶת עַל שֶׁלָּהּ נֶאֱמֶנֶת עַל שֶׁלּוֹ:

15

The cloths used to clean oneself must be from worn-out,41 white42 linen.43 They are called eidim, "witnesses," in this context. The cloth with which the man cleans himself is called his ed and the cloth with which the woman cleans himself is called her ed.

טו

בְּגָדִים אֵלּוּ שֶׁמְּקַנְּחִין בָּהֶן צְרִיכִין שֶׁיִּהְיוּ שֶׁל פִּשְׁתָּן שַׁחֲקִים וּלְבָנִים וְהֵם הַנִּקְרָאִים עֵדִים בְּעִנְיָן זֶה. וְהַבֶּגֶד שֶׁמְּקַנֵּחַ בּוֹ הוּא נִקְרָא עֵד שֶׁלּוֹ. וְהַבֶּגֶד שֶׁמְּקַנַּחַת הִיא בּוֹ נִקְרָא עֵד שֶׁלָּהּ:

16

Modest women do not engage in relations until they carry out an inspection beforehand.44 A woman who does not have a [fixed] veset is forbidden to engage in relations until she carries out an inspection.45 Therefore, she engages in relation with two edim, one for before relations and one for afterwards. When, however, a woman has a [fixed] veset, she need not use an ed before relations except as a measure of modesty.

After relations, however, everyone needs two witnesses: one for him and one for her, even a pregnant woman, one who is nursing, an elderly woman, or a minor46A virgin47 or a woman whose blood is pure48 does not require edim, because blood is flowing from her.49

טז

הַצְּנוּעוֹת אֵין מְשַׁמְּשׁוֹת אֶלָּא עַד שֶׁיִּבְדְּקוּ עַצְמָן תְּחִלָּה קֹדֶם תַּשְׁמִישׁ. וְאִשָּׁה שֶׁאֵין לָהּ וֶסֶת אֲסוּרָה לְשַׁמֵּשׁ עַד שֶׁתִּבְדֹּק. לְפִיכָךְ הִיא מְשַׁמֶּשֶׁת בִּשְׁנֵי עֵדִים אֶחָד לִפְנֵי הַתַּשְׁמִישׁ וְאֶחָד לְאַחַר הַתַּשְׁמִישׁ. אֲבָל אִשָּׁה שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהּ וֶסֶת אֵינָהּ צְרִיכָה עֵד לִפְנֵי תַּשְׁמִישׁ אֶלָּא מִשּׁוּם צְנִיעוּת בִּלְבַד. אֲבָל אַחַר תַּשְׁמִישׁ הַכּל צְרִיכִין שְׁנֵי עֵדִים אֶחָד לוֹ וְאֶחָד לָהּ אֲפִלּוּ מְעֻבֶּרֶת וּמֵינִיקָה וּזְקֵנָה. וּקְטַנָּה לֹא תְּשַׁמֵּשׁ אֶלָּא בִּשְׁנֵי עֵדִים אֶחָד לוֹ וְאֶחָד לָהּ. אֲבָל בְּתוּלָה וְיוֹשֶׁבֶת עַל דַּם טֹהַר אֵינָהּ צְרִיכָה עֵדִים שֶׁהֲרֵי הַדָּם שׁוֹתֵת מִמֶּנָּה:

17

When a man engages in intercourse several times [in one night], [he and his wife] do not have to check their two edim after each time they engage in intercourse. Instead, he should clean himself with his ed, she should clean herself with her ed after each time they have relations that entire night. In the morning, they should check the edim. If blood is discovered on her ed or on his ed, she is impure.

If a women engaged in relations, cleaned herself, and then the ed was lost, she should not engage in relations again until she makes an internal inspection with another ed first. [We fear that] perhaps there was blood on the ed that was lost.50

יז

הַמְשַׁמֵּשׁ מִטָּתוֹ פְּעָמִים רַבּוֹת אֵינָן צְרִיכִין לִבְדֹּק שְׁנֵי הָעֵדִים שֶׁלָּהֶן עַל כָּל בִּיאָה וּבִיאָה. אֶלָּא מְקַנֵּחַ הוּא בְּעֵד שֶׁלּוֹ וְהִיא בְּעֵד שֶׁלָּהּ אַחַר כָּל בִּיאָה וּבִיאָה שֶׁל כָּל הַלַּיְלָה וּלְמָחָר יִבְדְּקוּ הָעֵדִים. נִמְצָא הַדָּם עַל עֵד שֶׁלָּהּ אוֹ עַל עֵד שֶׁלּוֹ הֲרֵי זוֹ טְמֵאָה. שִׁמְּשָׁה מִטָּתָהּ וְקִנְּחָה עַצְמָהּ וְאָבַד הָעֵד הֲרֵי זוֹ לֹא תְּשַׁמֵּשׁ פַּעַם שְׁנִיָּה עַד שֶׁתִּבְדֹּק בְּעֵד אַחֵר תְּחִלָּה. שֶׁמָּא דָּם הָיָה עַל הָעֵד שֶׁאָבַד:

18

[The following rules apply if] she placed the ed51 under a pillow or a bolster and blood was discovered upon it. If [the stain] is extended, she is impure. For we can assume that [the stain] came from the cleaning.52 If it is rounded,53 she is pure. [We assume that the stain] came only from the blood of a louse which was killed under the pillow.54

יח

הִנִּיחָה הָעֵד תַּחַת הַכַּר אוֹ תַּחַת הַכֶּסֶת וְנִמְצָא עָלָיו דָּם. אִם מָשׁוּךְ טְמֵאָה שֶׁחֶזְקָתוֹ מִן הַקִּנּוּחַ. וְאִם הָיָה עָגל טְהוֹרָה שֶׁאֵין זֶה אֶלָּא דַּם מַאֲכלֶת שֶׁנֶּהֶרְגָה תַּחַת הַכַּר:

19

[When a woman] cleaned herself with an ed that has been checked, then touched it to her thigh,55 and on the next day discovered blood upon it, she is impure. We do not say: Maybe a louse was killed when she touched it to her thigh.56

[The following rules apply if] she cleaned herself with an ed that was not checked57 and she did not know whether it had blood on it before she cleaned herself with it or not. If there was more than a gris of blood [on it], she is [considered] a niddah.58 If the stain was less than that, she is pure. [We assume that the stain] came from a louse.

יט

קִנְּחָה עַצְמָהּ בְּעֵד הַבָּדוּק לָהּ וְטָחֲתוֹ בִּירֵכָהּ וּלְמָחָר נִמְצָא עָלָיו דָּם הֲרֵי זוֹ טְמֵאָה. וְאֵין אוֹמְרִים שֶׁמָּא כְּשֶׁטָּחָה אוֹתָהּ בִּירֵכָהּ נֶהֶרְגָה מַאֲכלֶת. קִנְּחָה עַצְמָהּ בְּעֵד שֶׁאֵינוֹ בָּדוּק לָהּ וְלֹא יָדְעָה אִם הָיָה עָלָיו דָּם קֹדֶם שֶׁתְּקַנֵּחַ בּוֹ אוֹ לֹא הָיָה. נִמְצָא עָלָיו דָּם אִם הָיָה הַדָּם כִּגְרִיס וְעוֹד הֲרֵי זוֹ נִדָּה. הָיָה פָּחוֹת מִכֵּן טְהוֹרָה שֶׁאֵינוֹ אֶלָּא מִן הַמַּאֲכלֶת:

20

When a woman suffers vaginal bleeding in the midst of relations,59she is permitted to engage in relations again a second time once she becomes pure.60 If she suffers vaginal bleeding [in the midst of relations] a second time, she is permitted to engage in relations a third time. If she suffers vaginal bleeding [in the midst of relations] a third time,61 she is forbidden to ever enter into relations again with this husband.62

When does the above apply? When there was no other factor that [the bleeding] could be attributed to.63 If, however, they entered into relations close to the time when she was expected to menstruate,64 we attribute [the bleeding] to her ordinary pattern. If she had a wound [in her vaginal area], we attribute [the bleeding] to the wound. If, however, the blood that comes from the wound is a different shade than the blood which she sees in the midst of relations, she may not attribute [the bleeding] to the wound.65

We accept the word of a woman when she says: "If have a wound in the uterus which bleeds."66 On this basis, she is permitted to her husband even though the uterus bleeds in the midst of relations.

כ

מִי שֶׁרָאֲתָה דָּם בִּשְׁעַת תַּשְׁמִישׁ הֲרֵי זוֹ מֻתֶּרֶת לְשַׁמֵּשׁ כְּשֶׁתִּטְהַר פַּעַם שְׁנִיָּה. רָאֲתָה דָּם בְּפַעַם שְׁנִיָּה מְשַׁמֶּשֶׁת פַּעַם שְׁלִישִׁית. רָאֲתָה דָּם בַּשְּׁלִישִׁית הֲרֵי זוֹ אֲסוּרָה לְשַׁמֵּשׁ עִם בַּעַל זֶה לְעוֹלָם. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּשֶׁלֹּא הָיָה שָׁם דָּבָר לִתְלוֹת בּוֹ. אֲבָל אִם שִׁמְּשָׁה סָמוּךְ לְוֶסְתָּהּ תּוֹלָה בַּוֶּסֶת. הָיְתָה בָּהּ מַכָּה תּוֹלָה בַּמַּכָּה. וְאִם הָיָה דַּם מַכָּתָהּ מְשֻׁנֶּה מִדָּם שֶׁתִּרְאֶה בְּעֵת הַתַּשְׁמִישׁ אֵינָהּ תּוֹלָה בַּמַּכָּה. וְנֶאֱמֶנֶת אִשָּׁה לוֹמַר מַכָּה יֵשׁ לִי בְּתוֹךְ הַמָּקוֹר שֶׁמִּמֶּנָּה הַדָּם יוֹצֵא וְתִהְיֶה מֻתֶּרֶת לְבַעְלָהּ. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁדָּם יוֹצֵא מִן הַמָּקוֹר בִּשְׁעַת תַּשְׁמִישׁ:

21

When a woman bled in the midst of relations on three [successive] occasions and there was no outside factor to which to attribute [the bleeding], she is required to divorce. She may, however, marry a second husband.67 If she married a second time and bled in the midst of relations on three [successive] occasions, she is required to divorce, but she may marry a third man. If, however, she married a third time and bled in the midst of relations on three [successive] occasions, she is required to divorce and she may not marry again68 until she is healed from this sickness.

כא

מִי שֶׁרָאֲתָה דָּם בִּשְׁעַת תַּשְׁמִישׁ פַּעַם רִאשׁוֹנָה וּשְׁנִיָּה וּשְׁלִישִׁית וְאֵין שָׁם דָּבָר לִתְלוֹת בּוֹ הֲרֵי זוֹ תִּתְגָּרֵשׁ וּמֻתֶּרֶת לְהִנָּשֵׂא לְשֵׁנִי. נִשֵּׂאת לְשֵׁנִי וְרָאֲתָה דָּם כָּךְ בִּשְׁעַת תַּשְׁמִישׁ שָׁלֹשׁ פְּעָמִים הֲרֵי זוֹ תִּתְגָּרֵשׁ וְתִנָּשֵׂא לִשְׁלִישִׁי. נִשֵּׂאת לִשְׁלִישִׁי וְרָאֲתָה דָּם כָּךְ בִּשְׁעַת תַּשְׁמִישׁ שָׁלֹשׁ פְּעָמִים הֲרֵי זוֹ תִּתְגָּרֵשׁ וַאֲסוּרָה לְהִנָּשֵׂא עַד שֶׁתַּבְרִיא מֵחלִי זֶה:

22

How does a woman check herself to see whether she has been healed from this sickness?69 She brings a lead tube with its edge doubled over inside of it.70 She inserts the tube into her vagina until the place it can reach. She then places a shaft within the tube with a cotton swab placed at its top. She pushes [the shaft] until the swab reaches the opening of the uterus and then takes out the swab. If blood is found on the top of swab, it can be assumed that the blood discovered in the midst of relations comes from the uterus.71 If there was no blood on the swab, it can be assumed that the blood discovered [in the midst of relations] comes from pressure on the sides of the vaginal channel.72 She is pure and may marry another man, as stated in Hilchot Ishut.73

כב

כֵּיצַד בּוֹדֶקֶת עַצְמָהּ לֵידַע אִם נִרְפֵּאת אוֹ לֹא נִרְפֵּאת. מְבִיאָה שְׁפוֹפֶרֶת שֶׁל אֲבַר וּפִיהָ רָצוּף לְתוֹכָהּ וּמַכְנֶסֶת הַשְּׁפוֹפֶרֶת עַד מָקוֹם שֶׁהִיא יְכוֹלָה. וּמַכְנֶסֶת בְּתוֹךְ הַשְּׁפוֹפֶרֶת מִכְחוֹל וּמוֹךְ מֻנָּח עַל רֹאשׁוֹ וְדוֹפֶקֶת אוֹתוֹ עַד שֶׁיַּגִּיעַ הַמּוֹךְ לְצַוַּאר הָרֶחֶם וּמוֹצִיאָה הַמּוֹךְ. אִם נִמְצָא דָּם עַל רֹאשׁ הַמּוֹךְ בְּיָדוּעַ שֶׁהַדָּם שֶׁהִיא רוֹאָה בִּשְׁעַת תַּשְׁמִישׁ מִן הַמָּקוֹר. וְאִם לֹא נִמְצָא עַל הַמּוֹךְ כְּלוּם בְּיָדוּעַ שֶׁהַדָּם שֶׁרוֹאָה מִדֹּחַק הַצְּדָדִין וּטְהוֹרָה הִיא וּמֻתֶּרֶת לְהִנָּשֵׂא לַאֲחֵרִים כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ בְּהִלְכוֹת אִישׁוּת: