When a person has relations with the wife of a minor, he is not liable.1 [This applies] even to a yevamah with whom a nine year old [brother] had relations.2 Similar [laws apply when] a person has relations with the wife of a deaf-mute,3 the wife of a mentally or emotionally unstable individual,4 the wife of a tumtum or an androgynus,5 a female deaf-mute or a woman who is mentally or emotionally unstable married to a mentally capable individual,6 or a woman whose consecration is of doubtful status or whose divorce is of doubtful status. In all of the above situations, one is not liable. If they willfully transgress, they are given stripes for rebellious conduct.


הַבָא עַל אֵשֶׁת קָטָן אֲפִלּוּ הָיְתָה יְבָמָה שֶׁבָּא עָלֶיהָ בֶּן תֵּשַׁע שָׁנִים וְיוֹם אֶחָד הֲרֵי זֶה פָּטוּר. וְכֵן הַבָּא עַל אֵשֶׁת חֵרֵשׁ וְשׁוֹטֶה וְאֵשֶׁת טֻמְטוּם וְאַנְדְּרוֹגִינוּס וְעַל הַחֵרֶשֶׁת וְעַל הַשּׁוֹטָה אֵשֶׁת הַפִּקֵּחַ וְעַל אִשָּׁה שֶׁהִיא מְקֻדֶּשֶׁת בְּסָפֵק אוֹ מְגֹרֶשֶׁת בְּסָפֵק כֻּלָּן פְּטוּרִין. וְאִם הָיוּ מְזִידִין מַכִּין אוֹתָן מַכַּת מַרְדּוּת:


[The following rules apply if a man] engages in relations with a female minor, the wife of an adult male. If she was consecrated by her father, [the adulterer] is executed by strangulation.7 She is not liable for anything,8 [but] she is forbidden to her husband,9 as explained in Hilchot Sotah.10

If she has the right to perform mi'un11, he is given stripes for rebellious conduct and she is permitted to [remain married] to her husband, even if he is a priest.12


הַבָּא עַל הַקְּטַנָּה אֵשֶׁת הַגָּדוֹל אִם קִדְּשָׁהּ אָבִיהָ הֲרֵי זֶה בְּחֶנֶק וְהִיא פְּטוּרָה מִכְּלוּם וְנֶאֶסְרָה עַל בַּעְלָהּ כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ בְּהִלְכוֹת סוֹטָה. וְאִם הִיא בַּת מֵאוּן מַכִּין אוֹתוֹ מַכַּת מַרְדּוּת וְהִיא מֻתֶּרֶת לְבַעְלָהּ. וַאֲפִלּוּ הָיָה כֹּהֵן:


When the daughter of a priest commits adultery while married, she is executed by burning, as [Leviticus 21:9] states: "When the daughter of a man who is a priest will begin to commit adultery, [she will be burnt by fire]." [This applies] whether she is married to a priest or an Israelite. [Indeed,] even if her husband was a mamzer13 or a nitin14 or another whom it is forbidden to marry because of a negative commandment,15 [she is given this punishment].

The man who engages in adultery with her is executed by strangulation.16 Similarly, the daughter of an Israelite who is married to a priest is [executed] by strangulation [if she commits adultery] as is the law with regard to any other married woman.


בַּת כֹּהֵן שֶׁזִּנְּתָה כְּשֶׁהִיא אֵשֶׁת אִישׁ. בֵּין שֶׁהָיָה בַּעְלָהּ כֹּהֵן בֵּין שֶׁהָיָה יִשְׂרָאֵל וַאֲפִלּוּ הָיָה בַּעְלָהּ מַמְזֵר אוֹ נָתִין אוֹ שְׁאָר מֵחַיָּבֵי לָאוִין הֲרֵי זוֹ בִּשְׂרֵפָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא כא ט) "וּבַת כֹּהֵן כִּי תֵחֵל לִזְנוֹת". וּבוֹעֲלָהּ בְּחֶנֶק. וְכֵן בַּת יִשְׂרָאֵל אֵשֶׁת כֹּהֵן בְּחֶנֶק כְּדִין כָּל אֵשֶׁת אִישׁ:


When a man has relations with a consecrated maiden, they are both executed by stoning. They are not liable to be stoned to death until the maiden17 is a virgin, consecrated,18 and in her father's home. If she came of age19 or she entered the chupah20 even if the marriage was not consummated, they are executed by strangulation. [The lesser punishment is given] even if the father gave her to the emissaries of the husband21 and she committed adultery on the way.


הַבָּא עַל נַעֲרָה מְאֹרָשָׂה שְׁנֵיהֶן בִּסְקִילָה. וְאֵינָן חַיָּבִין סְקִילָה עַד שֶׁתִּהְיֶה נַעֲרָה בְּתוּלָה מְאֹרָשָׂה וְהִיא בְּבֵית אָבִיהָ. הָיְתָה בּוֹגֶרֶת אוֹ שֶׁנִּכְנְסָה לְחֻפָּה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא נִבְעֲלָה אֲפִלּוּ מְסָרָהּ הָאָב לִשְׁלוּחֵי הַבַּעַל וְזִנְּתָה בַּדֶּרֶךְ הֲרֵי זוֹ בְּחֶנֶק:


When a man has relations with a girl who is a minor and is consecrated while she is living in her father's house, he is executed by stoning22 and she is not liable.23 When a consecrated maiden who is the daughter of a priest commits adultery, she is stoned to death.24


וְהַבָּא עַל קְטַנָּה מְאֹרָשָׂה בְּבֵית אָבִיהָ הוּא בִּסְקִילָה וְהִיא פְּטוּרָה. וְנַעֲרָה מְאֹרָשָׂה בַּת כֹּהֵן שֶׁזִּנְּתָה בִּסְקִילָה:

Mishneh Torah (Moznaim)

Featuring a modern English translation and a commentary that presents a digest of the centuries of Torah scholarship which have been devoted to the study of the Mishneh Torah by Maimonides.


When ten men enter into relations with her one after the other while she is a virgin in her father's home, the first is executed by stoning and the remainder, by strangulation.25

When does the above apply? When they had vaginal intercourse. If, however, they had anal intercourse, she is still a virgin and they are all executed by stoning.26


בָּאוּ עָלֶיהָ עֲשָׂרָה וְהִיא בְּתוּלָה בִּרְשׁוּת אָבִיהָ זֶה אַחַר זֶה הֲרֵי הָרִאשׁוֹן בִּסְקִילָה וְכֻלָּן בְּחֶנֶק (בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים שֶׁבָּאוּ עָלֶיהָ כְּדַרְכָּהּ אֲבָל אִם בָּאוּ עָלֶיהָ שֶׁלֹּא כְּדַרְכָּהּ עֲדַיִן הִיא בְּתוּלָה וְכֻלָּן בִּסְקִילָה):


When a consecrated maiden was a freed slave or a convert, even if she was freed or converted before she reached the age of three,27 [the adulterer] is executed by strangulation,28 as is the law with regard to all married women.


נַעֲרָה מְאֹרָשָׂה שֶׁהָיְתָה מְשֻׁחְרֶרֶת אוֹ גִּיֹּרֶת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּחְרְרָה וְנִתְגַּיְּרָה וְהִיא פְּחוּתָה מִבַּת שָׁלֹשׁ שָׁנִים וְיוֹם אֶחָד הֲרֵי זוֹ בְּחֶנֶק כְּכָל אֵשֶׁת אִישׁ:


There is a new law that applies to a person who spreads a malicious report [about his wife].29 What is this new [law]? That if the gossip is discovered to be true and witnesses come [and testify] that she committed adultery when she was a consecrated maiden, even if she committed adultery after she left her father's house and even if she committed adultery after she entered the marriage canopy before she had relations with her husband, she is stoned to death at the entrance to her father's house. Other consecrated maidens concerning whom a malicious report was not spread are executed by strangulation if they committed adultery after they left their father's home, as we explained.30

Thus there are three types of execution for adultery with a married women: strangulation,31 burning to death,32 and stoning to death.33


דִּין חָדָשׁ יֵשׁ בְּמוֹצִיא שֵׁם רַע. וּמַה הוּא הַחִדּוּשׁ. שֶׁאִם נִמְצָא הַדָּבָר אֱמֶת וּבָאוּ עֵדִים שֶׁזִּנְּתָה כְּשֶׁהָיְתָה נַעֲרָה מְאֹרָשָׂה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁזִּנְּתָה אַחַר שֶׁיָּצְאָה מִבֵּית אָבִיהָ וַאֲפִלּוּ שֶׁזִּנְּתָה אַחַר שֶׁנִּכְנְסָה לַחֻפָּה קֹדֶם בְּעִילַת הַבַּעַל סוֹקְלִין אוֹתָהּ עַל פֶּתַח בֵּית אָבִיהָ. אֲבָל שְׁאָר נְעָרוֹת מְאֹרָסוֹת שֶׁלֹּא הָיָה לָהֶן דִּין הוֹצָאַת שֵׁם רַע שֶׁזָּנוּ מֵאַחַר שֶׁיָּצְאוּ מִבֵּית הָאָב הֲרֵי הֵן בְּחֶנֶק כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. הָא לָמַדְתָּ שֶׁבְּאֵשֶׁת אִישׁ שָׁלֹשׁ מִיתוֹת. יֵשׁ אֵשֶׁת אִישׁ שֶׁהִיא בְּחֶנֶק. וְיֵשׁ אֵשֶׁת אִישׁ שֶׁהִיא בִּשְׂרֵפָה. וְיֵשׁ אֵשֶׁת אִישׁ שֶׁהִיא בִּסְקִילָה:


Where is a consecrated maiden who committed adultery stoned to death? If she committed adultery while in her father's house, even though the witnesses did not testify until she went to her father-in-law's house and married, she is stoned to death at the entrance to her father's house.34 If she committed adultery in her father-in-law's house before her father conveyed her [to her husband], she is stoned to death at the entrance to the gate of the city.35 [This applies] even if [the witnesses] testified concerning her after she returned to her father's house.


וְהֵיכָן סוֹקְלִין נַעֲרָה מְאֹרָשָׂה שֶׁזִּנְּתָה. אִם זִנְּתָה בְּבֵית אָבִיהָ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא הֵעִידוּ עָלֶיהָ הָעֵדִים אֶלָּא אַחַר שֶׁבָּאָה לְבֵית חָמִיהָ (וְנִיסֵת) הֲרֵי זוֹ נִסְקֶלֶת עַל פֶּתַח בֵּית אָבִיהָ. זִנִּתָה בִּבֵית חָמִיהָ קֹדֵם שֵׁיִּמִסֹר אוֹתָהּ הָאָב אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵעִידוּ עָלֶיהָ אַחַר שֶׁחָזְרָה לְבֵית אָבִיהָ הֲרֵי זוֹ נִסְקֶלֶת עַל פֶּתַח שַׁעַר הָעִיר הַהִיא:


If witnesses come [and testify] after she comes of age36 or after her husband has relations with her, she is stoned to death in the place for stoning.37[This applies] even if they testify that she committed adultery in her father's home when she was a maiden.38


בָּאוּ עֵדִים אַחַר שֶׁבָּגְרָה אוֹ אַחַר שֶׁבְּעָלָהּ בַּעְלָהּ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵעִידוּ שֶׁזִּנְּתָה בְּבֵית אָבִיהָ כְּשֶׁהָיְתָה נַעֲרָה הֲרֵי זוֹ נִסְקֶלֶת בְּבֵית הַסְּקִילָה:


If [a woman] was conceived before her mother converted and born after her mother converted, she is stoned at the entrance to the gate of the city.

[The following rule applies to] every woman who is obligated to be stoned at the entrance to the gate of the city. If the city is predominantly populated by gentiles, we stone her at the entrance to the court.39

[The following rule applies to] every woman who is obligated to be stoned at the entrance to her father's house, if she does not have a father or she has a father, but he does not have a house, she is stoned at the place for stoning. The "entrance to her father's house" was mentioned only as a mitzvah.40


הָיְתָה הוֹרָתָהּ שֶׁלֹּא בִּקְדֻשָּׁה וְלֵדָתָהּ בִּקְדֻשָּׁה נִסְקֶלֶת עַל פֶּתַח שַׁעַר הָעִיר. כָּל מִי שֶׁמִּצְוָתָהּ לִסְקל אוֹתָהּ עַל פֶּתַח שַׁעַר הָעִיר אִם הָיְתָה עִיר שֶׁרֻבָּהּ עַכּוּ''ם סוֹקְלִין אוֹתָהּ עַל פֶּתַח בֵּית דִּין. וְכָל מִי שֶׁמִּצְוָתָהּ לִסְקל אוֹתָהּ עַל פֶּתַח בֵּית אָבִיהָ אִם לֹא הָיָה לָהּ אָב אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה לָהּ אָב וְלֹא הָיָה לוֹ בַּיִת הֲרֵי זוֹ נִסְקֶלֶת בְּבֵית הַסְּקִילָה. לֹא נֶאֱמַר (דברים כב כא) "פֶּתַח בֵּית אָב" אֶלָּא לְמִצְוָה:


When a person engages in relations many times with one of the arayot, he is liable for kerait or execution by the court for every time he engages in relations.41 Although the court can only execute the person only once, the different times he engages in relations are considered as different transgressions.

Similarly, if a person is liable for several different transgressions for engaging in relations once,42 if he transgressed inadvertently, he must bring a sacrifice for every transgression he performed even though he engaged in relations only once, as will be explained in Hilchot Shegagot43 If he transgressed intentionally, it is considered as if he violated many transgressions. Similarly, there is a situation where a person engages in relations once and incurs liability for lashes many times as will be explained.44


הַבָּא עַל עֶרְוָה מִן הָעֲרָיוֹת בִּיאוֹת הַרְבֵּה חַיָּב כָּרֵת אוֹ מִיתַת בֵּית דִּין עַל כָּל בִּיאָה וּבִיאָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין בֵּית דִּין יְכוֹלִין לְהָמִית אֶלָּא מִיתָה אַחַת הֲרֵי הַבִּיאוֹת נֶחְשָׁבוֹת לוֹ כַּעֲבֵרוֹת הַרְבֵּה. וְכֵן אִם בָּא בִּיאָה אַחַת שֶׁחַיָּבִין עָלֶיהָ מִשֵּׁמוֹת הַרְבֵּה אִם הָיָה שׁוֹגֵג מֵבִיא קָרְבָּן עַל כָּל שֵׁם וְשֵׁם. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִיא בִּיאָה אַחַת כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּהִלְכוֹת שְׁגָגוֹת. וְאִם הָיָה מֵזִיד הֲרֵי זוֹ נֶחְשֶׁבֶת לוֹ כַּעֲבֵרוֹת הַרְבֵּה. וְכֵן יֵשׁ בָּא בִּיאָה אַחַת וְלוֹקֶה עָלֶיהָ מַלְקִיּוֹת הַרְבֵּה כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר:


The term shifchah charufah employed by the Torah refers to [a woman] who is half a Canaanite maidservant and half a freed woman45 who has been consecrated by a Hebrew servant.46 [Concerning the infidelity of such a woman, Leviticus 19:20] states: "They shall not die, because she was not freed."47 If she was freed entirely, one is liable for execution by the court, for she becomes a married woman in a complete sense, as explained in Hilchot Ishut.48


שִׁפְחָה חֲרוּפָה הָאֲמוּרָה בַּתּוֹרָה הִיא שֶׁחֶצְיָהּ שִׁפְחָה וְחֶצְיָהּ בַּת חוֹרִין וּמְקֻדֶּשֶׁת לְעֶבֶד עִבְרִי שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יט כ) "לֹא יוּמְתוּ כִּי לֹא חֻפָּשָׁה". הָא אִם נִשְׁתַּחְרְרָה כֻּלָּהּ חַיָּבִין עָלֶיהָ מִיתַת בֵּית דִּין שֶׁהֲרֵי נַעֲשֵׂית אֵשֶׁת אִישׁ גְּמוּרָה כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ בְּהִלְכוֹת אִישׁוּת:


[The laws regarding] relations with this maidservant are different than [those regarding] all other forbidden relations in the Torah. For she is lashed, as [ibid.] states: "There shall be an inquiry."49 He is liable to bring a guilt offering, as [ibid.:21] states: "And he shall bring his guilt offering."50 Whether he transgresses intentionally or inadvertently with a shifchah charufah, he must bring a guilt offering.

When he enters into relations with her many times, whether intentionally or unintentionally, he is required to bring only one sacrifice.51 She, however, is liable for lashes for every act of relations if she acted intentionally, as is the law with regard to other instances [where relations are forbidden] by merely a negative commandment.


בִּיאַת שִׁפְחָה זוֹ מְשֻׁנָּה מִכָּל בִּיאוֹת אֲסוּרוֹת שֶׁבַּתּוֹרָה. שֶׁהֲרֵי הִיא לוֹקָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יט כ) "בִּקֹּרֶת תִּהְיֶה" וְהוּא חַיָּב קָרְבַּן אָשָׁם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יט כא) "וְהֵבִיא אֶת אֲשָׁמוֹ". אֶחָד שׁוֹגֵג אֶחָד מֵזִיד בְּשִׁפְחָה חֲרוּפָה מֵבִיא אָשָׁם. וְהַבָּא עָלֶיהָ בִּיאוֹת הַרְבֵּה בֵּין בְּזָדוֹן בֵּין בִּשְׁגָגָה מֵבִיא אָשָׁם אֶחָד. אֲבָל הִיא חַיֶּבֶת מַלְקוֹת עַל כָּל בִּיאָה וּבִיאָה אִם הָיְתָה מְזִידָה כִּשְׁאָר חַיָּבֵי לָאוִין:


When a person just inserts his corona into the female organ of the shifchah charufah, but does not insert the entire organ, he is not liable. [Liability is incurred only when] he inserts the entire organ.52

He is only liable when she is above majority, had engaged in relations previously and acts intentionally and willfully.53 If, however, she is a minor, she had never engaged in relations, or she transgressed inadvertently, was raped, or was sleeping, he is not liable. Similarly, if he had anal intercourse with her, he is not liable, for with regard to a shifchah charufah an equation was not established between vaginal intercourse and anal intercourse, for [Leviticus 19:20] speaks of: "ly[ing] while emitting seed."54 With regard to other [forbidden] relations, the Torah did not distinguish between one type of relations and the other, for [ibid. 18:22] speaks of "the ways [in which a man] lies with a woman." Implied is that the Torah recognizes two ways of lying with a woman.


הַמְעָרֶה בְּשִׁפְחָה חֲרוּפָה וְלֹא גָּמַר בִּיאָתוֹ פָּטוּר עַד שֶׁיִּגְמֹר בִּיאָתוֹ. וְאֵינוֹ חַיָּב אֶלָּא עַל הַגְּדוֹלָה הַבְּעוּלָה הַמְּזִידָה וּבִרְצוֹנָהּ. אֲבָל אִם הָיְתָה קְטַנָּה אוֹ שֶׁלֹּא הָיְתָה בְּעוּלָה אוֹ הָיְתָה שׁוֹגֶגֶת אוֹ אֲנוּסָה אוֹ יְשֵׁנָה פָּטוּר [וְכֵן אִם בָּא עָלֶיהָ שֶׁלֹּא כְּדַרְכָּהּ פָּטוּר שֶׁבְּשִׁפְחָה חֲרוּפָה לֹא הִשְׁוָה בִּיאָה כְּדַרְכָּהּ לְבִיאָה שֶׁלֹּא כְּדַרְכָּהּ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יט כ) "שִׁכְבַת זֶרַע". אֲבָל בִּשְׁאָר בִּיאוֹת לֹא חָלַק בֵּין בִּיאָה לְבִיאָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יח כב) (ויקרא כ יג) "מִשְׁכְּבֵי אִשָּׁה" מַגִּיד [לְךָ] הַכָּתוּב שֶׁשְּׁנֵי מִשְׁכָּבוֹת בְּאִשָּׁה]:


In every instance concerning a maidservant where we said there was no liability, he is not liable for a sacrifice and she is not liable for lashes. He,55 however, is given "stripes for rebellious conduct" according to Rabbinic Law56 if they were both adults who acted intentionally.


כָּל מָקוֹם שֶׁאָמַרְנוּ בְּשִׁפְחָה שֶׁהוּא פָּטוּר הוּא פָּטוּר מִן הַקָּרְבָּן וְהִיא פְּטוּרָה מִן הַמַּלְקוֹת. אֲבָל מַכִּין אוֹתוֹ מַכַּת מַרְדּוּת מִדִּבְרֵיהֶם אִם הָיוּ שְׁנֵיהֶן מְזִידִין וּגְדוֹלִים:


When a youth nine years old engages in relations with a shifchah charufah, she is given lashes and he is required to bring a sacrifice,57 provided that she is an adult, not a virgin, and acts willfully, as we explained.58 For a man is not liable to bring a sacrifice until she is liable for lashes, as [implied by] the verse: "There shall be an inquiry.... And he shall bring his guilt offering."


בֶּן תֵּשַׁע שָׁנִים וְיוֹם אֶחָד שֶׁבָּא עַל שִׁפְחָה חֲרוּפָה הִיא לוֹקָה וְהוּא מֵבִיא קָרְבָּן. וְהוּא שֶׁתִּהְיֶה גְּדוֹלָה וּבְעוּלָה וּבִרְצוֹנָהּ כְּמוֹ שֶׁבֵּאַרְנוּ. שֶׁאֵין הָאִישׁ חַיָּב קָרְבָּן עַד שֶׁתִּתְחַיֵּב הִיא מַלְקוֹת שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יט כ) "בִּקֹּרֶת תִּהְיֶה" (ויקרא יט כא) "וְהֵבִיא אֶת אֲשָׁמוֹ":